Imperial College London

DrKonstantinosBeis

Faculty of Natural SciencesDepartment of Life Sciences

Reader in Membrane Protein Structural Biology
 
 
 
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Contact

 

konstantinos.beis Website

 
 
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Location

 

1-12Diamond Light Source LtdHarwell Science and Innovation Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
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73 results found

Griffiths D, Anderson M, Richardson K, Inaba-Inoue S, Allen WJ, Collinson I, Beis K, Morris M, Giles K, Politis Aet al., 2024, Cyclic Ion Mobility for Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange-Mass Spectrometry Applications., Anal Chem

Hydrogen/deuterium exchange-mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) has emerged as a powerful tool to probe protein dynamics. As a bottom-up technique, HDX-MS provides information at peptide-level resolution, allowing structural localization of dynamic changes. Consequently, the HDX-MS data quality is largely determined by the number of peptides that are identified and monitored after deuteration. Integration of ion mobility (IM) into HDX-MS workflows has been shown to increase the data quality by providing an orthogonal mode of peptide ion separation in the gas phase. This is of critical importance for challenging targets such as integral membrane proteins (IMPs), which often suffer from low sequence coverage or redundancy in HDX-MS analyses. The increasing complexity of samples being investigated by HDX-MS, such as membrane mimetic reconstituted and in vivo IMPs, has generated need for instrumentation with greater resolving power. Recently, Giles et al. developed cyclic ion mobility (cIM), an IM device with racetrack geometry that enables scalable, multipass IM separations. Using one-pass and multipass cIM routines, we use the recently commercialized SELECT SERIES Cyclic IM spectrometer for HDX-MS analyses of four detergent solubilized IMP samples and report its enhanced performance. Furthermore, we develop a novel processing strategy capable of better handling multipass cIM data. Interestingly, use of one-pass and multipass cIM routines produced unique peptide populations, with their combined peptide output being 31 to 222% higher than previous generation SYNAPT G2-Si instrumentation. Thus, we propose a novel HDX-MS workflow with integrated cIM that has the potential to enable the analysis of more complex systems with greater accuracy and speed.

Journal article

Baquero F, Beis K, Craik DJ, Li Y, Link AJ, Rebuffat S, Salomón R, Severinov K, Zirah S, Hegemann JDet al., 2024, The pearl jubilee of microcin J25: thirty years of research on an exceptional lasso peptide., Nat Prod Rep, Vol: 41, Pages: 469-511

Covering: 1992 up to 2023Since their discovery, lasso peptides went from peculiarities to be recognized as a major family of ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptide (RiPP) natural products that were shown to be spread throughout the bacterial kingdom. Microcin J25 was first described in 1992, making it one of the earliest known lasso peptides. No other lasso peptide has since then been studied to such an extent as microcin J25, yet, previous review articles merely skimmed over all the research done on this exceptional lasso peptide. Therefore, to commemorate the 30th anniversary of its first report, we give a comprehensive overview of all literature related to microcin J25. This review article spans the early work towards the discovery of microcin J25, its biosynthetic gene cluster, and the elucidation of its three-dimensional, threaded lasso structure. Furthermore, the current knowledge about the biosynthesis of microcin J25 and lasso peptides in general is summarized and a detailed overview is given on the biological activities associated with microcin J25, including means of self-immunity, uptake into target bacteria, inhibition of the Gram-negative RNA polymerase, and the effects of microcin J25 on mitochondria. The in vitro and in vivo models used to study the potential utility of microcin J25 in a (veterinary) medicine context are discussed and the efforts that went into employing the microcin J25 scaffold in bioengineering contexts are summed up.

Journal article

Smith HE, Mackenzie AM, Seddon C, Mould R, Kalampouka I, Malakar P, Needham SR, Beis K, Bell JD, Nunn A, Botchway SWet al., 2024, The use of NADH anisotropy to investigate mitochondrial cristae alignment., Sci Rep, Vol: 14

