Imperial College London

Professor Long R Jiao MD FRCS

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Surgery & Cancer

Professor of Surgery
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 3313 3937l.jiao

 
 
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Location

 

BN1/15 Area BHammersmith HospitalHammersmith Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

284 results found

Gupta S, Khan S, Kawka M, Gujjuri R, Chau I, Starling N, Cunningham D, Jiao LR, Gall Tet al., 2021, Clinical utility of clonal origin determination in managing recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma, EXPERT REVIEW OF GASTROENTEROLOGY & HEPATOLOGY, Vol: 15, Pages: 1159-1167, ISSN: 1747-4124

Journal article

Ahmed A, Morales-Conde S, Legrand M, Nienhuijs S, Himpens J, Jiao LR, Facy Oet al., 2021, Clinical outcomes of pre-attached reinforced stapler reloads in bariatric surgery: A prospective case series, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SURGERY OPEN, Vol: 32, ISSN: 2405-8572

Journal article

Kawka M, Mak S, Qiu S, Gall TMH, Jiao LRet al., 2021, Hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HEHE)-rare vascular malignancy mimicking cholangiocarcinoma: a case report, TRANSLATIONAL GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY

Journal article

Glasbey JC, Omar O, Nepogodiev D, Minaya-Bravo A, Bankhead-Kendall BK, Fiore M, Futaba K, Gabre-Kidan A, Gujjuri RR, Isik A, Kaafarani HMA, Kamarajah SK, Li E, Loeffler MW, McLean KA, Outani O, Ntirenganya F, Satoi S, Shaw R, Simoes JFF, Stewart GD, Tabiri S, Trout IM, Bhangu AA, Glasbey JC, Omar O, Bhangu AA, Siaw-Acheampong K, Benson RA, Bywater E, Chaudhry D, Dawson BE, Evans JP, Glasbey JC, Gujjuri RR, Heritage E, Jones CS, Kamarajah SK, Khatri C, Khaw RA, Keatley JM, Knight A, Lawday S, Li E, Mann HS, Marson EJ, McLean KA, Mckay SC, Mills EC, Nepogodiev D, Pellino G, Picciochi M, Taylor EH, Tiwari A, Simoes JFF, Trout IM, Venn ML, Wilkin RJW, Bhangu A, Glasbey JC, Smart NJ, Minaya-Bravo A, Evans JP, Gallo G, Moug S, Pata F, Pockney P, Di Saverio S, Vallance A, Vimalchandran D, Griffiths EA, Kamarajah SK, Evans RPT, Townend P, Roberts K, McKay S, Isaac J, Satoi S, Edwards J, Coonar AS, Marchbank A, Caruana EJ, Layton GR, Patel A, Brunelli A, Ford S, Desai A, Gronchi A, Fiore M, Almond M, Tirotta F, Dumitra S, Kolias A, Price SJ, Fountain DM, Jenkinson MD, Hutchinson P, Marcus HJ, Piper RJ, Lippa L, Servadei F, Esene I, Freyschlag C, Neville I, Rosseau G, Schaller K, Demetriades AK, Robertson F, Alamri A, Shaw R, Schache AG, Winter SC, Ho M, Nankivell P, Biel JR, Batstone M, Ganly I, Vidya R, Wilkins A, Singh JK, Thekinkattil D, Sundar S, Fotopoulou C, Leung E, Khan T, Chiva L, Sehouli J, Fagotti A, Cohen P, Gutelkin M, Ghebre R, Konney T, Pareja R, Bristow R, Dowdy S, Rajkumar STS, Ng J, Fujiwara K, Stewart GD, Lamb B, Narahari K, McNeill A, Colquhoun A, McGrath J, Bromage S, Barod R, Kasivisvanathan V, Klatte T, Simoes JFF, Abbott TEF, Abukhalaf S, Adamina M, Ademuyiwa AO, Agarwal A, Akkulak M, Alameer E, Alderson D, Alakaloko F, Albertsmeiers M, Alser O, Alshaar M, Alshryda S, Arnaud AP, Augestad KM, Ayasra F, Azevedo J, Bankhead-Kendall BK, Barlow E, Beard D, Benson RA, Blanco-Colino R, Brar A, Minaya-Bravo A, Breen KA, Bretherton C, Buarque IL, Burke J, Caruet al., 2021, Preoperative nasopharyngeal swab testing and postoperative pulmonary complications in patients undergoing elective surgery during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, BRITISH JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Vol: 108, Pages: 88-96, ISSN: 0007-1323

