22 results found
Hewitt R, Puttur F, Gaboriau D, et al., 2023, Lung extracellular matrix modulates KRT5+ basal cell activity in pulmonary fibrosis, Nature Communications, Vol: 14, ISSN: 2041-1723
Aberrant expansion of KRT5+ basal cells in the distal lung accompanies progressive alveolar epithelial cell loss and tissue remodelling during fibrogenesis in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The mechanisms determining activity of KRT5+ cells in IPF have not been delineated. Here, we reveal a potential mechanism by which KRT5+ cells migrate within the fibrotic lung, navigating regional differences in collagen topography. In vitro, KRT5+ cell migratory characteristics and expression of remodelling genes are modulated by extracellular matrix (ECM) composition and organisation. Mass spectrometry- based proteomics revealed compositional differences in ECM components secreted by primary human lung fibroblasts (HLF) from IPF patients compared to controls. Over-expression of ECM glycoprotein, Secreted Protein Acidic and Cysteine Rich (SPARC) in the IPF HLF matrix restricts KRT5+ cell migration in vitro. Together, our findings demonstrate how changes to the ECM in IPF directly influence KRT5+ cell behaviour and function contributing to remodelling events in the fibrotic niche.
Granell R, Curtin JA, Haider S, et al., 2023, A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of childhood wheezing phenotypes identifies ANXA1 as a susceptibility locus for persistent wheezing, eLife, Vol: 12, Pages: 1-57, ISSN: 2050-084X
BACKGROUND: Many genes associated with asthma explain only a fraction of its heritability. Most genome-wide association studies (GWASs) used a broad definition of 'doctor-diagnosed asthma', thereby diluting genetic signals by not considering asthma heterogeneity. The objective of our study was to identify genetic associates of childhood wheezing phenotypes. METHODS: We conducted a novel multivariate GWAS meta-analysis of wheezing phenotypes jointly derived using unbiased analysis of data collected from birth to 18 years in 9568 individuals from five UK birth cohorts. RESULTS: Forty-four independent SNPs were associated with early-onset persistent, 25 with pre-school remitting, 33 with mid-childhood remitting, and 32 with late-onset wheeze. We identified a novel locus on chr9q21.13 (close to annexin 1 [ANXA1], p<6.7 × 10-9), associated exclusively with early-onset persistent wheeze. We identified rs75260654 as the most likely causative single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) using Promoter Capture Hi-C loops, and then showed that the risk allele (T) confers a reduction in ANXA1 expression. Finally, in a murine model of house dust mite (HDM)-induced allergic airway disease, we demonstrated that anxa1 protein expression increased and anxa1 mRNA was significantly induced in lung tissue following HDM exposure. Using anxa1-/- deficient mice, we showed that loss of anxa1 results in heightened airway hyperreactivity and Th2 inflammation upon allergen challenge. CONCLUSIONS: Targeting this pathway in persistent disease may represent an exciting therapeutic prospect. FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council Programme Grant MR/S025340/1 and the Wellcome Trust Strategic Award (108818/15/Z) provided most of the funding for this study.
Saglani S, Yates L, Lloyd CM, 2023, Immunoregulation of asthma by type 2 cytokine therapies: Treatments for all ages?, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, ISSN: 0014-2980
Konstantinidi R, Yates LL, Saglani S, et al., 2022, Investigating the influence of mRNA encoded transcription factor delivery on human bronchial epithelial cell differentiation, 29th Annual Congress of the European-Society-of-Gene-and-Cell-Therapy (ESCGT), Publisher: MARY ANN LIEBERT, INC, Pages: A194-A195, ISSN: 1043-0342
Leach DA, Mohr A, Giotis ES, et al., 2021, The antiandrogen enzalutamide downregulates TMPRSS2 and reduces cellular entry of SARS-CoV-2 in human lung cells, Nature Communications, Vol: 12, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 2041-1723
SARS-CoV-2 attacks various organs, most destructively the lung, and cellular entry requires two host cell surface proteins: ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Downregulation of one or both of these is thus a potential therapeutic approach for COVID-19. TMPRSS2 is a known target of the androgen receptor, a ligand-activated transcription factor; androgen receptor activation increases TMPRSS2 levels in various tissues, most notably prostate. We show here that treatment with the antiandrogen enzalutamide – a well-tolerated drug widely used in advanced prostate cancer – reduces TMPRSS2 levels in human lung cells and in mouse lung. Importantly, antiandrogens significantly reduced SARS-CoV-2 entry and infection in lung cells. In support of this experimental data, analysis of existing datasets shows striking co-expression of AR and TMPRSS2, including in specific lung cell types targeted by SARS-CoV-2. Together, the data presented provides strong evidence to support clinical trials to assess the efficacy of antiandrogens as a treatment option for COVID-19.