Life may be expressed as the flow of electrons, protons, and other ions, resulting in large potential difference. It is also highly photo-sensitive, as a large proportion of the redox capable molecules it relies on are chromophoric. It is thus suggestive that a key organelle in eukaryotes, the mitochondrion, constantly adapt their morphology as part of the homeostatic process. Studying unstained in vivo nano-scale structure in live cells is technically very challenging. One option is to study a central electron carrier in metabolism, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), which is fluorescent and mostly located within mitochondria. Using one and two-photon absorption (340-360 nm and 730 nm, respectively), fluorescence lifetime imaging and anisotropy spectroscopy of NADH in solution and in live cells, we show that mitochondria do indeed appear to be aligned and exhibit high anisotropy (asymmetric directionality). Aqueous solution of NADH showed an anisotropy of ~ 0.20 compared to fluorescein or coumarin of < 0.1 and 0.04 in water respectively and as expected for small organic molecules. The anisotropy of NADH also increased further to 0.30 in the presence of proteins and 0.42 in glycerol (restricted environment) following two-photon excitation, suggesting more ordered structures. Two-photon NADH fluorescence imaging of Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF7) also showed strong anisotropy of 0.25 to 0.45. NADH has a quantum yield of fluorescence of 2% compared to more than 40% for photoionisation (electron generation), when exposed to light at 360 nm and below. The consequence of such highly ordered and directional NADH patterns with respect to electron ejection upon ultra-violet (UV) excitation could be very informative-especially in relation to ascertaining the extent of quantum effects in biology, including electron and photonic cascade, communication and modulation of effects such as spin and tunnelling.

Journal article

Beis K, 2024, Structural basis for the modulation of MRP2 activity by phosphorylation and drugs, Nature Communications, ISSN: 2041-1723

Journal article

Seddon C, Frankel G, Beis K, 2024, Structure of the outer membrane porin OmpW from the pervasive pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acta Crystallographica Section F: Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications Online, Vol: 80, Pages: 22-27, ISSN: 1744-3091

Conjugation is the process by which plasmids, including those that carry antibiotic-resistance genes, are mobilized from one bacterium (the donor) to another (the recipient). The conjugation efficiency of IncF-like plasmids relies on the formation of mating-pair stabilization via intimate interactions between outer membrane proteins on the donor (a plasmid-encoded TraN isoform) and recipient bacteria. Conjugation of the R100-1 plasmid into Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) recipients relies on pairing between the plasmid-encoded TraNα in the donor and OmpW in the recipient. Here, the crystal structure of K. pneumoniae OmpW (OmpWKP) is reported at 3.2 Å resolution. OmpWKP forms an eight-stranded β-barrel flanked by extracellular loops. The structures of E. coli OmpW (OmpWEC) and OmpWKP show high conservation despite sequence variability in the extracellular loops.

Journal article

Stępień P, Świątek S, Robles MYY, Markiewicz-Mizera J, Balakrishnan D, Inaba-Inoue S, De Vries AH, Beis K, Marrink SJ, Heddle JGet al., 2023, CRAFTing Delivery of Membrane Proteins into Protocells using Nanodiscs., ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, Vol: 15, Pages: 56689-56701

For the successful generative engineering of functional artificial cells, a convenient and controllable means of delivering membrane proteins into membrane lipid bilayers is necessary. Here we report a delivery system that achieves this by employing membrane protein-carrying nanodiscs and the calcium-dependent fusion of phosphatidylserine lipid membranes. We show that lipid nanodiscs can fuse a transported lipid bilayer with the lipid bilayers of small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) or giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) while avoiding recipient vesicles aggregation. This is triggered by a simple, transient increase in calcium concentration, which results in efficient and rapid fusion in a one-pot reaction. Furthermore, nanodiscs can be loaded with membrane proteins that can be delivered into target SUV or GUV membranes in a detergent-independent fashion while retaining their functionality. Nanodiscs have a proven ability to carry a wide range of membrane proteins, control their oligomeric state, and are highly adaptable. Given this, our approach may be the basis for the development of useful tools that will allow bespoke delivery of membrane proteins to protocells, equipping them with the cell-like ability to exchange material across outer/subcellular membranes.

Journal article

El Omari K, Duman R, Mykhaylyk V, Orr CM, Latimer-Smith M, Winter G, Grama V, Qu F, Bountra K, Kwong HS, Romano M, Reis RI, Vogeley L, Vecchia L, Owen CD, Wittmann S, Renner M, Senda M, Matsugaki N, Kawano Y, Bowden TA, Moraes I, Grimes JM, Mancini EJ, Walsh MA, Guzzo CR, Owens RJ, Jones EY, Brown DG, Stuart DI, Beis K, Wagner Aet al., 2023, Experimental phasing opportunities for macromolecular crystallography at very long wavelengths., Commun Chem, Vol: 6