Journal article

Gall TMH, Pencavel TD, Cunningham D, Nicol D, Jiao LRet al., 2020, Transition from open and laparoscopic to robotic pancreaticoduodenectomy in a UK tertiary referral hepatobiliary and pancreatic centre - Early experience of robotic pancreaticoduodenectomy, HPB, Vol: 22, Pages: 1637-1644, ISSN: 1365-182X

Journal article

Bhogal RH, Patel PH, Doran SLF, Zar S, Pollok JM, Jiao LR, Allum WH, Chaudry MA, Kumar Set al., 2020, Approach to upper GastroIntestinal cancer surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic - Experience from a UK cancer centre, EJSO, Vol: 46, Pages: 2156-2157, ISSN: 0748-7983

Journal article

Gall TMH, Alrawashdeh W, Soomro N, White S, Jiao LRet al., 2020, Shortening surgical training through robotics: randomized clinical trial of laparoscopic versus robotic surgical learning curves., BJS Open

BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive surgery is the standard technique for many operations. Laparoscopic training has a long learning curve. Robotic solutions may shorten the training pathway. The aim of this study was to compare laparoscopic with robotic training in surgical trainees and medical students. METHODS: Surgical trainees (ST group) were randomized to receive 6 h of robotic or laparoscopic simulation training. They then performed three surgical tasks in cadaveric specimens. Medical students (MS group) had 2 h of robotic or laparoscopic simulation training followed by one surgical task. The Global Rating Scale (GRS) score (maximum 30), number of suture errors, and time to complete each procedure were recorded. RESULTS: The median GRS score for the ST group was better for each procedure after robotic training compared with laparoscopic training (total GRS score: 27·00 (i.q.r. 22·25-28·33) versus 18·00 (16·50-19·04) respectively, P < 0·001; 10 participants in each arm). The ST group made fewer errors in robotic than in laparoscopic tasks, for both continuous (7·00 (4·75-9·63) versus 22·25 (20·75-25·25); P < 0·001) and interrupted (8·25 (6·38-10·13) versus 29·50 (23·75-31·50); P < 0·001) sutures. For the MS group, the robotic group completed 8·67 interrupted sutures with 15·50 errors in 40 min, compared with only 3·50 sutures with 40·00 errors in the laparoscopic group (P < 0·001) (10 participants in each arm). Fatigue and physical comfort levels were better after robotic compared with laparoscopic operating for both groups (P < 0·001). CONCLUSION: The acquisition of surgical skills in surgical trainees and the surgically naive takes less time with a robotic compared with a l

Journal article

Gavriilidis P, Sutcliffe RP, Roberts KJ, Pai M, Spalding D, Habib N, Jiao LR, Sodergren MHet al., 2020, No difference in mortality among ALPPS, two-staged hepatectomy, and portal vein embolization/ligation: A systematic review by updated traditional and network meta-analyses, HEPATOBILIARY & PANCREATIC DISEASES INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 19, Pages: 411-419, ISSN: 1499-3872

Journal article

Kawka M, Dawidziuk A, Jiao LR, Gall TMHet al., 2020, Artificial intelligence in the detection, characterisation and prediction of hepatocellular carcinoma: a narrative review, TRANSLATIONAL GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY

Journal article

Kamarajah SK, Bundred J, Manas D, Jiao LR, Hilal MA, White SAet al., 2020, Robotic Versus Conventional Laparoscopic Liver Resections: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Vol: 110, Pages: 290-300, ISSN: 1457-4969

Journal article

Sodergren MH, Mangal N, Wasan H, Sadanandam A, Balachandran VP, Jiao LR, Habib Net al., 2020, Immunological combination treatment holds the key to improving survival in pancreatic cancer, JOURNAL OF CANCER RESEARCH AND CLINICAL ONCOLOGY, Vol: 146, Pages: 2897-2911, ISSN: 0171-5216

