Imperial College London

Dr Lorenzo Matteini

Faculty of Natural SciencesDepartment of Physics

Lecturer in Space Plasma Physics
 
 
 
//

Contact

 

l.matteini

 
 
//

Location

 

Blackett LaboratorySouth Kensington Campus

//

Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

69 results found

Laker R, Horbury TS, Bale SD, Matteini L, Woolley T, Woodham LD, Stawarz JE, Davies EE, Eastwood JP, Owens MJ, O'Brien H, Evans V, Angelini V, Richter I, Heyner D, Owen CJ, Louarn P, Fedorov Aet al., 2021, Multi-spacecraft study of the solar wind at solar minimum: Dependence on latitude and transient outflows, ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS, Vol: 652, ISSN: 0004-6361

Journal article

Woolley T, Matteini L, McManus MD, Berčič L, Badman ST, Woodham LD, Horbury TS, Bale SD, Laker R, Stawarz JE, Larson DEet al., 2021, Plasma Properties, Switchback Patches and Low α-Particle Abundance in Slow Alfvénic Coronal Hole Wind at 0.13 au, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN: 0035-8711

<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title> <jats:p>The Parker Solar Probe (PSP) mission presents a unique opportunity to study the near-Sun solar wind closer than any previous spacecraft. During its fourth and fifth solar encounters, PSP had the same orbital trajectory, meaning that solar wind was measured at the same latitudes and radial distances. We identify two streams measured at the same heliocentric distance (∼0.13au) and latitude (∼-3.5○) across these encounters to reduce spatial evolution effects. By comparing the plasma of each stream, we confirm that they are not dominated by variable transient events, despite PSP’s proximity to the heliospheric current sheet. Both streams are consistent with a previous slow Alfvénic solar wind study once radial effects are considered, and appear to originate at the Southern polar coronal hole boundary. We also show that the switchback properties are not distinctly different between these two streams. Low α-particle abundance (∼ 0.6 %) is observed in the encounter 5 stream, suggesting that some physical mechanism must act on coronal hole boundary wind to cause α-particle depletion. Possible explanations for our observations are discussed, but it remains unclear whether the depletion occurs during the release or the acceleration of the wind. Using a flux tube argument, we note that an α-particle abundance of ∼ 0.6 % in this low velocity wind could correspond to an abundance of ∼ 0.9 % at 1 au. Finally, as the two streams roughly correspond to the spatial extent of a switchback patch, we suggest that patches are distinct features of coronal hole wind.</jats:p>

Journal article

Hellinger P, Papini E, Verdini A, Landi S, Franci L, Matteini L, Montagud-Camps Vet al., 2021, Spectral Transfer and Karman-Howarth-Monin Equations for Compressible Hall Magnetohydrodynamics, ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, Vol: 917, ISSN: 0004-637X

Journal article

Woodham L, Horbury T, Matteini L, Woolley T, Laker R, Bale S, Nicolaou G, Stawarz J, Stansby D, Hietala H, Larson D, Livi R, Verniero J, McManus M, Kasper J, Korreck K, Raouafi N, Moncuquet M, Pulupa Met al., 2021, Enhanced proton parallel temperature inside patches of switchbacks in the inner heliosphere, Astronomy and Astrophysics: a European journal, Vol: 650, Pages: 1-7, ISSN: 0004-6361

Context. Switchbacks are discrete angular deflections in the solar wind magnetic field that have been observed throughout the helio-sphere. Recent observations by Parker Solar Probe(PSP) have revealed the presence of patches of switchbacks on the scale of hours to days, separated by ‘quieter’ radial fields. Aims. We aim to further diagnose the origin of these patches using measurements of proton temperature anisotropy that can illuminate possible links to formation processes in the solar corona. Methods. We fit 3D bi-Maxwellian functions to the core of proton velocity distributions measured by the SPAN-Ai instrument onboard PSP to obtain the proton parallel, Tp,‖, and perpendicular, Tp,⊥, temperature. Results. We show that the presence of patches is highlighted by a transverse deflection in the flow and magnetic field away from the radial direction. These deflections are correlated with enhancements in Tp,‖, while Tp,⊥remains relatively constant. Patches sometimes exhibit small proton and electron density enhancements. Conclusions. We interpret that patches are not simply a group of switchbacks, but rather switchbacks are embedded within a larger-scale structure identified by enhanced Tp,‖that is distinct from the surrounding solar wind. We suggest that these observations are consistent with formation by reconnection-associated mechanisms in the corona.

