20 results found
Trotta F, Wang GJ, Guo Z, et al., 2022, A Comparative Techno-Economic and Lifecycle Analysis of Biomass-Derived Anode Materials for Lithium- and Sodium-Ion Batteries, ADVANCED SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS, ISSN: 2366-7486
Lander L, Cleaver T, Rajaeifar MA, et al., 2021, Financial viability of electric vehicle lithium-ion battery recycling, ISCIENCE, Vol: 24
Lander L, Kallitsis E, Hales A, et al., 2021, Cost and carbon footprint reduction of electric vehicle lithium-ion batteries through efficient thermal management, Applied Energy, Vol: 289, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 0306-2619
Electric vehicles using lithium-ion batteries are currently the most promising technology to decarbonise the transport sector from fossil-fuels. It is thus imperative to reduce battery life cycle costs and greenhouse gas emissions to make this transition both economically and environmentally beneficial. In this study, it is shown that battery lifetime extension through effective thermal management significantly decreases the battery life cycle cost and carbon footprint. The battery lifetime simulated for each thermal management system is implemented in techno-economic and life cycle assessment models to calculate the life cycle costs and carbon footprint for the production and use phase of an electric vehicles. It is demonstrated that by optimising the battery thermal management system, the battery life cycle cost and carbon footprint can be reduced by 27% (from 0.22 $·km−1 for air cooling to 0.16 $·km−1 for surface cooling) and 25% (from 0.141 kg CO2 eq·km−1 to 0.104 kg CO2 eq·km−1), respectively. Moreover, the importance of cell design for cost and environmental impact are revealed and an improved cell design is proposed, which reduces the carbon footprint and life cycle cost by 35% to 0.0913 kg CO2 eq·km−1 and 40% to 0.133 $·km−1, respectively, compared with conventional cell designs combined with air cooling systems.
Chitre A, Freake D, Lander L, et al., 2020, Towards a More Sustainable Lithium-Ion Battery Future: Recycling LIBs from Electric Vehicles, BATTERIES & SUPERCAPS, Vol: 3, Pages: 1124-1125
Chitre A, Freake D, Lander L, et al., 2020, Towards a more sustainable lithium-ion battery future: recycling LIBs from eectric vehicles, Batteries & Supercaps, Vol: 3, Pages: 1126-1136, ISSN: 2566-6223
With the number of electric vehicles (EVs) projected to increase 25-fold by 2030, effective recycling processes need to be developed to conserve the critical raw materials (in particular, cobalt and lithium) used to make lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Industrial recycling of LIBs is underdeveloped due to two main reasons: i) complex and particularly variable cathodic chemistries; ii) physically different shapes and sizes of battery packs which are not designed for easy disassembly. Present processes use pyrometallurgical and/or hydrometallurgical recycling methods, with the latter being widely seen as the future in view of changing battery chemistries to lower cobalt contents. As such, this paper focuses on improvements, including sorting of batteries and using alternative water-soluble binders, to enhance LIB material recovery from hydrometallurgical processes. This review promotes the adoption of a holistic design approach for LIBs that includes ease of end-of-life recyclability.
Ko S, Yamada Y, Lander L, et al., 2020, Stability of conductive carbon additives in 5 V-class Li-ion batteries, Carbon, Vol: 158, Pages: 766-771, ISSN: 0008-6223
A high oxidation stability of electrode components, especially of conductive carbon additives, is of importance in order to realize high-voltage (5 V-class) Li-ion batteries with higher energy densities. In this work, the oxidation stability of acetylene blacks is studied by analyzing the capacity (i.e., quantity of electricity) arising from their oxidation reactions via chronopotentiometry up to 5.5 V (vs. Li+/Li) in a highly concentrated electrolyte with high oxidation stability. Annealing at 1200 °C can improve their oxidation stability below 4.8 V by reducing the amounts of surface active sites. However, further raising the annealing temperature significantly degrades the stability at higher potentials (\textgreater4.8 V) due to the electrochemical anion intercalation induced by progressive graphitization. This work suggests that, for 5 V-class batteries, conductive carbon additives should be optimized to simultaneously minimize surface active sites and excessive graphitization.