Despite recent advances in cryo-electron microscopy and artificial intelligence-based model predictions, a significant fraction of structure determinations by macromolecular crystallography still requires experimental phasing, usually by means of single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) techniques. Most synchrotron beamlines provide highly brilliant beams of X-rays of between 0.7 and 2 Å wavelength. Use of longer wavelengths to access the absorption edges of biologically important lighter atoms such as calcium, potassium, chlorine, sulfur and phosphorus for native-SAD phasing is attractive but technically highly challenging. The long-wavelength beamline I23 at Diamond Light Source overcomes these limitations and extends the accessible wavelength range to λ = 5.9 Å. Here we report 22 macromolecular structures solved in this extended wavelength range, using anomalous scattering from a range of elements which demonstrate the routine feasibility of lighter atom phasing. We suggest that, in light of its advantages, long-wavelength crystallography is a compelling option for experimental phasing.

Journal article

Frankel G, David S, Low WW, Seddon C, Wong JLC, Beis Ket al., 2023, Plasmids pick a bacterial partner before committing to conjugation, NUCLEIC ACIDS RESEARCH, Vol: 51, Pages: 8925-8933, ISSN: 0305-1048

Journal article

Low WW, Seddon C, Beis K, Frankel Get al., 2023, The Interaction of the F-Like Plasmid-Encoded TraN Isoforms with Their Cognate Outer Membrane Receptors, JOURNAL OF BACTERIOLOGY, Vol: 205, ISSN: 0021-9193

Journal article

Wong JLC, Romano M, Kerry LE, Kwong H-S, Low W-W, Brett SJ, Clements A, Beis K, Frankel Get al., 2023, Author Correction: OmpK36-mediated Carbapenem resistance attenuates ST258 Klebsiella pneumoniae in vivo., Nat Commun, Vol: 14

Journal article

Travin DYY, Jouan R, Vigouroux A, Inaba-Inoue S, Lachat J, Haq F, Timchenko T, Sutormin D, Dubiley S, Beis K, Morera S, Severinov K, Mergaert Pet al., 2023, Dual-Uptake Mode of the Antibiotic Phazolicin Prevents Resistance Acquisition by Gram-Negative Bacteria, MBIO, ISSN: 2150-7511

Journal article

Mathavan I, Liu LJ, Robinson SW, El-Sakkary N, Elastico AJJ, Gomez D, Nellas R, Owens RJ, Zuercher W, Navratilova I, Caffrey CR, Beis Ket al., 2022, Identification of inhibitors of the Schistosoma mansoni VKR2 kinase domain, ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters, Vol: 13, Pages: 1715-1722, ISSN: 1948-5875

Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by parasitic flatworms. Current treatment relies on just one partially effective drug, praziquantel (PZQ). Schistosoma mansoni Venus Kinase Receptors 1 and 2 (SmVKR1 and SmVKR2) are important for parasite growth and egg production, and are potential targets for combating schistosomiasis. VKRs consist of an extracellular Venus Flytrap Module (VFTM) linked via a transmembrane helix to a kinase domain. Here, we initiated a drug discovery effort to inhibit the activity of the SmVKR2 kinase domain (SmVKR2KD) by screening the GSK published kinase inhibitor set 2 (PKIS2). We identified several inhibitors, of which four were able to inhibit its enzymatic activity and induced phenotypic changes in ex vivoS. mansoni. Our crystal structure of the SmVKR2KD displays an active-like state that sheds light on the activation process of VKRs. Our data provide a basis for the further exploration of SmVKR2 as a possible drug target.

Journal article

Wong J, David S, Sanchez Garrido J, Woo J, Low WW, Morecchiato F, Giani T, Rossolini GM, Beis K, Brett S, Clements A, Aaenensen D, Rouskin S, Frankel Get al., 2022, Recurrent emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenem resistance mediated by an inhibitory ompK36 mRNA secondary structure, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA, Vol: 119, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 0027-8424

Outer membrane porins in Gram-negative bacteria facilitate antibiotic influx. In Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP), modifications in the porin OmpK36 are implicated in increasing resistance to carbapenems. Analysis of large KP genome collections, encompassing major healthcare-associated clones, revealed the recurrent emergence of a synonymous cytosine to thymine transition at position 25 (25c>t) in ompK36. We show that the 25c>t transition increases carbapenem resistance through depletion of OmpK36 from the outer membrane. The mutation attenuates KP in a murine pneumonia model, which accounts for its limited clonal expansion observed by phylogenetic analysis. However, in the context of carbapenem treatment, the 25c>t transition tips the balance towards treatment failure, thus accounting for its recurrent emergence. Mechanistically, the 25c>t transition mediates an intramolecular mRNA interaction between a uracil encoded by 25t and the first adenine within the Shine-Dalgarno sequence. This specific interaction leads to the formation of an RNA stem structure, which obscures the ribosomal binding site thus disrupting translation. While mutations reducing OmpK36 expression via transcriptional silencing are known, we uniquely demonstrate the repeated selection of a synonymous ompK36 mutation mediating translational suppression in response to antibiotic pressure.