Journal article

Laker R, Horbury TS, Bale SD, Matteini L, Woolley T, Woodham LD, Badman ST, Pulupa M, Kasper JC, Stevens M, Case AW, Korreck KEet al., 2021, Statistical analysis of orientation, shape, and size of solar wind switchbacks, Astronomy & Astrophysics, Vol: 650, Pages: 1-7, ISSN: 0004-6361

One of the main discoveries from the first two orbits of Parker Solar Probe(PSP) was the presence of magnetic switchbacks, whose deflections dominated themagnetic field measurements. Determining their shape and size could provideevidence of their origin, which is still unclear. Previous work with a singlesolar wind stream has indicated that these are long, thin structures althoughthe direction of their major axis could not be determined. We investigate ifthis long, thin nature extends to other solar wind streams, while determiningthe direction along which the switchbacks within a stream were aligned. We tryto understand how the size and orientation of the switchbacks, along with theflow velocity and spacecraft trajectory, combine to produce the observedstructure durations for past and future orbits. We searched for the alignmentdirection that produced a combination of a spacecraft cutting direction andswitchback duration that was most consistent with long, thin structures. Theexpected form of a long, thin structure was fitted to the results of the bestalignment direction, which determined the width and aspect ratio of theswitchbacks for that stream. The switchbacks had a mean width of $50,000 \,\rm{km}$, with an aspect ratio of the order of $10$. We find that switchbacksare not aligned along the background flow direction, but instead aligned alongthe local Parker spiral, perhaps suggesting that they propagate along themagnetic field. Since the observed switchback duration depends on how thespacecraft cuts through the structure, the duration alone cannot be used todetermine the size or influence of an individual event. For future PSP orbits,a larger spacecraft transverse component combined with more radially alignedswitchbacks will lead to long duration switchbacks becoming less common.

Journal article

Gonzalez CA, Tenerani A, Matteini L, Hellinger P, Velli Met al., 2021, Proton Energization by Phase Steepening of Parallel-propagating Alfvenic Fluctuations, ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS, Vol: 914, ISSN: 2041-8205

Journal article

Martinovic MM, Klein KG, Huang J, Chandran BDG, Kasper JC, Lichko E, Bowen T, Chen CHK, Matteini L, Stevens M, Case AW, Bale SDet al., 2021, Multiscale Solar Wind Turbulence Properties inside and near Switchbacks Measured by the Parker Solar Probe, ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, Vol: 912, ISSN: 0004-637X

Journal article

Hellinger P, Verdini A, Landi S, Papini E, Franci L, Matteini Let al., 2021, Scale dependence and cross-scale transfer of kinetic energy in compressible hydrodynamic turbulence at moderate Reynolds numbers, PHYSICAL REVIEW FLUIDS, Vol: 6, ISSN: 2469-990X

Journal article

Stawarz JE, Matteini L, Parashar TN, Franci L, Eastwood JP, Gonzalez CA, Gingell IL, Burch JL, Ergun RE, Ahmadi N, Giles BL, Gershman DJ, Le Contel O, Lindqvist P, Russell CT, Strangeway RJ, Torbert RBet al., 2021, Comparative analysis of the various generalized Ohm's law terms in magnetosheath turbulence as observed by magnetospheric multiscale, Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol: 126, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 2169-9380

Decomposing the electric field (E) into the contributions from generalized Ohm's law provides key insight into both nonlinear and dissipative dynamics across the full range of scales within a plasma. Using high‐resolution, multi‐spacecraft measurements of three intervals in Earth's magnetosheath from the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission, the influence of the magnetohydrodynamic, Hall, electron pressure, and electron inertia terms from Ohm's law, as well as the impact of a finite electron mass, on the turbulent E spectrum are examined observationally for the first time. The magnetohydrodynamic, Hall, and electron pressure terms are the dominant contributions to E over the accessible length scales, which extend to scales smaller than the electron inertial length at the greatest extent, with the Hall and electron pressure terms dominating at sub‐ion scales. The strength of the non‐ideal electron pressure contribution is stronger than expected from linear kinetic Alfvén waves and a partial anti‐alignment with the Hall electric field is present, linked to the relative importance of electron diamagnetic currents in the turbulence. The relative contribution of linear and nonlinear electric fields scale with the turbulent fluctuation amplitude, with nonlinear contributions playing the dominant role in shaping E for the intervals examined in this study. Overall, the sum of the Ohm's law terms and measured E agree to within ∼ 20% across the observable scales. These results both confirm general expectations about the behavior of E in turbulent plasmas and highlight features that should be explored further theoretically.