Akram K, Yates L, Mongey R, et al., 2019, Time-lapse imaging of alveologenesis in mouse precision-cut lung slices, Bio-protocol, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2331-8325
Alveoli are the gas-exchange units of lung. The process of alveolar development,alveologenesis, is regulated by a complex network of signaling pathways that act on various cell typesincluding alveolar type I and II epithelial cells, fibroblasts and the vascular endothelium. Dysregulatedalveologenesis results in bronchopulmonary dysplasia in neonates and in adults, disrupted alveolarregeneration is associated with chronic lung diseases including COPD and pulmonary fibrosis.Therefore, visualizing alveologenesis is critical to understand lung homeostasis and for thedevelopment of effective therapies for incurable lung diseases. We have developed a technique tovisualize alveologenesis in real-time using a combination of widefield microscopy and imagedeconvolution of precision-cut lung slices. Here, we describe this live imaging technique in step-by-stepdetail. This time-lapse imaging technique can be used to capture the dynamics of individual cells withintissue slices over a long time period (up to 16 h), with minimal loss of fluorescence or cell toxicity.
Akram K, Yates L, Mongey R, et al., 2019, Live imaging of alveologenesis in precision-cut lung slices reveals dynamic epithelial cell behaviour, Nature Communications, Vol: 10, Pages: 1-16, ISSN: 2041-1723
Damage to alveoli, the gas-exchanging region of the lungs, is a component of many chronic and acute lung diseases. In addition, insufficient generation of alveoli results in bronchopulmonary dysplasia, a disease of prematurity. Therefore visualising the process of alveolar development (alveologenesis) is critical for our understanding of lung homeostasis and for the development of treatments to repair and regenerate lung tissue. Using long-term, time-lapse imaging of precision-cut lung slices, we show alveologenesis for the first time. We reveal that during this process, epithelial cells are highly mobile and we identify specific cell behaviours that contribute to alveologenesis: cell clustering, hollowing and cell extension. Using the cytoskeleton inhibitors blebbistatin and cytochalasin D, we showed that cell migration is a key driver of alveologenesis. This study reveals important novel information about lung biology and provides a new system in which to manipulate alveologenesis genetically and pharmacologically.
Zhang Y, Poobalasingam T, Yates LL, et al., 2018, Manipulation of Dipeptidylpeptidase 10 in mouse and human in vivo and in vitro models indicates a protective role in asthma, Disease Models and Mechanisms, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1754-8403
We previously identified dipeptidylpeptidase 10 (DPP10) on chromosome 2 as a human asthma susceptibility gene, through positional cloning. Initial association results were confirmed in many subsequent association studies but the functional role of DPP10 in asthma remains unclear. Using the MRC Harwell N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) DNA archive, we identified a point mutation in Dpp10 that caused an amino acid change from valine to aspartic acid in the β-propeller region of the protein. Mice carrying this point mutation were recovered and a congenic line was established (Dpp10145D). Macroscopic examination and lung histology revealed no significant differences between wild-type and Dpp10145D/145D mice. However, after house dust mite (HDM) treatment, Dpp10 mutant mice showed significantly increased airway resistance in response to 100 mg/ml methacholine. Total serum IgE levels and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) eosinophil counts were significantly higher in homozygotes than in control mice after HDM treatment. DPP10 protein is present in airway epithelial cells and altered expression is observed in both tissue from asthmatic patients and in mice following HDM challenge. Moreover, knockdown of DPP10 in human airway epithelial cells results in altered cytokine responses. These results show that a Dpp10 point mutation leads to increased airway responsiveness following allergen challenge and provide biological evidence to support previous findings from human genetic studies.
