25 results found
Howell J, Pedrana A, Schroeder SE, et al., 2021, A global investment framework for the elimination of hepatitis B, JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY, Vol: 74, Pages: 535-549, ISSN: 0168-8278
Aufegger L, Yanar C, Bicknell C, et al., 2021, The risk-value trade-off: price and brand information impact consumers’ intentions to purchase OTC drugs, Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice, Vol: 14, ISSN: 2052-3211
BackgroundEuropean countries face fiscal pressure regarding the long-term sustainability of their healthcare system due to increasing levels of public health expenditures and mounting demographic pressures. The promotion of generic drugs is considered to be an efficient means to tackle these challenges; however, market diffusion remains slow. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of price and brand cues on purchase intentions by means of Direct-to-Consumer (DTC) advertising, and to build on the market cue evaluation model by Dodd et al.MethodsParticipants rated purchase intentions on six DTC adverts varying in price and brand information, followed by self-reports on purchase intentions, attitudes towards generics, brand loyalty, price consciousness, as well as perceptions of quality, risk and value. Open-ended questions explored attitudes toward generic drugs.ResultsBrand information and purchase intentions were mediated by perceived risk and perceived quality, while price information influenced purchase intention through perceptions of quality, risk and value. Consumers’ purchase behaviour was furthermore influenced by unawareness and misconceptions, past experiences, and advertising as a decision-making tool.ConclusionsAdvertisements, including price and brand information, are an important tool to improve consumers’ awareness of the availability of different OTC drugs. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed.
Smalley K, Aufegger L, Flott K, et al., 2021, Can self-management programmes change healthcare utilisation in COPD?: A systematic review and framework analysis, Patient Education and Counseling, Vol: 104, Pages: 50-63, ISSN: 0738-3991
ObjectiveThe study aims to evaluate the ability of self-management programmes to change the healthcare-seeking behaviours of people with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and any associations between programme design and outcomes.MethodsA systematic search of the literature returned randomised controlled trials of SMPs for COPD. Change in healthcare utilisation was the primary outcome measure. Programme design was analysed using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF).ResultsA total of 26 papers described 19 SMPs. The most common utilisation outcome was hospitalisation (n = 22). Of these, 5 showed a significant decrease. Two theoretical domains were evidenced in all programmes: skills and behavioural regulation. All programmes evidenced at least 5 domains. However, there was no clear association between TDF domains and utilisation. Overall, study quality was moderate to poor.ConclusionThis review highlights the need for more alignment in the goals, design, and evaluation of SMPs. Specifically, the TDF could be used to guide programme design and evaluation in future.Practice implicationsPractices have a reasonable expectation that interventions they adopt will provide patient benefit and value for money. Better design and reporting of SMP trials would address their ability to do so.
Aufegger L, Bùi KH, Bicknell C, et al., 2020, Designing a paediatric hospital information tool with children, parents, and healthcare staff: a UX study, BMC Pediatrics, Vol: 20, ISSN: 1471-2431
BACKGROUND: The hospital patient pathway for having treatment procedures can be daunting for younger patients and their family members, especially when they are about to undergo a complex intervention. Opportunities to mentally prepare young patients for their hospital treatments, e.g. for surgical procedures, include tools such as therapeutic clowns, medical dolls, or books and board games. However, while promising in reducing pre-operative anxiety and negative behaviours, they may be resource intensive, costly, and not always readily available. In this study, we co-designed a digital hospital information system with children, parents and clinicians, in order to prepare children undergoing medical treatment. METHOD: The study took place in the UK and consisted of two parts: In part 1, we purposively sampled 37 participants (n=22 parents, and n=15 clinicians) to understand perceptions and concerns of an hospital information platform specifically design for and addressed to children. In part 2, 14 children and 11 parents attended an audio and video recorded co-design workshop alongside a graphic designer and the research team to have their ideas explored and reflected on for the design of such information technology. Consequently, we used collected data to conduct thematic analysis and narrative synthesis. RESULTS: Findings from the survey were categorised into four themes: (1) the prospect of a hospital information system (parents' inputs); (2) content-specific information needed for the information system (parents' and clinicians' inputs); (3) using the virtual information system to connect young patients and parents (parents' inputs); and (4) how to use the virtual hospital information system from a clinician's perspective (clinicians' inputs). In contrast, the workshop highlighted points in times children were most distressed/relaxed, and derived the ideal hospital visit in both their and their parents' perspectives. CONCLUSIONS: The findings support the use of v
Aufegger L, Khanh Ha B, Colin B, et al., 2020, Developing a paediatric virtual hospital information system with children, parents, and healthcare staff: A UX design study, BMC Pediatrics, Vol: 20, ISSN: 1471-2431