Journal article

Woolley T, Matteini L, Horbury TS, Bale SD, Woodham LD, Laker R, Alterman BL, Bonnell JW, Case AW, Kasper JC, Klein KG, Martinović MM, Stevens Met al., 2020, Proton core behaviour inside magnetic field switchbacks, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol: 498, Pages: 5524-5531, ISSN: 0035-8711

During Parker Solar Probe’s first two orbits there are widespread observations of rapid magnetic field reversals known as switchbacks. These switchbacks are extensively found in the near-Sun solar wind, appear to occur in patches, and have possible links to various phenomena such as magnetic reconnection near the solar surface. As switchbacks are associated with faster plasma flows, we questioned whether they are hotter than the background plasma and whether the microphysics inside a switchback is different to its surroundings. We have studied the reduced distribution functions from the Solar Probe Cup instrument and considered time periods with markedly large angular deflections, to compare parallel temperatures inside and outside switchbacks. We have shown that the reduced distribution functions inside switchbacks are consistent with a rigid velocity space rotation of the background plasma. As such, we conclude that the proton core parallel temperature is very similar inside and outside of switchbacks, implying that a T-V relationship does not hold for the proton core parallel temperature inside magnetic field switchbacks. We further conclude that switchbacks are consistent with Alfvénic pulses travelling along open magnetic field lines. The origin of these pulses, however, remains unknown. We also found that there is no obvious link between radial Poynting flux and kinetic energy enhancements suggesting that the radial Poynting flux is not important for the dynamics of switchbacks.

Journal article

Maksimovic M, Bale SD, Chust T, Khotyaintsev Y, Krasnoselskikh V, Kretzschmar M, Plettemeier D, Rucker HO, Soucek J, Steller M, Stverak S, Travnicek P, Vaivads A, Chaintreuil S, Dekkali M, Alexandrova O, Astier P-A, Barbary G, Berard D, Bonnin X, Boughedada K, Cecconi B, Chapron F, Chariet M, Collin C, de Conchy Y, Dias D, Gueguen L, Lamy L, Leray V, Lion S, Malac-Allain LR, Matteini L, Nguyen QN, Pantellini F, Parisot J, Plasson P, Thijs S, Vecchio A, Fratter I, Bellouard E, Lorfevre E, Danto P, Julien S, Guilhem E, Fiachetti C, Sanisidro J, Laffaye C, Gonzalez F, Pontet B, Queruel N, Jannet G, Fergeau P, Brochot J-Y, Cassam-Chenai G, de Wit TD, Timofeeva M, Vincent T, Agrapart C, Delory GT, Turin P, Jeandet A, Leroy P, Pellion J-C, Bouzid V, Katra B, Piberne R, Recart W, Santolik O, Kolmasova I, Krupar V, Kruparova O, Pisa D, Uhlir L, Lan R, Base J, Ahlen L, Andre M, Bylander L, Cripps V, Cully C, Eriksson A, Jansson S-E, Johansson EPG, Karlsson T, Puccio W, Brinek J, Oettacher H, Panchenko M, Berthomier M, Goetz K, Hellinger P, Horbury TS, Issautier K, Kontar E, Krucker S, Le Contel O, Louarn P, Martinovic M, Owen CJ, Retino A, Rodriguez-Pacheco J, Sahraoui F, Wimmer-Schweingruber RF, Zaslavsky A, Zouganelis Iet al., 2020, The Solar Orbiter Radio and Plasma Waves (RPW) instrument, ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS, Vol: 642, ISSN: 0004-6361

Journal article

Matteini L, Franci L, Alexandrova O, Lacombe C, Landi S, Hellinger P, Papini E, Verdini Aet al., 2020, Magnetic field turbulence in the solar wind at sub-ion scales: in situ observations and numerical simulations, Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences, ISSN: 2296-987X

We investigate the transition of the solar wind turbulent cascade from MHD tosub-ion range by means of a detail comparison between in situ observations andhybrid numerical simulations. In particular we focus on the properties of themagnetic field and its component anisotropy in Cluster measurements and hybrid2D simulations. First, we address the angular distribution of wave-vectors inthe kinetic range between ion and electron scales by studying the varianceanisotropy of the magnetic field components. When taking into account thesingle-direction sampling performed by spacecraft in the solar wind, the mainproperties of the fluctuations observed in situ are also recovered in ournumerical description. This result confirms that solar wind turbulence in thesub-ion range is characterized by a quasi-2D gyrotropic distribution ofk-vectors around the mean field. We then consider the magnetic compressibilityassociated with the turbulent cascade and its evolution from large-MHD tosub-ion scales. The ratio of field-aligned to perpendicular fluctuations,typically low in the MHD inertial range, increases significantly when crossingion scales and its value in the sub-ion range is a function of the total plasmabeta only, as expected from theoretical predictions, with higher magneticcompressibility for higher beta. Moreover, we observe that this increase has agradual trend from low to high beta values in the in situ data; this behaviouris well captured by the numerical simulations. The level of magnetic fieldcompressibility that is observed in situ and in the simulations is in fairlygood agreement with theoretical predictions, especially at high beta,suggesting that in the kinetic range explored the turbulence is supported bylow-frequency and highly-oblique fluctuations in pressure balance, like kineticAlfv\'en waves or other slowly evolving coherent structures.