Oozeer F, Yates LL, Dean C, et al., 2017, A role for core planar polarity proteins in cell contact-mediated orientation of planar cell division across the mammalian embryonic skin, SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2045-2322
The question of how cell division orientation is determined is fundamentally important for understanding tissue and organ shape in both healthy or disease conditions. Here we provide evidence for cell contact-dependent orientation of planar cell division in the mammalian embryonic skin. We propose a model where the core planar polarity proteins Celsr1 and Frizzled-6 (Fz6) communicate the long axis orientation of interphase basal cells to neighbouring basal mitoses so that they align their horizontal division plane along the same axis. The underlying mechanism requires a direct, cell surface, planar polarised cue, which we posit depends upon variant post-translational forms of Celsr1 protein coupled to Fz6. Our hypothesis has parallels with contact-mediated division orientation in early C. elegans embryos suggesting functional conservation between the adhesion-GPCRs Celsr1 and Latrophilin-1. We propose that linking planar cell division plane with interphase neighbour long axis geometry reinforces axial bias in skin spreading around the mouse embryo body.
Poobalasingam T, Yates LL, Walker SA, et al., 2017, Heterozygous Vangl2 looptail mice reveal novel roles for the planar cell polarity pathway in adult lung homeostasis and repair, Disease Models & Mechanisms, Vol: 10, Pages: 409-423, ISSN: 1754-8403
Lung diseases impose a huge economic and health burden worldwide. A key aspect of several adult lung diseases, such as Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and Chronic Obstructive pulmonary Disease (COPD), including emphysema, is aberrant tissue repair, which leads to an accumulation of damage and impaired respiratory function. Currently, there are few effective treatments available for these diseases and their incidence is rising.The Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) pathway is critical for the embryonic development of many organs, including kidney and lung. We have previously shown that perturbation of the PCP pathway impairs tissue morphogenesis, which disrupts the number and shape of epithelial tubes formed within these organs during embryogenesis. However, very little is known about the role of the PCP pathway beyond birth, partly due to the perinatal lethality of many PCP mouse mutant lines.Here we have investigated heterozygous Looptail (Lp) mice, in which a single copy of the core PCP gene, Vangl2, is disrupted. We show that these mice are viable but display severe airspace enlargement and impaired adult lung function. Underlying these defects, we find that Vangl2Lp/+ lungs exhibit altered distribution of actin microfilaments and abnormal regulation of the actin modifying protein cofilin. In addition, we show that Vangl2Lp/+ lungs exhibit many of the hallmarks of tissue damage including an altered macrophage population, abnormal elastin deposition and elevated levels of the elastin-modifying enzyme, Mmp12, all of which are observed in the lung disease, emphysema.In vitro, VANGL2 disruption impairs directed cell migration and reduces the rate of repair following scratch wounding of human alveolar epithelial cells. Moreover, using population data from a birth cohort of young adults, all aged 31, we found evidence of an interactive effect between VANGL2 and smoking (a tissue damaging insult) on lung function. Finally, we show that that PCP genes VANGL2 and SCRIBBLE (SC
Godde NJ, Sheridan JM, Smith LK, et al., 2014, Scribble modulates the MAPK/Fra1 pathway to disrupt luminal and ductal integrity and suppress tumour formation in the mammary gland., PLoS Genet, Vol: 10