Journal article

Fang C, An J, Bruno A, Cai X, Fan J, Fujimoto J, Golfieri R, Hao X, Jiang H, Jiao LR, Kulkarni AV, Lang H, Lesmana CRA, Li Q, Liu L, Liu Y, Lau W, Lu Q, Man K, Maruyama H, Mosconi C, Örmeci N, Pavlides M, Rezende G, Sohn JH, Treeprasertsuk S, Vilgrain V, Wen H, Wen S, Quan X, Ximenes R, Yang Y, Zhang B, Zhang W, Zhang P, Zhang S, Qi Xet al., 2020, Consensus recommendations of three-dimensional visualization for diagnosis and management of liver diseases, Hepatology International, Vol: 14, Pages: 437-453, ISSN: 1936-0533

Three-dimensional (3D) visualization involves feature extraction and 3D reconstruction of CT images using a computer processing technology. It is a tool for displaying, describing, and interpreting 3D anatomy and morphological features of organs, thus providing intuitive, stereoscopic, and accurate methods for clinical decision-making. It has played an increasingly significant role in the diagnosis and management of liver diseases. Over the last decade, it has been proven safe and effective to use 3D simulation software for pre-hepatectomy assessment, virtual hepatectomy, and measurement of liver volumes in blood flow areas of the portal vein; meanwhile, the use of 3D models in combination with hydrodynamic analysis has become a novel non-invasive method for diagnosis and detection of portal hypertension. We herein describe the progress of research on 3D visualization, its workflow, current situation, challenges, opportunities, and its capacity to improve clinical decision-making, emphasizing its utility for patients with liver diseases. Current advances in modern imaging technologies have promised a further increase in diagnostic efficacy of liver diseases. For example, complex internal anatomy of the liver and detailed morphological features of liver lesions can be reflected from CT-based 3D models. A meta-analysis reported that the application of 3D visualization technology in the diagnosis and management of primary hepatocellular carcinoma has significant or extremely significant differences over the control group in terms of intraoperative blood loss, postoperative complications, recovery of postoperative liver function, operation time, hospitalization time, and tumor recurrence on short-term follow-up. However, the acquisition of high-quality CT images and the use of these images for 3D visualization processing lack a unified standard, quality control system, and homogeneity, which might hinder the evaluation of application efficacy in different clinical cente

Journal article

COVIDSurg Collaborative, Jiao LR, 2020, Mortality and pulmonary complications in patients undergoing surgery with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection: an international cohort study, The Lancet, Vol: 396, Pages: 27-38, ISSN: 0140-6736

BackgroundThe impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on postoperative recovery needs to be understood to inform clinical decision making during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. This study reports 30-day mortality and pulmonary complication rates in patients with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection.MethodsThis international, multicentre, cohort study at 235 hospitals in 24 countries included all patients undergoing surgery who had SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed within 7 days before or 30 days after surgery. The primary outcome measure was 30-day postoperative mortality and was assessed in all enrolled patients. The main secondary outcome measure was pulmonary complications, defined as pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, or unexpected postoperative ventilation.FindingsThis analysis includes 1128 patients who had surgery between Jan 1 and March 31, 2020, of whom 835 (74·0%) had emergency surgery and 280 (24·8%) had elective surgery. SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed preoperatively in 294 (26·1%) patients. 30-day mortality was 23·8% (268 of 1128). Pulmonary complications occurred in 577 (51·2%) of 1128 patients; 30-day mortality in these patients was 38·0% (219 of 577), accounting for 81·7% (219 of 268) of all deaths. In adjusted analyses, 30-day mortality was associated with male sex (odds ratio 1·75 [95% CI 1·28–2·40], p<0·0001), age 70 years or older versus younger than 70 years (2·30 [1·65–3·22], p<0·0001), American Society of Anesthesiologists grades 3–5 versus grades 1–2 (2·35 [1·57–3·53], p<0·0001), malignant versus benign or obstetric diagnosis (1·55 [1·01–2·39], p=0·046), emergency versus elective surgery (1·67 [1·06–2·63], p=0·026), and major versus minor surgery (1·52 [1&mi

Journal article

Alsafi A, Jawad ZAR, Jiao LR, 2020, Percutaneous Trans-Jejunal Pancreatic Duct Drainage to Treat a Post-Operative Pancreatico-Cutaneous Fistula, CARDIOVASCULAR AND INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY, Vol: 43, Pages: 1564-1567, ISSN: 0174-1551