Journal article

Franci L, Stawarz JE, Papini E, Hellinger P, Nakamura T, Burgess D, Landi S, Verdini A, Matteini L, Ergun R, Contel OL, Lindqvist P-Aet al., 2020, Modeling MMS observations at the Earth's magnetopause with hybrid simulations of Alfvénic turbulence, The Astrophysical Journal, Vol: 898, ISSN: 0004-637X

Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) observations of plasma turbulence generated by a Kelvin–Helmholtz (KH) event at the Earth's magnetopause are compared with a high-resolution two-dimensional (2D) hybrid direct numerical simulation of decaying plasma turbulence driven by large-scale balanced Alfvénic fluctuations. The simulation, set up with four observation-driven physical parameters (ion and electron betas, turbulence strength, and injection scale), exhibits a quantitative agreement on the spectral, intermittency, and cascade-rate properties with in situ observations, despite the different driving mechanisms. Such agreement demonstrates a certain universality of the turbulent cascade from magnetohydrodynamic to sub-ion scales, whose properties are mainly determined by the selected parameters, also indicating that the KH instability-driven turbulence has a quasi-2D nature. The fact that our results are compatible with the validity of the Taylor hypothesis, in the whole range of scales investigated numerically, suggests that the fluctuations at sub-ion scales might have predominantly low frequencies. This would be consistent with a kinetic Alfvén wave-like nature and/or with the presence of quasi-static structures. Finally, the third-order structure function analysis indicates that the cascade rate of the turbulence generated by a KH event at the magnetopause is an order of magnitude larger than in the ambient magnetosheath.

Journal article

Bandyopadhyay R, Sorriso-Valvo L, Chasapis A, Hellinger P, Matthaeus WH, Verdini A, Landi S, Franci L, Matteini L, Giles BL, Gershman DJ, Moore TE, Pollock CJ, Russell CT, Strangeway RJ, Torbert RB, Burch JLet al., 2020, In situ observation of hall magnetohydrodynamic cascade in space plasma, Physical Review Letters, Vol: 124, Pages: 225101 – 1-225101 – 7, ISSN: 0031-9007

We present estimates of the turbulent energy-cascade rate derived from a Hall-magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) third-order law. We compute the contribution from the Hall term and the MHD term to the energy flux. Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) data accumulated in the magnetosheath and the solar wind are compared with previously established simulation results. Consistent with the simulations, we find that at large (MHD) scales, the MMS observations exhibit a clear inertial range dominated by the MHD flux. In the subion range, the cascade continues at a diminished level via the Hall term, and the change becomes more pronounced as the plasma beta increases. Additionally, the MHD contribution to interscale energy transfer remains important at smaller scales than previously thought. Possible reasons are offered for this unanticipated result.

Journal article

Bercic L, Larson D, Whittlesey P, Maksimovic M, Badman ST, Landi S, Matteini L, Bale SD, Bonnell JW, Case AW, de Wit TD, Goetz K, Harvey PR, Kasper JC, Korreck KE, Livi R, MacDowall RJ, Malaspina DM, Pulupa M, Stevens MLet al., 2020, Coronal electron temperature inferred from the strahl electrons in the inner heliosphere: parker solar probe and helios observations, The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics, Vol: 892, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 0004-637X

The shape of the electron velocity distribution function plays an important role in the dynamics of the solar wind acceleration. Electrons are normally modeled with three components, the core, the halo, and the strahl. We investigate how well the fast strahl electrons in the inner heliosphere preserve the information about the coronal electron temperature at their origin. We analyzed the data obtained by two missions, Helios, spanning the distances between 65 and 215 R S, and Parker Solar Probe (PSP), reaching down to 35 R S during its first two orbits around the Sun. The electron strahl was characterized with two parameters: pitch-angle width (PAW) and the strahl parallel temperature (T s∥). PSP observations confirm the already reported dependence of strahl PAW on core parallel plasma beta (${\beta }_{\mathrm{ec}\parallel }$). Most of the strahl measured by PSP appear narrow with PAW reaching down to 30°. The portion of the strahl velocity distribution function aligned with the magnetic field is for the measured energy range well described by a Maxwellian distribution function. T s∥ was found to be anticorrelated with the solar wind velocity and independent of radial distance. These observations imply that T s∥ carries the information about the coronal electron temperature. The obtained values are in agreement with coronal temperatures measured using spectroscopy, and the inferred solar wind source regions during the first orbit of PSP agree with the predictions using a PFSS model.

Journal article

DAmicis R, Matteini L, Bruno R, Velli Met al., 2020, Large amplitude fluctuations in the alfvénic solar wind, Solar Physics, Vol: 295, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 0038-0938

Large amplitude fluctuations, often with characteristics reminiscent of large amplitude Alfvén waves propagating away from the Sun, are ubiquitous in the solar wind. Such features are most frequently found within fast solar wind streams and most often at solar minimum. The fluctuations found in slow solar wind streams usually have a smaller relative amplitude, are less Alfvénic in character and present more variability. However, intervals of slow wind displaying Alfvénic correlations have been recently identified in different solar cycle phases. In the present paper we report Alfvénic slow solar wind streams seen during the maximum of solar activity that are characterized not only by a very high correlation between velocity and magnetic field fluctuations (as required by outwardly propagating Alfvén modes) – comparable to that seen in fast wind streams – but also by higher amplitude relative fluctuations comparable to those seen in fast wind. Our results suggest that the Alfvénic slow wind has a different origin from the slow wind found near the boundary of coronal holes, where the amplitude of the Alfvénic fluctuations decreases together with decreasing the wind speed.