Polarity coordinates cell movement, differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis to build and maintain complex epithelial tissues such as the mammary gland. Loss of polarity and the deregulation of these processes are critical events in malignant progression but precisely how and at which stage polarity loss impacts on mammary development and tumourigenesis is unclear. Scrib is a core polarity regulator and tumour suppressor gene however to date our understanding of Scrib function in the mammary gland has been limited to cell culture and transplantation studies of cell lines. Utilizing a conditional mouse model of Scrib loss we report for the first time that Scrib is essential for mammary duct morphogenesis, mammary progenitor cell fate and maintenance, and we demonstrate a critical and specific role for Scribble in the control of the early steps of breast cancer progression. In particular, Scrib-deficiency significantly induced Fra1 expression and basal progenitor clonogenicity, which resulted in fully penetrant ductal hyperplasia characterized by high cell turnover, MAPK hyperactivity, frank polarity loss with mixing of apical and basolateral membrane constituents and expansion of atypical luminal cells. We also show for the first time a role for Scribble in mammalian spindle orientation with the onset of mammary hyperplasia being associated with aberrant luminal cell spindle orientation and a failure to apoptose during the final stage of duct tubulogenesis. Restoring MAPK/Fra1 to baseline levels prevented Scrib-hyperplasia, whereas persistent Scrib deficiency induced alveolar hyperplasia and increased the incidence, onset and grade of mammary tumours. These findings, based on a definitive genetic mouse model provide fundamental insights into mammary duct maturation and homeostasis and reveal that Scrib loss activates a MAPK/Fra1 pathway that alters mammary progenitor activity to drive premalignancy and accelerate tumour progression.
Elsum IA, Yates LL, Pearson HB, et al., 2013, Scrib heterozygosity predisposes to lung cancer and cooperates with KRas hyperactivation to accelerate lung cancer progression in vivo., Oncogene, Vol: 33, Pages: 5523-5533, ISSN: 0950-9232
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide with non small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounting for 80% of all lung cancers. Although activating mutations in genes of the RAS-MAPK pathway occur in up to 30% of all NSCLC, the cooperating genetic lesions that are required for lung cancer initiation and progression remain poorly understood. Here we identify a role for the cell polarity regulator Scribble (Scrib) in NSCLC. A survey of genomic databases reveals deregulation of SCRIB in human lung cancer and we show that Scrib+/- mutant mice develop lung cancer by 540 days with a penetrance of 43%. To model NSCLC development in vivo, we used the extensively characterized LSL-KRasG12D murine model of NSCLC. We show that loss of Scrib and activated oncogenic KRas cooperate in vivo, resulting in more aggressive lung tumors, likely due to a synergistic elevation in RAS-MAPK signaling. Finally, we provide data consistent with immune infiltration having an important role in the acceleration of tumorigenesis in KRasG12D lung tumors following Scrib loss
Yates LL, Schnatwinkel C, Hazelwood L, et al., 2013, Scribble is required for normal epithelial cell-cell contacts and lumen morphogenesis in the mammalian lung, DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY, Vol: 373, Pages: 267-280, ISSN: 0012-1606
Elsum I, Yates L, Humbert PO, et al., 2012, The Scribble-Dlg-Lgl polarity module in development and cancer: from flies to man., Essays Biochem, Vol: 53, Pages: 141-168
The Scribble, Par and Crumbs modules were originally identified in the vinegar (fruit) fly, Drosophila melanogaster, as being critical regulators of apico-basal cell polarity. In the present chapter we focus on the Scribble polarity module, composed of Scribble, discs large and lethal giant larvae. Since the discovery of the role of the Scribble polarity module in apico-basal cell polarity, these proteins have also been recognized as having important roles in other forms of polarity, as well as regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, cell signalling and vesicular trafficking. In addition to these physiological roles, an important role for polarity proteins in cancer progression has also been uncovered, with loss of polarity and tissue architecture being strongly correlated with metastatic disease.