BackgroundThe hospital patient pathway for having treatment procedures can be daunting for younger patients and their family members, especially when they are about to undergo a complex intervention. Opportunities to mentally prepare young patients for their hospital treatments, e.g. for surgical procedures, include tools such as therapeutic clowns, medical dolls, or books and board games. However, while promising in reducing pre-operative anxiety and negative behaviours, they may be resource intensive, costly, and not always readily available. In this study, we co-designed a digital hospital information system with children, parents and clinicians, in order to prepare children undergoing medical treatment.MethodThe study took place in the UK and consisted of two parts: In part 1, we purposively sampled 37 participants (n=22 parents, and n=15 clinicians) to understand perceptions and concerns of an hospital information platform specifically design for and addressed to children. In part 2, 14 children and 11 parents attended an audio and video recorded co-design workshop alongside a graphic designer and the research team to have their ideas explored and reflected on for the design of such information technology. Consequently, we used collected data to conduct thematic analysis and narrative synthesis.ResultsFindings from the survey were categorised into four themes: (1) the prospect of a hospital information system (parents’ inputs); (2) content-specific information needed for the information system (parents’ and clinicians’ inputs); (3) using the virtual information system to connect young patients and parents (parents’ inputs); and (4) how to use the virtual hospital information system from a clinician’s perspective (clinicians’ inputs). In contrast, the workshop highlighted points in times children were most distressed/relaxed, and derived the ideal hospital visit in both their and their parents’ perspectives.ConclusionsTh
Pedrana A, Howell J, Scott N, et al., 2020, Global hepatitis C elimination: an investment framework, LANCET GASTROENTEROLOGY & HEPATOLOGY, Vol: 5, Pages: 927-939
Aufegger L, Alabi M, Darzi A, et al., 2020, Sharing leadership: current attitudes, barriers and needs of clinical and non-clinical managers in UK’s integrated care system, BMJ Leader, Vol: 4, Pages: 128-134, ISSN: 2398-631X
Background As systems become more complex, shared leadership (SL) has been suggested to have a dominant role in improving cross-functional working tailored to organisational needs. Little, however, is known about the benefits of SL in healthcare management, especially for UK’s recently formed integrated care system (ICS). The aim of this study was to understand current attitudes, barriers and needs of clinical and non-clinical managers sharing leadership responsibilities in the ICS.Method Twenty clinical and non-clinical leaders in 15 organisations were interviewed to understand current cross-functional leadership collaborations, and the potential SL may have on the recently established ICS in the National Health Service (NHS). The data were transcribed and analysed thematically.Results Findings showed perceptions and experiences of clinical and non-clinical healthcare management in relation to: (1) motivation to execute a leadership position, including the need to step up and a sense of duty; (2) attitudes towards interdisciplinary working, which is reflected in conflicts due to different values and expertise; (3) SL skills and behaviours, including the need for mutual understanding and cooperative attitudes by means of effective communication and collaboration; and (4) barriers to achieve SL in the ICS, such as bureaucracy, and a lack of time and support.Conclusions SL may help improve current leadership cultures within the NHS; however, for SL to have a tangible impact, it needs to be delivered as part of leadership development for doctors in postgraduate training, and development programmes for aspiring, emerging and established leaders, with clear lines of communication.
Aufegger L, Soane E, Darzi A, et al., 2020, Shared leadership in tertiary care: design of a simulation for patient safety decision-making in healthcare management teams, BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning, ISSN: 2056-6697
Introduction Simulation-based training (SBT) on shared leadership (SL) and group decision-making (GDM) can contribute to the safe and efficient functioning of a healthcare system, yet it is rarely incorporated into healthcare management training. The aim of this study was design, develop and validate a robust and evidence-based SBT to explore and train SL and GDM.Method Using a two-stage iterative simulation design approach, 103 clinical and non-clinical managerial students and healthcare professionals took part in an SBT that contained real-world problems and opportunities to improve patient safety set within a fictional context. Self-report data were gathered, and a focus group was conducted to address the simulation’s degree of realism, content, relevance, as well as areas for improvement.Results Participants experienced the simulation scenario, the material and the role assignment as realistic and representative of real-world tasks and decision contexts, and as a good opportunity to identify and enact relevant tasks, behaviours and knowledge related to SL and GDM. Areas for improvement were highlighted with regard to involving an actor who challenges SL and GDM; more preparatory time to allow for an enhanced familiarisation of the content; and, video debriefs to reflect on relevant behaviours and team processes.Conclusions Our simulation was perceived as an effective method to develop SL and GDM within the context of patient safety and healthcare management. Future studies could extend this scenario method to other areas of healthcare service and delivery, and to different sectors that require diverse groups to make complex decisions.