Journal article

Horbury T, Woolley T, Laker R, Matteini L, Eastwood J, Bale SD, Velli M, Chandran BDG, Phan T, Raouafi NE, Goetz K, Harvey PR, Pulupa M, Klein KG, De Wit TD, Kasper JC, Korreck KE, Case AW, Stevens ML, Whittlesey P, Larson D, MacDowall RJ, Malaspina DM, Livi Ret al., 2020, Sharp Alfvenic impulses in the near-Sun solar wind, The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics, Vol: 246, Pages: 1-8, ISSN: 0004-637X

Measurements of the near-Sun solar wind by Parker Solar Probe have revealed the presence of largenumbers of discrete Alfv ́enic impulses with an anti-Sunward sense of propagation. These are similarto those previously observed near 1 AU, in high speed streams over the Sun’s poles and at 60 solarradii. At 35 solar radii, however, they are typically shorter and sharper than seen elsewhere. Inaddition, these spikes occur in “patches” and there are also clear periods within the same stream whenthey do not occur; the timescale of these patches might be related to the rate at which the spacecraftmagnetic footpoint tracks across the coronal hole from which the plasma originated. While the velocityfluctuations associated with these spikes are typically under 100 km/s, due to the rather low Alfv ́enspeeds in the streams observed by the spacecraft to date, these are still associated with large angulardeflections of the magnetic field - and these deflections are not isotropic. These deflections do notappear to be related to the recently reported large scale, pro-rotation solar wind flow. Estimates ofthe size and shape of the spikes reveal high aspect ratio flow-aligned structures with a transverse scaleof≈104km. These events might be signatures of near-Sun impulsive reconnection events.

Journal article

Tenerani A, Velli M, Matteini L, Reville V, Shi C, Bale SD, Kasper JC, Bonnell JW, Case AW, de Wit TD, Goetz K, Harvey PR, Klein KG, Korreck K, Larson D, Livi R, MacDowall RJ, Malaspina DM, Pulupa M, Stevens M, Whittlesey Pet al., 2020, Magnetic field kinks and folds in the solar wind, Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol: 246, Pages: 1-7, ISSN: 0067-0049

Parker Solar Probe (PSP) observations during its first encounter at 35.7 R ⊙ have shown the presence of magnetic field lines that are strongly perturbed to the point that they produce local inversions of the radial magnetic field, known as switchbacks. Their counterparts in the solar wind velocity field are local enhancements in the radial speed, or jets, displaying (in all components) the velocity–magnetic field correlation typical of large amplitude Alfvén waves propagating away from the Sun. Switchbacks and radial jets have previously been observed over a wide range of heliocentric distances by Helios, Wind, and Ulysses, although they were prevalent in significantly faster streams than seen at PSP. Here we study via numerical magnetohydrodynamics simulations the evolution of such large amplitude Alfvénic fluctuations by including, in agreement with observations, both a radial magnetic field inversion and an initially constant total magnetic pressure. Despite the extremely large excursion of magnetic and velocity fields, switchbacks are seen to persist for up to hundreds of Alfvén crossing times before eventually decaying due to the parametric decay instability. Our results suggest that such switchback/jet configurations might indeed originate in the lower corona and survive out to PSP distances, provided the background solar wind is sufficiently calm, in the sense of not being pervaded by strong density fluctuations or other gradients, such as stream or magnetic field shears, that might destabilize or destroy them over shorter timescales.

Journal article

Stansby D, Matteini L, Horbury TS, Perrone D, D'Amicis R, Bercic Let al., 2020, The origin of slow Alfvenic solar wind at solar minimum, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol: 492, Pages: 39-44, ISSN: 0035-8711

Although the origins of slow solar wind are unclear, there is increasing evidence that at least some of it is released in a steady state on overexpanded coronal hole magnetic field lines. This type of slow wind has similar properties to the fast solar wind, including strongly Alfvénic fluctuations. In this study, a combination of proton, alpha particle, and electron measurements are used to investigate the kinetic properties of a single interval of slow Alfvénic wind at 0.35 au. It is shown that this slow Alfvénic interval is characterized by high alpha particle abundances, pronounced alpha–proton differential streaming, strong proton beams, and large alpha-to-proton temperature ratios. These are all features observed consistently in the fast solar wind, adding evidence that at least some Alfvénic slow solar wind also originates in coronal holes. Observed differences between speed, mass flux, and electron temperature between slow Alfvénic and fast winds are explained by differing magnetic field geometry in the lower corona.