Journal article

Sripadam R, Mukherjee S, Wadsley J, Al-Mukhtar A, Jiao LR, Wasan HS, Carter R, Graham JS, Ammad F, Evans J, Tjaden C, Hackert T, Buchler MW, Neoptolemos JPet al., 2020, ESPAC-5F: Four-arm, prospective, multicenter, international randomized phase II trial of immediate surgery compared with neoadjuvant gemcitabine plus capecitabine (GEMCAP) or FOLFIRINOX or chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with borderline resectable pancreatic cancer., Annual Meeting of the American-Society-of-Clinical-Oncology (ASCO), Publisher: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, ISSN: 0732-183X

Conference paper

Ghaneh P, Palmer DH, Cicconi S, Halloran C, Psarelli EE, Rawcliffe CL, Sripadam R, Mukherjee S, Wadsley J, Al-Mukhtar A, Jiao LR, Wasan HS, Carter R, Graham JS, Ammad F, Evans J, Tjaden C, Hackert T, Buchler MW, Neoptolemos JPet al., 2020, ESPAC-5F: Four-arm, prospective, multicenter, international randomized phase II trial of immediate surgery compared with neoadjuvant gemcitabine plus capecitabine (GEMCAP) or FOLFIRINOX or chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with borderline resectable pancreatic cancer., Journal of Clinical Oncology, Vol: 38, Pages: 4505-4505, ISSN: 0732-183X

<jats:p> 4505 </jats:p><jats:p> Background: Patients with borderline resectable pancreatic cancer have poor survival and low resection rates. Neoadjuvant therapy may improve the outcome for these patients. The aim of this trial was to determine the feasibility and efficacy of a comparison of immediate surgery versus neoadjuvant GEMCAP or FOLFIRINOX or CRT. Methods: Eligible patients with NCCN defined borderline resectable (following central review of the baseline CT scan) and biopsy proven pancreatic cancer were randomised (stratified by centre) to receive immediate surgery, or neoadjuvant therapy of either 2 cycles of GEMCAP, or 4 cycles of FOLFIRINOX or 50.4Gy capecitabine-based CRT in 28 daily fractions over 5 ½ weeks. Patients were restaged at 4-6 weeks and underwent surgical exploration if still borderline resectable. Resected patients received adjuvant therapy. Follow up was 12 months. There was quality assurance of surgery and CRT. Primary endpoints were recruitment rate and resection rate (R1/R0). Secondary endpoints included overall survival and toxicity. A target of 90 patients was set to determine feasibility and resection rates. Rates will be presented as point estimates and survival compared across treatment arms using a log-rank test. Analyses will be on an ITT basis. Results: Between August 2014 and December 2018, 90 patients were randomised with 88 included in the full analysis set (32 immediate surgery, 20 GEMCAP, 20 FOLFIRINOX, 16 CRT). Median age was 63 years, 44% were men. WHO performance status was 0 and 1 in 45% and 55% respectively. Median CA19-9 was 603 kU/L at baseline. 44 (79%) patients completed neoadjuvant therapy. Recruitment rate was 21 patients per year. Resection rate was 62% for immediate surgery and 55% for neoadjuvant therapy (p=0.668). R0 resection rate on resected patients was 15% and 23% respectively (p=0.721). One year survival rate was 40% [95% CI, 26% – 62%] for immediate surgery and 77% [95%CI

Journal article

Kamarajah SK, Bundred JR, Marc OS, Jiao LR, Hilal MA, Manas DM, White SAet al., 2020, A systematic review and network meta-analysis of different surgical approaches for pancreaticoduodenectomy, HPB, Vol: 22, Pages: 329-339, ISSN: 1365-182X

Journal article

Kamarajah SK, Bundred J, Saint Marc O, Jiao LR, Manas D, Abu Hilal M, White SAet al., 2020, Robotic versus conventional laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy a systematic review and meta-analysis, EJSO, Vol: 46, Pages: 6-14, ISSN: 0748-7983