Journal article

David S, Wong JLC, Sanchez-Garrido J, Kwong H-S, Low WW, Morecchiato F, Giani T, Rossolini GM, Brett SJ, Clements A, Beis K, Aanensen DM, Frankel Get al., 2022, Widespread emergence of OmpK36 loop 3 insertions among multidrug-resistant clones of Klebsiella pneumoniae., PLoS Pathogens, Vol: 18, Pages: 1-23, ISSN: 1553-7366

Mutations in outer membrane porins act in synergy with carbapenemase enzymes to increase carbapenem resistance in the important nosocomial pathogen, Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP). A key example is a di-amino acid insertion, Glycine-Aspartate (GD), in the extracellular loop 3 (L3) region of OmpK36 which constricts the pore and restricts entry of carbapenems into the bacterial cell. Here we combined genomic and experimental approaches to characterise the diversity, spread and impact of different L3 insertion types in OmpK36. We identified L3 insertions in 3588 (24.1%) of 14,888 KP genomes with an intact ompK36 gene from a global collection. GD insertions were most common, with a high concentration in the ST258/512 clone that has spread widely in Europe and the Americas. Aspartate (D) and Threonine-Aspartate (TD) insertions were prevalent in genomes from Asia, due in part to acquisitions by KP sequence types ST16 and ST231 and subsequent clonal expansions. By solving the crystal structures of novel OmpK36 variants, we found that the TD insertion causes a pore constriction of 41%, significantly greater than that achieved by GD (10%) or D (8%), resulting in the highest levels of resistance to selected antibiotics. We show that in the absence of antibiotics KP mutants harbouring these L3 insertions exhibit both an in vitro and in vivo competitive disadvantage relative to the isogenic parental strain expressing wild type OmpK36. We propose that this explains the reversion of GD and TD insertions observed at low frequency among KP genomes. Finally, we demonstrate that strains expressing L3 insertions remain susceptible to drugs targeting carbapenemase-producing KP, including novel beta lactam-beta lactamase inhibitor combinations. This study provides a contemporary global view of OmpK36-mediated resistance mechanisms in KP, integrating surveillance and experimental data to guide treatment and drug development strategies.

Journal article

Low WW, Wong J, Beltran L, Seddon C, David S, Kwong H-S, Bizeau T, Wang F, Pena A, Costa TRD, Pham B, Chen M, Egelman E, Beis K, Frankel Get al., 2022, Mating pair stabilization mediates bacterial conjugation species specificity, Nature Microbiology, Vol: 7, Pages: 1016-1027, ISSN: 2058-5276

Bacterial conjugation mediates contact-dependent transfer of DNA from donor to recipient bacteria, thus facilitating thespread of virulence and resistance plasmids. Here we describe how variants of the plasmid-encoded donor outer membrane(OM) protein TraN cooperate with distinct OM receptors in recipients to mediate mating pair stabilization and efficient DNAtransfer. We show that TraN from the plasmids pKpQIL (Klebsiella pneumoniae), R100-1 (Shigella flexneri) and pSLT (SalmonellaTyphimurium), and the prototypical F plasmid (Escherichia coli) interact with OmpK36, OmpW and OmpA, respectively.Cryo-EM analysis revealed that TraN pKpQIL interacts with OmpK36 through the insertion of a β-hairpin in the tip of TraN intoa monomer of the OmpK36 trimer. Combining bioinformatic analysis with AlphaFold structural predictions, we identified afourth TraN structural variant that mediates mating pair stabilization by binding OmpF. Accordingly, we devised a classifica-tion scheme for TraN homologues on the basis of structural similarity and their associated receptors: TraNα (OmpW), TraNβ(OmpK36), TraNγ (OmpA), TraNδ (OmpF). These TraN-OM receptor pairings have real-world implications as they reflect thedistribution of resistance plasmids within clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates, demonstrating the importance of mating pairstabilization in mediating conjugation species specificity. These findings will allow us to predict the distribution of emergingresistance plasmids in high-risk bacterial pathogens.