Ma Z, Lander L, Nishimura S-I, et al., 2019, HPO32- as a building unit for sodium-ion battery cathodes: 3.1 V operation of Na2-xFe(HPO3)2 (0 < x < 1)., Chem Commun (Camb), Vol: 55, Pages: 14155-14157
We report Na2Fe(HPO3)2 as the first HPO32--based iron(ii) cathode material for sodium-ion batteries, which delivers a reversible capacity of approximately 100 mA h g-1 at an average reaction voltage of 3.1 V. In situ X-ray diffraction and ex situ57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy clarify reversible (de)sodiation associated with the Fe3+/Fe2+ redox reaction.
Ma Z, Lander L, Nishimura S-I, et al., 2019, Synthesis, crystal structure and possible proton conduction of Fe(H2PO4)2F, Solid State Ionics, Vol: 338, Pages: 134-137, ISSN: 0167-2738
A new iron fluorophosphate compound, Fe(H2PO4)2F, was synthesized by a solvent-less method at low temperatures. Its structure was determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction. Fe(H2PO4)2F was found to have a 3-dimensional structure built up by parallel chains of corner-sharing octahedra. This novel compound crystallizes in a tetragonal I4/mcm space group with the following lattice parameters: a = b = 9.01870(10) Å and c = 7.8058(2) Å. Further characterization of the material was conducted by TGA and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Proton conductivity measurements under dry condition revealed activation energies of Ea = 0.43 eV (along c-axis) and Ea = 0.41 eV (along a-axis) with corresponding room-temperature conductivities 2.6 × 10−7 S cm−1 and 5.8 × 10−8 S cm−1.
Watanabe E, Zhao W, Sugahara A, et al., 2019, Redox-Driven Spin Transition in a Layered Battery Cathode Material, CHEMISTRY OF MATERIALS, Vol: 31, Pages: 2358-2365, ISSN: 0897-4756
Lander L, Tarascon J-M, Yamada A, 2018, Sulfate-based Cathode Materials for Li- and Na-ion Batteries, The Chemical Record, Vol: 0, ISSN: 1528-0691
Electrochemical energy storage via Li-ion batteries has changed modern life drastically and has enabled technologies such as portable electronic devices, electric vehicles and stationary grid storage. However, with the steadfast technological evolution and increasing energy demands, batteries need to be constantly improved to meet the needs of our society. Furthermore, increasing concerns are raised regarding sustainability, availability of raw materials and cost. Therefore, extensive research efforts have been focused on the development of new battery types leading to the emergence of the Na-ion technology and the discovery of a myriad of new materials. In this context, polyanions became a prominent alternative to layered oxides. A large variety of polyanionic frameworks has been studied in the past years including phosphates, silicates and borates, but it was especially sulfates, which attracted a lot of attention due to their elevated operating voltages. The here presented article gives an overview of the exhaustive research on sulfate-based cathode materials for Li- and Na-ion batteries discussing recent findings and future perspectives.
Prabeer B, Laura L, Shinichi N, et al., 2018, Polyanionic Insertion Materials for Sodium‐Ion Batteries, Advanced Energy Materials, Vol: 0, Pages: 1703055-1703055, ISSN: 1614-6832
Abstract Efficient energy storage is a driving factor propelling myriads of mobile electronics, electric vehicles and stationary electric grid storage. Li?ion batteries have realized these goals in a commercially viable manner with ever increasing penetration to different technology sectors across the globe. While these electronic devices are more evident and appealing to consumers, there has been a growing concern for micro?to?mega grid storage systems. Overall, the modern world demands energy in ?terawatt? scale. It needs a multipronged approach with alternate technologies complementing the Li?ion batteries. One such viable approach is to design and implement Na?ion batteries. With the uniform geographical distribution, abundance and materials economy of Na resources as well as a striking operational similarity to Li?ion batteries, Na?ion batteries have commercial potential, particularly for applications unrestricted by volumetric/gravimetric energy density. In pursuit of the development of Na?ion batteries, suites of oxides, sulfides, fluorides, and polyanionic materials have been reported in addition to several organic complexes. This article gives an overview of recent progress in polyanionic framework compounds, with emphasis on high?voltage candidates consisting of earth abundant elements. Guided by ternary phase diagrams, recently discovered and potential cathode candidates will be discussed gauging their performance, current status, and future perspectives.