Journal article

Gall T, Alrawashdeh W, Soomro N, White S, Jiao Let al., 2019, Laparoscopic and robotic training in abdominal surgery: a randomised controlled trial, 22nd Annual Meeting of the Association-of-Upper-Gastrointestinal-Surgeons-of-Great-Britain-and-Ireland (AUGIS), Publisher: WILEY, Pages: 16-16, ISSN: 0007-1323

Conference paper

Saso S, Galazis N, Iacovou C, Kappatou K, Tzafetas M, Jones B, Yazbek J, Lathouras K, Anderson J, Jiao LR, Smith RJet al., 2019, Managing growing teratoma syndrome: new insights and clinical applications, FUTURE SCIENCE OA, Vol: 5, ISSN: 2056-5623

Journal article

Kamarajah SK, Bundred J, St Marc O, Jiao L, Abu-Hilal M, Manas D, White SAet al., 2019, A Systematic Review and Networked Meta-Analysis of Surgical Approach Techniques for Pancreaticoduodenectomy, International Surgical Conference of the Association-of-Surgeons-in-Training (ASIT), Publisher: WILEY, Pages: 19-19, ISSN: 0007-1323

Conference paper

White L, Patel B, Gall T, Jiao L, Tait P, Thomas Ret al., 2019, A retrospective analysis of portal vein embolisation followed by major hepatectomy in a single institution, International Surgical Congress of the Association-of-Surgeons-of-Great-Britain-and-Ireland (ASGBI), Publisher: WILEY, Pages: 98-98, ISSN: 0007-1323

Conference paper

Ottaviani S, Stebbing J, Frampton AE, Zagorac S, Krell J, de Giorgio A, Trabulo SM, Nguyen VTM, Magnani L, Feng H, Giovannetti E, Funel N, Gress TM, Jiao LR, Lombardo Y, Lemoine NR, Heeschen C, Castellano Let al., 2019, Author Correction: TGF-beta induces miR-100 and miR-125b but blocks let-7a through LIN28B controlling PDAC progression, Nature Communications, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2041-1723

Journal article

Liu DSK, Prado MM, Giovannetti E, Jiao LR, Krell J, Frampton AEet al., 2019, Can circulating tumor and exosomal nucleic acids act as biomarkers for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma?, Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics: new diagnostic technologies are set to revolutionise healthcare, Vol: 19, Pages: 553-558, ISSN: 1473-7159

Journal article

Qiu S, Jiao LR, 2019, Improving detection combined with targeted therapy for small hepatocellular carcinoma, Annals of Translational Medicine, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2305-5839

Journal article

Jiao LR, Fajardo Puerta AB, Gall TMH, Sodergren MH, Frampton AE, Pencavel T, Nagendran M, Habib NA, Darzi A, Pai M, Thomas R, Tait Pet al., 2019, Rapid induction of liver regeneration for major hepatectomy (REBIRTH): A randomized controlled trial of portal vein embolisation versus ALPPS assisted with radiofrequency., Cancers, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2072-6694

To avoid liver insufficiency following major hepatic resection, portal vein embolisation (PVE) is used to induce liver hypertrophy pre-operatively. Associating liver partition with portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy assisted with radiofrequency (RALPPS) was introduced as an alternative method. A randomized controlled trial comparing PVE with RALPPS for the pre-operative manipulation of liver volume in patients with a future liver remnant volume (FLRV) ≤25% (or ≤35% if receiving preoperative chemotherapy) was conducted. The primary endpoint was increase in size of the FLRV. The secondary endpoints were length of time taken for the volume gain, morbidity, operation length and post-operative liver function. Between July 2015 and October 2017, 57 patients were randomised to RALPPS (n = 29) and PVE (n = 28). The mean percentage of increase in the FLRV was 80.7 ± 13.7% after a median 20 days following RALPPS compared to 18.4 ± 9.8% after 35 days (p < 0.001) following PVE. Twenty-four patients after RALPPS and 21 after PVE underwent stage-2 operation. Final resection was achieved in 92.3% and 66.6% patients in RALPPS and PVE, respectively (p = 0.007). There was no difference in morbidity, and one 30-day mortality after RALPPS (p = 0.991) was reported. RALPPS is more effective than PVE in increasing FLRV and the number of patients for surgical resection.