Aufegger L, Serou N, Chen S, et al., 2020, Evaluating users' experiences of electronic prescribing systems in relation to patient safety: a mixed methods study, BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, Vol: 20, ISSN: 1472-6947
BackgroundUser interface (UI) design features such as screen layout, density of information, and use of colour may affect the usability of electronic prescribing (EP) systems, with usability problems previously associated with medication errors. To identify how to improve existing systems, our aim was to explore prescribers’ perspectives of UI features of a commercially available EP system, and how these may affect patient safety.MethodsTwo studies were conducted, each including ten participants prescribing a penicillin for a test patient with a penicillin allergy. In study 1, eye-gaze tracking was used as a means to explore visual attention and behaviour during prescribing, followed by a self-reported EP system usability scale. In study 2, a think-aloud method and semi-structured interview were applied to explore participants’ thoughts and views on prescribing, with a focus on UI design and patient safety.ResultsStudy 1 showed high visual attention toward information on allergies and patient information, allergy pop-up alerts, and medication order review and confirmation, with less visual attention on adding medication. The system’s usability was rated ‘below average’. In study 2, participants highlighted EP design features and workflow, including screen layout and information overload as being important for patient safety, benefits of EP systems such as keeping a record of relevant information, and suggestions for improvement in relation to system design (colour, fonts, customization) and patient interaction.ConclusionsSpecific UI design factors were identified that may improve the usability and/or safety of EP systems. It is suggested that eye-gaze tracking and think-aloud methods are used in future experimental research in this area. Limitations include the small sample size; further work should include similar studies on other EP systems.
Schroeder SE, Pedrana A, Scott N, et al., 2019, Innovative strategies for the elimination of viral hepatitis at a national level: A country case series, LIVER INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 39, Pages: 1818-1836, ISSN: 1478-3223
Aufegger L, Bicknell C, Soane E, et al., 2019, Understanding health management and safety decisions using signal processing and machine learning, BMC Medical Research Methodology, Vol: 19, ISSN: 1471-2288
BackgroundSmall group research in healthcare is important because it deals with interaction and decision-making processes that can help to identify and improve safer patient treatment and care. However, the number of studies is limited due to time- and resource-intensive data processing. The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of using signal processing and machine learning techniques to understand teamwork and behaviour related to healthcare management and patient safety, and to contribute to literature and research of teamwork in healthcare.MethodsClinical and non-clinical healthcare professionals organised into 28 teams took part in a video- and audio-recorded role-play exercise that represented a fictional healthcare system, and included the opportunity to discuss and improve healthcare management and patient safety. Group interactions were analysed using the recurrence quantification analysis (RQA; Knight et al., 2016), a signal processing method that examines stability, determinism, and complexity of group interactions. Data were benchmarked against self-reported quality of team participation and social support. Transcripts of group conversations were explored using the topic modelling approach (Blei et al., 2003), a machine learning method that helps to identify emerging themes within large corpora of qualitative data.ResultsGroups exhibited stable group interactions that were positively correlated with perceived social support, and negatively correlated with predictive behaviour. Data processing of the qualitative data revealed conversations focused on: (1) the management of patient incidents; (2) the responsibilities among team members; (3) the importance of a good internal team environment; and (4) the hospital culture.ConclusionsThis study has shed new light on small group research using signal processing and machine learning methods. Future studies are encouraged to use these methods in the healthcare context, and to conduct further research
Aufegger L, Shariq O, Bicknell C, et al., 2019, Can shared leadership enhance clinical team management? A systematic review, Leadership in Health Services, Vol: 32, Pages: 309-335, ISSN: 1751-1879