Benoit MDB, Shinichi N, Eriko W, et al., 2018, Highly Reversible Oxygen‐Redox Chemistry at 4.1 V in Na4/7−x[□1/7Mn6/7]O2 (□: Mn Vacancy), Advanced Energy Materials, Vol: 0, Pages: 1800409-1800409, ISSN: 1614-6832
Abstract Increasing the energy density of rechargeable batteries is of paramount importance toward achieving a sustainable society. The present limitation of the energy density is owing to the small capacity of cathode materials, in which the (de)intercalation of ions is charge?compensated by transition?metal redox reactions. Although additional oxygen?redox reactions of oxide cathodes have been recognized as an effective way to overcome this capacity limit, irreversible structural changes that occur during charge/discharge cause voltage drops and cycle degradation. Here, a highly reversible oxygen?redox capacity of Na2Mn3O7 that possesses inherent Mn vacancies in a layered structure is found. The cross validation of theoretical predictions and experimental observations demonstrates that the nonbonding 2p orbitals of oxygens neighboring the Mn vacancies contribute to the oxygen?redox capacity without making the Mn?O bond labile, highlighting the critical role of transition?metal vacancies for the design of reversible oxygen?redox cathodes.
Chung S-C, Ming J, Lander L, et al., 2018, Rhombohedral NASICON-type NaxFe2(SO4)3 for sodium ion batteries: comparison with phosphate and alluaudite phases, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol: 6, Pages: 3919-3925, ISSN: 2050-7496
Sulfate has attracted considerable interest as an anion for cathode materials in lithium and sodium ion batteries because they induce high voltages. Herein, Fe2(SO4)3 in the rhombohedral NASICON phase was examined as a Na-ion cathode. Electrochemical, structural, and theoretical methods were employed. Starting from the charged state, Fe2(SO4)3 can be discharged to near theoretical capacity under very slow GITT experimental conditions. However, the available capacity rapidly dropped under high current. First-principles calculations found that one of the alkali metal sites was metastable and a high diffusion barrier of 0.9 eV for Na+ ion migration was found. The NASICON-type structure, with its open framework, is generally considered a good ionic conductor. However, the small size of SO42− anions limit the site availability and the mobility of Na+ ions in the NASICON phase of Fe2(SO4)3, which accounted for their inferior properties compared with the recently discovered alluaudite polymorph.
Lander L, Rousse G, Batuk D, et al., 2017, Synthesis, Structure, and Electrochemical Properties of K-Based Sulfates K2M2(SO4)(3) with M = Fe and Cu, INORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Vol: 56, Pages: 2013-2021, ISSN: 0020-1669
Lander L, Reynaud M, Rodríguez-Carvajal J, et al., 2016, Magnetic Structures of Orthorhombic Li2M(SO4)2 (M = Co, Fe) and LixFe(SO4)2 (x = 1, 1.5) Phases, Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN: 0020-1669
We report herein on the magnetic properties and structures of orthorhombic Li2M(SO4)2 (M = Co, Fe) and their oxidized phases LixFe(SO4)2 (x = 1, 1.5), which were previously studied as potential cathode materials for Li-ion batteries. The particular structure of these orthorhombic compounds (space group Pbca) consists of a three-dimensional network of isolated MO6 octahedra enabling solely super-super-exchange interactions between transition metals. We studied the magnetic properties of these phases via temperature-dependent susceptibility measurements and applied neutron powder diffraction experiments to solve their magnetic structures. All compounds present an antiferromagnetic long-range ordering of the magnetic spins below their Néel temperature. Their magnetic structures are collinear and follow a spin sequence (+ + – – – – + +), with the time reversal associated with the inversion center, a characteristic necessary for a linear magneto-electric effect. We found that the orientation of the magnetic moments varies with the nature of M. While Li2Co(SO4)2 and Li1Fe(SO4)2 adopt the magnetic space group Pb′c′a′, the magnetic space group for Li2Fe(SO4)2 and Li1.5Fe(SO4)2 is P1121′/a, which might hint for a possible monoclinic distortion of their nuclear structure. Moreover we compared the orthorhombic phases to their monoclinic counterparts as well as to the isostructural orthorhombic Li2Ni(SO4)2 compound. Finally, we show that this possible magneto-electric feature is driven by the topology of the magnetic interactions.