Journal article

Nemecek Z, Durovcova T, Safrankova J, Nemec F, Matteini L, Stansby D, Janitzek N, Berger L, Wimmer-Schweingruber RFet al., 2020, What is the solar wind frame of reference?, The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics, Vol: 889, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 0004-637X

Various solar wind ion species move with different speeds and theoretical considerations as well as limited observations in a region close to the Sun show that heavy solar wind ions tend to flow faster than protons, at least in less-aged fast solar wind streams. The solar wind flow carries the frozen-in interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and this situation evokes three related questions: (i) what is the proper solar wind speed, (ii) is this speed equal to the speed of the dominant component, whatever that may be, and (iii) what is the speed of the magnetic field? We show that simple theoretical considerations based on the MHD approximation as well as on the dynamics of charged particles in electric and magnetic fields suggest that the IMF velocity of motion (de Hoffmann–Teller (HT) velocity) would be deliberated as the velocity appropriate for solar wind studies. Our analysis based on the Wind, Helios, ACE, and SOHO observations of differential streaming of solar wind populations shows that their energy is conserved in the HT frame. On the other hand, the noise and temporal resolution of the data do not allow us to decide whether the total momentum is also conserved in this frame.

Journal article

Perrone D, D'Amicis R, De Marco R, Matteini L, Stansby D, Bruno R, Horbury TSet al., 2020, Highly Alfvenic slow solar wind at 0.3 au during a solar minimum: Helios insights for Parker Solar Probe and Solar Orbiter, Astronomy and Astrophysics: a European journal, Vol: 633, Pages: 1-7, ISSN: 0004-6361

Alfvénic fluctuations in solar wind are an intrinsic property of fast streams, while slow intervals typically have a very low degree of Alfvénicity, with much more variable parameters. However, sometimes a slow wind can be highly Alfvénic. Here we compare three different regimes of solar wind, in terms of Alfvénic content and spectral properties, during a minimum phase of the solar activity and at 0.3 au. We show that fast and Alfvénic slow intervals share some common characteristics. This would suggest a similar solar origin, with the latter coming from over-expanded magnetic field lines, in agreement with observations at 1 au and at the maximum of the solar cycle. Due to the Alfvénic nature of the fluctuations in both fast and Alfvénic slow winds, we observe a well-defined correlation between the flow speed and the angle between magnetic field vector and radial direction. The high level of Alfvénicity is also responsible of intermittent enhancements (i.e. spikes), in plasma speed. Moreover, only for the Alfvénic intervals do we observe a break between the inertial range and large scales, on about the timescale typical of the Alfvénic fluctuations and where the magnetic fluctuations saturate, limited by the magnitude of the local magnetic field. In agreement with this, we recover a characteristic low-frequency 1/f scaling, as expected for fluctuations that are scale-independent. This work is directly relevant for the next solar missions, Parker Solar Probe and Solar Orbiter. One of the goals of these two missions is to study the origin and evolution of slow solar wind. In particular, Parker Solar Probe will give information about the Alfvénic slow wind in the unexplored region much closer to the Sun and Solar Orbiter will allow us to connect the observed physics to the source of the plasma.

Journal article

Hellinger P, Matteini L, Landi S, Franci L, Verdini A, Papini Eet al., 2019, Turbulence versus Fire-hose Instabilities: 3D Hybrid Expanding Box Simulations, The Astrophysical Journal, Vol: 883, Pages: 178-178

Journal article

Perrone D, Stansby D, Horbury TS, Matteini Let al., 2019, Thermodynamics of pure fast solar wind: radial evolution of the temperature-speed relationship in the inner heliosphere, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol: 488, Pages: 2380-2386, ISSN: 0035-8711

A strong correlation between speed and proton temperature has been observed, across many years, on hourly averaged measurements in the solar wind. Here, we show that this relationship is also observed at a smaller scale on intervals of a few days, within a single stream. Following the radial evolution of a well-defined stream of coronal-hole plasma, we show that the temperature–speed (T–V) relationship evolves with distance, implying that the T–V relationship at 1 au cannot be used as a proxy for that near the Sun. We suggest that this behaviour could be a combination of the anticorrelation between speed and flux-tube expansion factor near the Sun and the effect of a continuous heating experienced by the plasma during the expansion. We also show that the cooling index for the radial evolution of the temperature is a function of the speed. In particular, T⊥ in faster wind, although higher close to the Sun, decreases more quickly with respect to slower wind, suggesting that it has less time to interact with the mechanism(s) able to heat the plasma. Finally, we predict the expected T–V relationship in fast streams closer to the Sun with respect to the Helios observations, which Parker Solar Probe will explore in the near future.