Journal article

Beltran L, Seddon C, Frankel G, Beis K, Egelman EHet al., 2022, Stabilizing bacterial conjugation via conjugation junction proteins, 66th Annual Meeting of the Biophysical-Society, Publisher: CELL PRESS, Pages: 462A-462A, ISSN: 0006-3495

Conference paper

Ghilarov D, Inaba-Inoue S, Stepien P, Qu F, Michalczyk E, Pakosz Z, Nomura N, Ogasawara S, Walker GC, Rebuffat S, Iwata S, Heddle JG, Beis Ket al., 2021, Molecular mechanism of SbmA, a promiscuous transporter exploited by antimicrobial peptides, Science Advances, Vol: 7, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 2375-2548

Antibiotic metabolites and antimicrobial peptides mediate competition between bacterial species. Many of them hijack inner and outer membrane proteins to enter cells. Sensitivity of enteric bacteria to multiple peptide antibiotics is controlled by the single inner membrane protein SbmA. To establish the molecular mechanism of peptide transport by SbmA and related BacA, we determined their cryo–electron microscopy structures at 3.2 and 6 Å local resolution, respectively. The structures show a previously unknown fold, defining a new class of secondary transporters named SbmA-like peptide transporters. The core domain includes conserved glutamates, which provide a pathway for proton translocation, powering transport. The structures show an outward-open conformation with a large cavity that can accommodate diverse substrates. We propose a molecular mechanism for antibacterial peptide uptake paving the way for creation of narrow-targeted therapeutics.

Journal article

Peter MF, Bountra K, Beis K, Hagelueken Get al., 2021, PELDOR/DEER: An electron paramagnetic resonance method to study membrane proteins in lipid bilayers., Biophysics of Membrane Proteins, Editors: Postis, Goldman, Pages: 313-333

Every membrane protein is involved in close interactions with the lipid environment of cellular membranes. The annular lipids, that are in direct contact with the polypeptide, can in principle be seen as an integral part of its structure, akin to the first hydration shell of soluble proteins. It is therefore desirable to investigate the structure of membrane proteins and especially their conformational flexibility under conditions that are as close as possible to their native state. This can be achieved by reconstituting the protein into proteoliposomes, nanodiscs, or bicelles. In recent years, PELDOR/DEER spectroscopy has proved to be a very useful method to study the structure and function of membrane proteins in such artificial membrane environments. The technique complements both X-ray crystallography and cryo-EM and can be used in combination with virtually any artificial membrane environment and under certain circumstances even in native membranes. Of the above-mentioned membrane mimics, bicelles are currently the least often used for PELDOR studies, although they offer some advantages, especially their ease of use. Here, we provide a step-by-step protocol for studying a bicelle reconstituted membrane protein with PELDOR/DEER spectroscopy.

Book chapter

Thomas C, Aller SG, Beis K, Carpenter EP, Chang G, Chen L, Dassa E, Dean M, Duong Van Hoa F, Ekiert D, Ford R, Gaudet R, Gong X, Holland IB, Huang Y, Kahne DK, Kato H, Koronakis V, Koth CM, Lee Y, Lewinson O, Lill R, Martinoia E, Murakami S, Pinkett HW, Poolman B, Rosenbaum D, Sarkadi B, Schmitt L, Schneider E, Shi Y, Shyng S-L, Slotboom DJ, Tajkhorshid E, Tieleman DP, Ueda K, Varadi A, Wen P-C, Yan N, Zhang P, Zheng H, Zimmer J, Tampe Ret al., 2020, Structural and functional diversity calls for a new classification of ABC transporters, FEBS LETTERS, Vol: 594, Pages: 3767-3775, ISSN: 0014-5793

Journal article

Smits SHJ, Schmitt L, Beis K, 2020, Self-immunity to antibacterial peptides by ABC transporters, FEBS LETTERS, Vol: 594, Pages: 3920-3942, ISSN: 0014-5793

Journal article

El Omari K, Mohamad N, Bountra K, Duman R, Romano M, Schlegel K, Kwong H-S, Mykhaylyk V, Olesen C, Moller JV, Bublitz M, Beis K, Wagner Aet al., 2020, Experimental phasing with vanadium and application to nucleotide-binding membrane proteins, IUCRJ, Vol: 7, Pages: 1092-1101, ISSN: 2052-2525