PurposeResearch in psychology or management science has shown that shared leadership (SL) enhances information sharing, fosters participation and empowers team members within the decision-making processes, ultimately improving the quality of performance outcomes. Little has been done and, thus, less is known of the value and use of SL in acute healthcare teams. The purpose of this study is to (1) explore, identify and critically assess patterns and behaviour of SL in acute healthcare teams; and (2) evaluate to what extent SL may benefit and accomplish safer care in acute patient treatment and healthcare delivery.Design/methodology/approachThe authors conducted a review that followed the PRISMA-P reporting guidelines. A variety of sources were searched in April 2018 for studies containing primary research that focused on SL in acute healthcare teams. The outcome of interest was a well-specified assessment of SL, and an evaluation of the extent SL may enhance team performance, lead to safer patient care and healthcare delivery in acute healthcare teams.FindingsAfter the study selection process, 11 out of 1,383 studies were included in the review. Studies used a qualitative, quantitative or mixed-methods approach. Emerging themes based on behavioural observations that contributed to SL were: shared mental model; social support and situational awareness; and psychological safety. High-performing teams showed more SL behaviour, teams with less seniority displayed more traditional leadership styles and SL was associated with increased team satisfaction.Research limitations/implicationsEvidence to date suggests that SL may be of benefit to improve performance outcomes in acute healthcare team settings. However, the discrepancy of SL assessments within existing studies and their small sample sizes highlights the need for a large, good quality randomized controlled trial to validate this indication.Originality/valueAlthough studies have acknowledged the relevance of SL in he
Smalley K, Aufegger L, Flott K, et al., 2019, Which behaviour change techniques are most effective in improving healthcare utilisation in COPD self-management programmes? A protocol for a systematic review, BMJ Open Respiratory Research, Vol: 6, ISSN: 2052-4439
IntroductionSelf-management interventions are often presented as a way to improve the quality of care for patients with chronic illness. However self-management is quite broadly-defined and it remains unclear which types of interventions are most successful. This review will use the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) as a lens through which to categorise self-management interventions regarding which programmes are most likely to be effective, and under which circumstances. The aim of this study is to (1) describe the types of self-management programmes that have been developed in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); and identify the common elements between these to better classify the self-management. (2) Evaluate the effect that self-management programmes have on COPD patients’ healthcare behaviour, by classifying those programmes by the behaviour change techniques used. Methods and analysisA systematic search of the literature will be performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, HMIC, and PsycINFO. This review will be limited to randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-experimental studies. The review will follow PRISMA-P guidelines, and will provide a PRISMA checklist and flowchart. Risk of bias in individual studies will be assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias criteria, and the quality of included studies will be evaluated using the GRADE criteria, and will be reported in a Summary of Findings table.The primary analysis will be a catalogue of the interventions based on the components of the TDF that were utilised in the intervention. A matrix comparing included behaviour change techniques to improvements in utilisation will summarise the primary outcomes. Ethics and dissemination Not applicable, as this is a secondary review of the literature.Registration detailsPROSPERO: CRD42018104753
Joshi M, Ashrafian H, Aufegger L, et al., 2019, Wearable sensors to improve detection of patient deterioration, Expert Review of Medical Devices, Vol: 16, Pages: 145-154, ISSN: 1743-4440
INTRODUCTION: Monitoring a patient's vital signs forms a basic component of care, enabling the identification of deteriorating patients and increasing the likelihood of improving patient outcomes. Several paper-based track and trigger warning scores have been developed to allow clinical evaluation of a patient and guidance on escalation protocols and frequency of monitoring. However, evidence suggests that patient deterioration on hospital wards is still missed, and that patients are still falling through the safety net. Wearable sensor technology is currently undergoing huge growth, and the development of new light-weight wireless wearable sensors has enabled multiple vital signs monitoring of ward patients continuously and in real time. Areas covered: In this paper, we aim to closely examine the benefits of wearable monitoring applications that measure multiple vital signs; in the context of improving healthcare and delivery. A review of the literature was performed. Expert commentary: Findings suggest that several sensor designs are available with the potential to improve patient safety for both hospital patients and those at home. Larger clinical trials are required to ensure both diagnostic accuracy and usability.