Journal article

Matteini L, Stansby D, Horbury TS, Chen CHKet al., 2019, The rotation angle distribution underlying magnetic field fluctuations in the 1/f range of solar wind turbulent spectra, Il Nuovo Cimento C – Colloquia and Communications in Physics, Vol: 42, ISSN: 2037-4909

We discuss properties of large amplitude magnetic field fluctuationsduring fast Alfv ́eenic solar wind streams, focussing on the statistics of the rotationangle between consecutive magnetic field vector measurements for different scalesin the plasma. Since in the fast solar wind fluctuations preserve the modulus ofthe magnetic field to a good approximation, the tip of the magnetic field vector isobserved to move on a sphere of approximately constant radius|B|.Wethencom-pare statistics of solar wind measurements with that of a simple model of a randomwalk bounded on a spherical surface. The analogy consists in the fact that in bothsystems the geometrical constraint imposes a limiting amplitude at large separa-tions and thus introduces a break scale in the power spectrum of the fluctuations,leading to a shallower slope for scales where the fluctuations amplitude becomesscale-independent. However, while in the case of the random walk the saturationof the fluctuations occurs when the pattern becomes uniform on the sphere (flatdistribution of the cosine of the rotation angle), transitioning then to a white noiseregime, in the solar wind magnetic field fluctuations saturate in amplitude maintain-ing a preferential direction. We suggest that this behaviour is due to the presence ofthe background interplanetary magnetic field, which keeps some long-range memoryin the system also when the fluctuations becomes independent of the scale. Thislong-range correlation is a necessary ingredient in order to produce the 1/fspectrumobserved at large scales in the solar wind.

Journal article

Perrone D, Stansby D, Horbury T, Matteini Let al., 2019, Radial evolution of the solar wind in pure high-speed streams: HELIOS revised observations, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol: 483, Pages: 3730-3737, ISSN: 0035-8711

Spacecraft observations have shown that the proton temperature in the solar wind falls off with radial distance more slowly than expected for an adiabatic prediction. Usually, previous studies have been focused on the evolution of the solar-wind plasma by using the bulk speed as an order parameter to discriminate different regimes. In contrast, here, we study the radial evolution of pure and homogeneous fast streams (i.e. well-defined streams of coronal-hole plasma that maintain their identity during several solar rotations) by means of re-processed particle data, from the HELIOS satellites between 0.3 and 1 au. We have identified 16 intervals of unperturbed high-speed coronal-hole plasma, from three different sources and measured at different radial distances. The observations show that, for all three streams, (i) the proton density decreases as expected for a radially expanding plasma, unlike previous analysis that found a slower decrease; (ii) the magnetic field deviates from the Parker prediction, with the radial component decreasing more slowly and the tangential more quickly than expected; (iii) the double-adiabatic invariants are violated and an increase of entropy is observed; (iv) the collisional frequency is not constant, but decreases as the plasma travels away from the Sun. This work provides an insight into the heating problem in pure fast solar wind, fitting in the context of the next solar missions, and, especially for Parker Solar Probe, it enables us to predict the high-speed solar-wind environment much closer to the Sun.

Journal article

Stansby D, Perrone D, Matteini L, Horbury T, Salem Cet al., 2019, Alpha particle thermodynamics in the inner heliosphere fast solar wind, Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol: 623, ISSN: 0004-6361

Context. Plasma processes occurring in the corona and solar wind can be probed by studying the thermodynamic properties ofdifferent ion species. However, most in-situ observations of positive ions in the solar wind are taken at 1 AU, where information ontheir solar source properties may have been irreversibly erased.Aims. In this study we aimed to use the properties of alpha particles at heliocentric distances between 0.3 and 1 AU to study plasmaprocesses occurring at the points of observation, and to infer processes occurring inside 0.3 AU by comparing our results to previousremote sensing observations of the plasma closer to the Sun.Methods. We reprocessed the original Helios positive ion distribution functions, isolated the alpha particle population, and computedthe alpha particle number density, velocity, and magnetic field perpendicular and parallel temperatures. We then investigated the radialvariation of alpha particle temperatures in fast solar wind observed between 0.3 and 1 AU.Results. Between 0.3 and 1 AU alpha particles are heated in the magnetic field perpendicular direction, and cooled in the magneticfield parallel direction. Alpha particle evolution is bounded by the alpha firehose instability threshold, which provides one possiblemechanism to explain the observed parallel cooling and perpendicular heating. Closer to the Sun our observations suggest that thealpha particles undergo heating in the perpendicular direction, whilst the large magnetic field parallel temperatures observed at 0.3 AUmay be due to the combined effect of double adiabatic expansion and alpha particle deceleration inside 0.3 AU.