Shivaramaiah R, Lander L, Nagabhushana GP, et al., 2016, Thermodynamic Properties of Polymorphs of Fluorosulfate Based Cathode Materials with Exchangeable Potassium Ions, ChemPhysChem, Pages: n/a-n/a, ISSN: 1439-7641
FeSO4F-based frameworks have recently emerged as attractive candidates for alkali insertion electrodes. Mainly owing to their rich crystal chemistry, they offer a variety of new host structures with different electrochemical performances and physical properties. In this paper we report the thermodynamic stability of two such K-based “FeSO4F” host structures based on direct solution calorimetric measurements. KFeSO4F has been reported to crystallize in two different polymorphic modifications—monoclinic and orthorhombic. The obtained enthalpies of formation from binary components (KF plus FeSO4) are negative for both polymorphs, indicating that they are thermodynamically stable at room temperature, which is very promising for the future exploration of sulfate based cathode materials. Our measurements show that the low-temperature monoclinic polymorph is enthalpically more stable than the orthorhombic phase by ≈10 kJ mol−1, which is consistent with the preferential formation of monoclinic KFeSO4F at low temperature. Furthermore, observed phase transformations and difficulties in the synthesis process can be explained based on the obtained calorimetric results. The KMnSO4F orthorhombic phase is more stable than both polymorphs of KFeSO4F.
Lander L, Reynaud M, Carrasco J, et al., 2016, Unveiling the electrochemical mechanisms of the Li2Fe(SO4)2 polymorphs by neutron diffraction and density functional theory calculations, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.
Lander L, Rousse G, Abakumov AM, et al., 2015, Structural, electrochemical and magnetic properties of a novel KFeSO4F polymorph, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol: 3, Pages: 19754-19764, ISSN: 2050-7496
In the quest for sustainable and low-cost positive electrode materials for Li-ion batteries, we discovered, as reported herein, a new low temperature polymorph of KFeSO4F. Contrary to the high temperature phase crystallizing in a KTiOPO4-like structure, this new phase adopts a complex layer-like structure built on FeO4F2 octahedra and SO4 tetrahedra, with potassium cations located in between the layers, as solved using neutron and synchrotron diffraction experiments coupled with electron diffraction. The detailed analysis of the structure reveals an alternation of edge- and corner-shared FeO4F2 octahedra leading to a large monoclinic cell of 1771.774(7) Å3. The potassium atoms are mobile within the structure as deduced by ionic conductivity measurements and confirmed by the bond valence energy landscape approach thus enabling a partial electrochemical removal of K+ and uptake of Li+ at an average potential of 3.7 V vs. Li+/Li0. Finally, neutron diffraction experiments coupled with SQUID measurements reveal a long range antiferromagnetic ordering of the Fe2+ magnetic moments below 22 K with a possible magnetoelectric behavior.
Radha AV, Lander L, Rousse G, et al., 2015, Thermodynamic stability and correlation with synthesis conditions, structure and phase transformations in orthorhombic and monoclinic Li2M(SO4)2 (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) polymorphs, J. Mater. Chem. A, Vol: 3, Pages: 2601-2608
Lander L, Reynaud M, Rousse G, et al., 2014, Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of the Orthorhombic Li2Fe(SO4)2 Polymorph for Li-Ion Batteries, Chemistry of Materials, Vol: 26, Pages: 4178-4189, ISSN: 0897-4756
To enhance the safety, cost, and energy density of Li-ion batteries, significant research efforts have been devoted to the search for new positive electrode materials that exhibit high redox potentials and are composed of low-cost, earth-abundant elements. Sulfate chemistry has yielded promising results for iron-based polyanionic electrode materials using the FeIII+/FeII+ redox couple, including the recent discovery of a monoclinic marinite Li2Fe(SO4)2 phase (3.83 V vs Li+/Li0). Here, we report the ball-milling synthesis and electrochemical properties of a new orthorhombic polymorph of Li2Fe(SO4)2, which reversibly reacts with lithium through a two-step redox process (3.73 and 3.85 V vs Li+/Li0) with an overall sustained capacity of about 90 mAh/g. Using similar synthesis conditions, the cobalt-, zinc-, magnesium-, and nickel-based orthorhombic analogues were also obtained, though no electrochemical activity was observed for these phases. Overall, our results demonstrate that polymorphism can play a crucial role in the search for new battery electrode materials and emphasize the need to understand and master synthetic control.
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