Journal article

Qu F, ElOmari K, Wagner A, De Simone A, Beis Ket al., 2019, Desolvation of the substrate binding protein TauA dictates ligand specificity for the alkanesulfonate ABC importer TauABC, Biochemical Journal, Vol: 476, Pages: 3649-3660, ISSN: 0264-6021

Under limiting sulfur availability, bacteria can assimilate sulfur from alkanesulfonates. Bacteria utilize ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters to internalise them for further processing to release sulfur. In gram-negative bacteria the TauABC and SsuABC ensure internalization, although, these two systems have common substrates, the former has been characterised as a taurine specific system. TauA and SsuA are substrate binding proteins (SBPs) that bind and bring the alkanesulfonates to the ABC importer for transport. Here, we have determined the crystal structure of TauA and have characterised its thermodynamic binding parameters by isothermal titration calorimetry in complex with taurine and different alkanesulfonates. Our structures revealed that the coordination of the alkanesulfonates is conserved, with the exception of Asp205 that is absent in SsuA, but the thermodynamic parameters revealed a very high enthalpic penalty cost for binding of the other alkanesulfonates relative to taurine. Our molecular dynamic simulations indicated that the different levels of hydration of the binding site contributed to the selectivity for taurine over the other alkanesulfonates. Such selectivity mechanism is very likely to be employed by other SBPs of ABC transporters.

Journal article

Wong JLC, Romano M, Kerry L, Kwong J, Low W, Brett S, Clements A, Beis K, Frankel Get al., 2019, OmpK36-mediated Carbapenem resistance attenuates ST258 Klebsiella pneumoniae in vivo, Nature Communications, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2041-1723

Carbapenem-resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) sequence type ST258 is mediated by carbapenemases (e.g. KPC-2) and loss or modification of the major non-selective porins OmpK35 and OmpK36. However, the mechanism underpinning OmpK36-mediated resistance and consequences of these changes on pathogenicity remain unknown. By solving the crystal structure of a clinical ST258 OmpK36 variant we provide direct structural evidence of pore constriction, mediated by a di-amino acid (Gly115-Asp116) insertion into loop 3, restricting diffusion of both nutrients (e.g. lactose) and Carbapenems. In the presence of KPC-2 this results in a 16-fold increase in MIC to Meropenem. Additionally, the Gly-Asp insertion impairs bacterial growth in lactose-containing medium and confers a significant in vivo fitness cost in a murine model of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Our data suggest that the continuous selective pressure imposed by widespread Carbapenem utilisation in hospital settings drives the expansion of KP expressing Gly-Asp insertion mutants, despite an associated fitness cost.

Journal article

Beis K, Rebuffat S, 2019, Multifaceted ABC transporters associated to microcin and bacteriocin export, RESEARCH IN MICROBIOLOGY, Vol: 170, Pages: 399-406, ISSN: 0923-2508

Journal article

Pang SL, Ho KL, Waterman J, Rambo RP, Teh A-H, Mathavan I, Harris G, Beis K, Say Y-H, Anusha MS, Sio YY, Chew FT, Ng CLet al., 2019, Crystal structure and epitope analysis of house dust mite allergen Der f 21, SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2045-2322

Journal article

Wang L, Bateman B, Zanetti-Domingues LC, Moores AN, Astbury S, Spindloe C, Darrow MC, Romano M, Needham SR, Beis K, Rolfe DJ, Clarke DT, Martin-Fernandez MLet al., 2019, Solid immersion microscopy images cells under cryogenic conditions with 12 nm resolution, Communications Biology, Vol: 2, ISSN: 2399-3642

Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy plays a crucial role in our understanding of cell structure and function by reporting cellular ultrastructure with 20–30 nm resolution. However, this resolution is insufficient to image macro-molecular machinery at work. A path to improve resolution is to image under cryogenic conditions. This substantially increases the brightness of most fluorophores and preserves native ultrastructure much better than chemical fixation. Cryogenic conditions are, however, underutilised because of the lack of compatible high numerical aperture objectives. Here, using a low-cost super-hemispherical solid immersion lens (superSIL) and a basic set-up we achieve 12 nm resolution under cryogenic conditions, to our knowledge the best yet attained in cells using simple set-ups and/or commercial systems. By also allowing multicolour imaging, and by paving the way to total-internal-reflection fluorescence imaging of mammalian cells under cryogenic conditions, superSIL microscopy opens a straightforward route to achieve unmatched resolution on bacterial and mammalian cell samples.