Journal article

Özdemir T, Schmitt A, Cesaretti M, Zarzavadjian Le Bian A, Jiao LRet al., 2019, Intraoperatively malpositioned stent as a complication of common bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, Annals of Hepato-biliary-pancreatic Surgery, Vol: 23, Pages: 84-86, ISSN: 2508-5778

Injuries occurring during laparoscopic bile duct exploration in the course of laparoscopic cholecystectomy may represent threatening complications and lead to inappropriate management. We present a case of patient with biliary colic who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. During the procedure, a common bile duct injury occurred, compelling conversion to open approach, and the patient was treated using a manually inserted biliary stent. She was referred with severe right upper quadrant pain six weeks after the surgery. Investigation with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed a malpositioned biliary stent with completely extra-biliary trajectory. This is thought to be the first description of a malpositioned common bile duct stent through the common biliary duct as a complication of the commonly performed surgical procedure of bile duct exploration.

Journal article

Gall TMH, Gerrard G, Frampton AE, Castellano L, Ahmad R, Habib N, Spalding D, Pai M, Foroni L, Jiao LRet al., 2019, Can we predict long-term survival in resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma?, Oncotarget, Vol: 10, Pages: 696-706, ISSN: 1949-2553

Objective: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive tumour associated with poor 5-year survival. We aimed to determine factors which differentiate short and long-term survivors and identify a prognostic biomarker. Methods: Over a ten-year period, patients with resected PDAC who developed disease recurrence within 12 months (Group I) and those who had no disease recurrence for 24 months (Group II) were identified. Clinicopathological data was analysed. Ion Torrent high-throughput sequencing on DNA extracted from FFPE tumour samples was used to identify mutations. Additionally, peripheral blood samples were analysed for variants in cell-free DNA, circulating tumour cells (CTCs), and microRNAs. Results: Multivariable analysis of clinicopathological factors showed that a positive medial resection margin was significantly associated with short disease-free survival (p = 0.007). Group I patients (n = 21) had a higher frequency of the KRAS mutant mean variant allele (16.93% ± 11.04) compared to those in Group II (n = 13; 7.55% ± 5.76, p = 0.0078). Group I patients also trended towards having a KRAS c.35G>A p.Gly12Asp mutation in addition to variants in other genes, such as TP53, CDKN2A, and SMAD4. Mutational status of cell-free DNA, and number of CTCs, was not found to be useful in this study. A circulating miRNA (hsa-miR-548ah-5p) was found to be significantly differentially expressed. Conclusions: Medial resection margin status and the frequency of KRAS mutation in the tumour tissue are independent prognostic indicators for resectable PDAC. Circulating miRNA hsa-miR-548ah-5p has the potential to be used as a prognostic biomarker.

Journal article

Gall TM, Belete S, Khanderia E, Frampton AE, Jiao LRet al., 2019, Circulating tumour cells and cell-free DNA in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, American Journal of Pathology, Vol: 189, Pages: 71-81, ISSN: 0002-9440

Pancreatic cancer is detected late in the disease process and has an extremely poor prognosis. A blood-based biomarker that can enable early detection of disease, monitor response to treatment, and potentially allow for personalised treatment, would be of great benefit. This review analyses the literature regarding two potential biomarkers: circulating tumour cells (CTCs) and cell-free DNA (cfDNA) with regards to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The origin of CTCs and the methods of detection are discussed and a decade of research examining CTCs in pancreatic cancer is summarized, including both levels of CTCs and analyzing their molecular characteristics, and how this may affect survival in both advanced and early disease and allow for treatment monitoring. The origin of cfDNA is discussed and the literature over the past 15 years is summarized. This includes analyzing cfDNA for genetic mutations and methylation abnormalities which has the potential to be used for PDAC detection and prognosis. However, the research certainly remains in the experimental stage warranting future large trials in these areas.

Journal article

Nasser S, Lathouras K, Nixon K, Campbell J, Stocks G, Jiao L, Fotopoulou Cet al., 2018, Impact of right upper quadrant cytoreductive techniques with extensive liver mobilization on postoperative hepatic function and risk of liver failure in patients with advanced ovarian cancer, GYNECOLOGIC ONCOLOGY, Vol: 151, Pages: 466-470, ISSN: 0090-8258

Journal article

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