Journal article

DAmicis R, Matteini L, Bruno R, 2019, On slow solar wind with high Alfvénicity: from composition and microphysics to spectral properties, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol: 483, Pages: 4665-4677, ISSN: 0035-8711

Alfvénic fluctuations are very common features in the solar wind and are found especially within the main portion of fast-wind streams while the slow wind usually is less Alfvénic and more variable. In general, the fast and slow winds show many differences, which span from the large-scale structure to small-scale phenomena, including also a different turbulent behaviour. Recent studies, however, have shown that even the slow wind can sometimes be highly Alfvénic, with fluctuations as large as those of the fast wind. This study is devoted to presenting many facets of this Alfvénic slow solar wind, including for example the study of the source regions and their connection to coronal structures, large-scale properties, and microscale phenomena and also impact on the spectral features. This study will be conducted performing a comparative analysis with the typical slow wind and with the fast wind. It has been found that the fast wind and the Alfvénic slow wind share common characteristics, probably attributable to their similar solar origin, that is coronal-hole solar wind. Given these similarities, it is suggested that in the Alfvénic slow wind a major role is played by the superradial expansion responsible for the lower velocity. Relevant implications of these new findings for the upcoming Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus missions, and more in general for turbulence measurements close to the Sun, will be discussed.

Journal article

Stansby D, Horbury T, Matteini L, 2019, Diagnosing solar wind origins using in situ measurements in the inner heliosphere, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol: 482, Pages: 1706-1714, ISSN: 0035-8711

Robustly identifying the solar sources of individual packets of solar wind measured in interplanetary space remains an open problem. We set out to see if this problem is easier to tackle using solar wind measurements closer to the Sun than 1 au, where the mixing and dynamical interaction of different solar wind streams is reduced. Using measurements from the Helios mission, we examined how the proton core temperature anisotropy and cross-helicity varied with distance. At 0.3 au there are two clearly separated anisotropic and isotropic populations of solar wind that are not distinguishable at 1 au. The anisotropic population is always Alfvénic and spans a wide range of speeds. In contrast the isotropic population has slow speeds, and contains a mix of Alfvénic wind with constant mass fluxes and non-Alfvénic wind with large and highly varying mass fluxes. We split the in situ measurements into three categories according these observations, and suggest that these categories correspond to wind that originated in the core of coronal holes, in or near active regions or the edges of coronal holes, and as small transients form streamers or pseudo-streamers. Although our method by itself is simplistic, it provides a new tool that can be used in combination with other methods for identifying the sources of solar wind measured by Parker Solar Probe and Solar Orbiter.

Journal article

Papini E, Franci L, Landi S, Verdini A, Matteini L, Hellinger Pet al., 2019, Can Hall Magnetohydrodynamics Explain Plasma Turbulence at Sub-ion Scales?, ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, Vol: 870, ISSN: 0004-637X

Journal article

Matteini L, Stansby D, Horbury TS, Chen CHKet al., 2018, On the 1/f spectrum in the solar wind and its connection with magnetic compressibility, Letters of the Astrophysical Journal, Vol: 869, ISSN: 2041-8205

We discuss properties of Alfvénic fluctuations with large amplitude in plasmas characterized by low magnetic field compression. We note that in such systems power laws cannot develop with arbitrarily steep slopes at large scales, i.e., when $| \delta {\boldsymbol{B}}| $ becomes of the order of the background field $| {\boldsymbol{B}}| $. In such systems there is a scale l 0 at which the spectrum has to break due to the condition of weak compressibility. A very good example of this dynamics is offered by solar wind fluctuations in Alfvénic fast streams, characterized by the property of constant field magnitude. We show here that the distribution of $\delta B=| \delta {\boldsymbol{B}}| $ in the fast wind displays a strong cutoff at $\delta B/| {\boldsymbol{B}}| \lesssim 2$, as expected for fluctuations bounded on a sphere of radius $B=| {\boldsymbol{B}}| $. This is also associated with a saturation of the rms of the fluctuations at large scales and introduces a specific length l 0, above which the amplitude of the fluctuations becomes independent on the scale l. Consistent with that, the power spectrum at l > l 0 is characterized by a −1 spectral slope, as expected for fluctuations that are scale-independent. Moreover, we show that the spectral break between the 1/f and inertial range in solar wind spectra indeed corresponds to the scale l 0 at which $\langle \delta B/B\rangle \sim 1$. Such a simple model provides a possible alternative explanation of magnetic spectra observed in interplanetary space, also pointing out the inconsistency for a plasma to simultaneously maintain $| {\boldsymbol{B}}| \sim \mathrm{const}.$ at arbitrarily large scales and satisfy a Kolmogorov scaling.

Journal article

This data is extracted from the Web of Science and reproduced under a licence from Thomson Reuters. You may not copy or re-distribute this data in whole or in part without the written consent of the Science business of Thomson Reuters.

Request URL: http://wlsprd.imperial.ac.uk:80/respub/WEB-INF/jsp/search-html.jsp Request URI: /respub/WEB-INF/jsp/search-html.jsp Query String: respub-action=search.html&id=00689226&limit=30&person=true