Journal article

Ford RC, Beis K, 2019, Learning the ABCs one at a time: structure and mechanism of ABC transporters, Biochemical Society Transactions, Pages: BST20180147-BST20180147, ISSN: 0300-5127

Journal article

Husada F, Bountra K, Tasis K, de Boer M, Romano M, Rebuffat S, Beis K, Cordes Tet al., 2018, Conformational dynamics of the ABC transporter McjD seen by single-molecule FRET, EMBO Journal, Vol: 37, ISSN: 0261-4189

ABC transporters utilize ATP for export processes to provide cellular resistance against toxins, antibiotics, and harmful metabolites in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Based on static structure snapshots, it is believed that they use an alternating access mechanism, which couples conformational changes to ATP binding (outward‐open conformation) and hydrolysis (inward‐open) for unidirectional transport driven by ATP. Here, we analyzed the conformational states and dynamics of the antibacterial peptide exporter McjD from Escherichia coli using single‐molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET). For the first time, we established smFRET for an ABC exporter in a native‐like lipid environment and directly monitor conformational dynamics in both the transmembrane‐ (TMD) and nucleotide‐binding domains (NBD). With this, we unravel the ligand dependences that drive conformational changes in both domains. Furthermore, we observe intrinsic conformational dynamics in the absence of ATP and ligand in the NBDs. ATP binding and hydrolysis on the other hand can be observed via NBD conformational dynamics. We believe that the progress made here in combination with future studies will facilitate full understanding of ABC transport cycles.

Journal article

Romano M, Fusco G, Choudhury H, Mehmood S, Robinson C, Zirah S, Hegemann J, Lescop E, Marahiel M, Rebuffat S, De Simone A, Beis Ket al., 2018, Structural basis for natural product selection and export by bacterial ABC transporters, ACS Chemical Biology, Vol: 13, Pages: 1598-1609, ISSN: 1554-8929

Bacteria under stress produce ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) to target closely related species, such as the lasso peptide microcin J25 (MccJ25). These peptides are also toxic to the producing organisms that utilize dedicated ABC transporters to achieve self-immunity. MccJ25 is exported by the Escherichia coli ABC transporter McjD through a complex mechanism of recognition that has remained elusive. Here, we used biomolecular NMR to study this interaction and identified a region of the toxic peptide that is crucial to its recognition by the ABC transporter. Our study provides evidence that McjD is highly specific to MccJ25 and not to other RiPPs or antibiotics, unlike multidrug ABC transporters. Additionally, we show that MccJ25 is not exported by another natural product ABC transporter. Therefore, we propose that specific interactions between natural product ABC transporters and their substrate provides them with their high degree of specificity. Taken together, these findings suggest that ABC transporters might have acquired structural elements in their binding cavity to recognize and allow promiscuous export of a larger variety of compounds.

Journal article

Wahlgren WY, Dunevall E, North RA, Paz A, Scalise M, Bisignano P, Bengtsson-Palme J, Goyal P, Claesson E, Caing-Carlsson R, Andersson R, Beis K, Nilsson UJ, Farewell A, Pochini L, Indiveri C, Grabe M, Dobson RCJ, Abramson J, Ramaswamy S, Friemann Ret al., 2018, Substrate-bound outward-open structure of a Na+-coupled sialic acid symporter reveals a new Na+ site, Nature Communications, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2041-1723

Many pathogenic bacteria utilise sialic acids as an energy source or use them as an external coating to evade immune detection. As such, bacteria that colonise sialylated environments deploy specific transporters to mediate import of scavenged sialic acids. Here, we report a substrate-bound 1.95 Å resolution structure and subsequent characterisation of SiaT, a sialic acid transporter from Proteus mirabilis. SiaT is a secondary active transporter of the sodium solute symporter (SSS) family, which use Na+ gradients to drive the uptake of extracellular substrates. SiaT adopts the LeuT-fold and is in an outward-open conformation in complex with the sialic acid N-acetylneuraminic acid and two Na+ ions. One Na+ binds to the conserved Na2 site, while the second Na+ binds to a new position, termed Na3, which is conserved in many SSS family members. Functional and molecular dynamics studies validate the substrate-binding site and demonstrate that both Na+ sites regulate N-acetylneuraminic acid transport.

Journal article

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