Aufegger L, Wasley D, 2018, Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase are Modulated by the Time and Context of Musical Performance, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF STRESS MANAGEMENT, Vol: 25, Pages: 81-93, ISSN: 1072-5245
Aufegger L, Perkins R, Wasley D, et al., 2017, Musicians' perceptions and experiences of using simulation training to develop performance skills, PSYCHOLOGY OF MUSIC, Vol: 45, Pages: 417-431, ISSN: 0305-7356
Chanwimalueang T, Aufegger L, Adjei T, et al., 2017, Stage call: Cardiovascular reactivity to audition stress in musicians, PLOS ONE, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1932-6203
Auditioning is at the very center of educational and professional life in music and is associated with significant psychophysical demands. Knowledge of how these demands affect cardiovascular responses to psychosocial pressure is essential for developing strategies to both manage stress and understand optimal performance states. To this end, we recorded the electrocardiograms (ECGs) of 16 musicians (11 violinists and 5 flutists) before and during performances in both low- and high-stress conditions: with no audience and in front of an audition panel, respectively. The analysis consisted of the detection of R-peaks in the ECGs to extract heart rate variability (HRV) from the notoriously noisy real-world ECGs. Our data analysis approach spanned both standard (temporal and spectral) and advanced (structural complexity) techniques. The complexity science approaches—namely, multiscale sample entropy and multiscale fuzzy entropy—indicated a statistically significant decrease in structural complexity in HRV from the low- to the high-stress condition and an increase in structural complexity from the pre-performance to performance period, thus confirming the complexity loss theory and a loss in degrees of freedom due to stress. Results from the spectral analyses also suggest that the stress responses in the female participants were more parasympathetically driven than those of the male participants. In conclusion, our findings suggest that interventions to manage stress are best targeted at the sensitive pre-performance period, before an audition begins.
Abstract:Financial markets typically undergo periods of prosperity followed by periods of stagnation, and this undulation makes it challenging to maintain market efficiency. The efficient market hypothesis (EMH) states that there exist differences in structural complexity in security prices between regular and abnormal situations. Yet, despite a clear link between market acceleration (cf. recession in security prices) and stress in physical systems, indices of financial stress still have significant scope for further development. The overarching aim of this work is therefore to determine the characteristics of financial indices related to financial stress, and to establish a robust metric for the extent of such `stress'. This is achieved based on intrinsic multiscale analysis which quantifies the so called complexity-loss hypothesis in the context of financial stress. The multiscale sample entropy and our proposed Assessment of Latent Index of Stress methods have successfully assessed financial stress, and have served as a measure to establish an analogy between transitions from `normal' (relaxed) to `abnormal' (stressed) financial periods with the sympatho-vagal balance in humans. Four major stock indices of the US economy over the past 25 years are considered: (i) Dow Jones Industrial Average, (ii) NASDAQ Composite, (iii) Standard & Poor's 500, and (iv) Russell 2000, together with FTSE 100, CAC 40 and exchange rates. Our findings support the EMH theory and reveal high stress for both the periods of Internet bubble burst and sub-prime mortgage crisis.
Chanwimalueang T, Aufegger L, von Rosenberg W, et al., 2016, Modelling stress in public speaking: evolution of stress levels during conference presentations, International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP) 2016, Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 814-818
The Electrocardiogram (ECG) collected in real-life scenarios is often noisy and contaminated with motion artefacts. This study proposes a new framework to analyse the heart rate variability (HRV) in mobile scenarios by introducing novel R-peak detection and HRV detrending algorithms. The R-peak detection combines matched filtering and Hilbert transform, while detrending the HRV is performed using empirical mode decomposition with novel physically meaningful stopping criteria. Next, four quantitative metrics-sample entropy, LFhrv, HFhrv and LF/HF ratio ??? are used to estimate stress levels in two public speaking events: (i) a presentation in front of an audience and (ii) an interactive poster presentation, both at ICASSP 2015. We show that the proposed framework makes it possible to detect distinctive stress-patterns in the structural complexity of the HRV, thus verifying the complexity-loss hypothesis in physiological research.
Hemakom A, Goverdovsky V, Aufegger L, et al., 2016, QUANTIFYING COOPERATION IN CHOIR SINGING: RESPIRATORY AND CARDIAC SYNCHRONISATION, 41st IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 719-723, ISSN: 1520-6149
Fancourt D, Aufegger L, Williamson A, 2015, Low-stress and high-stress singing have contrasting effects on glucocorticoid response, FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY, Vol: 6, ISSN: 1664-1078
Perkins R, Aufegger L, Williamon A, 2015, Learning through teaching: Exploring what conservatoire students learn from teaching beginner older adults, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MUSIC EDUCATION, Vol: 33, Pages: 80-90, ISSN: 0255-7614
Williamon A, Aufegger L, Eiholzer H, 2014, Simulating and stimulating performance: introducing distributed simulation to enhance musical learning and performance, FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY, Vol: 5, ISSN: 1664-1078
Williamon A, Aufegger L, Wasley D, et al., 2013, Complexity of physiological responses decreases in high-stress musical performance, JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY INTERFACE, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1742-5689
Aufegger L, 2013, The Psychology of Music Performance Anxiety, PSYCHOLOGY OF MUSIC, Vol: 41, Pages: 398-401, ISSN: 0305-7356
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