Yates LL, Dean CH, 2011, Planar polarity: A new player in both lung development and disease., Organogenesis, Vol: 7, Pages: 209-216, ISSN: 1547-6278
The clinical burden of both adult and neonatal lung disease worldwide is substantial; in the UK alone, respiratory disease kills one in four people. It is increasingly recognized that genes and pathways that regulate lung development, may be aberrantly activated in disease and/or reactivated as part of the lungs' intrinsic repair mechanisms. Investigating the genes and signaling pathways that regulate lung growth has led to significant insights into the pathogenesis of congenital and adult lung disease. Recently, the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway has been shown to be required for normal lung development, and data suggests that this signaling pathway is also involved in the pathogenesis of some lung diseases. In this review, we summarize current evidence indicating that the PCP pathway is required for both lung development and disease.
Yates LL, Papakrivopoulou J, Long DA, et al., 2010, The planar cell polarity gene <i>Vangl2</i> is required for mammalian kidney-branching morphogenesis and glomerular maturation, HUMAN MOLECULAR GENETICS, Vol: 19, Pages: 4663-4676, ISSN: 0964-6906
Yates LL, Schnatwinkel C, Murdoch JN, et al., 2010, The PCP genes <i>Celsr1</i> and <i>Vangl2</i> are required for normal lung branching morphogenesis, HUMAN MOLECULAR GENETICS, Vol: 19, Pages: 2251-2267, ISSN: 0964-6906
Yates L, McMurray F, Zhang Y, et al., 2009, ENU mutagenesis as a tool for understanding lung development and disease Biochemical Society Transactions 37: 838–842.
Warr N, Siggers P, Bogani D, et al., 2009, <i>Sfrp1</i> and <i>Sfrp2</i> are required for normal male sexual development in mice, DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY, Vol: 326, Pages: 273-284, ISSN: 0012-1606
Lavigne MD, Yates L, Coxhead P, et al., 2008, Nuclear-targeted chimeric vector enhancing nonviral gene transfer into skeletal muscle of Fabry mice in vivo., FASEB J, Vol: 22, Pages: 2097-2107
Poor nuclear entry, especially into nondividing cells, is a limiting factor in nonviral gene delivery. We have engineered a novel chimeric vector relying on the controlled assembly of a TAT-tagged multisubunit DNA binding protein (EcoR124I) with expression plasmids containing the EcoR124I recognition site. Molecular interactions of this molecular assembly were studied by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and atomic force microscopy. Maintenance of nanocomplexes in an appropriate stoichiometric ratio was both necessary and sufficient to produce a significant (>8-fold) increase in the activity of the therapeutic alpha-galactosidase A enzyme after intramuscular administration in the mouse model of Fabry disease. To our knowledge, this is the first molecular targeting system significantly enhancing plasmid-based expression in skeletal muscle. Coinjection with pluronic SP1017 produced further enhancement of gene expression, demonstrating cumulative effects of the increased nuclear delivery by TAT chimeras and transcription activation by the pluronic. Cell penetration peptides (CPP), such as TAT, have been shown to improve delivery of macromolecules, when linked directly. However, in our system TAT-enhanced targeting took place even though it was linked to the plasmid DNA molecule indirectly via two noncovalent bonds. Therefore, this proof-of principle result indicates that TAT (and potentially other CPP) can be used for targeting modular chimeric vectors and therapeutic nanodevices.
Lavigne MD, Pennadam SS, Ellis J, et al., 2007, Enhanced gene expression through temperature profile-induced variations in molecular architecture of thermoresponsive polymer vectors., J Gene Med, Vol: 9, Pages: 44-54, ISSN: 1099-498X
BACKGROUND: Successful non-viral gene targeting requires vectors to meet two conflicting needs-strong binding to protect the genetic material during transit and weak binding at the target site to enable release. Responsive polymers could fulfil such requirements through the switching of states, e.g. the chain-extended coil to chain-collapsed globule phase transition that occurs at a lower critical solution temperature (LCST), in order to transport nucleic acid in one polymer state and release it in another. METHODS: The ability of new synthetic polycations based on poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) with grafted neutral responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) chains to condense DNA into particles with architectures varying according to graft polymer LCST was assessed using a combination of fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta sizing, gel retardation and atomic force microscopy studies. Transfection assays were conducted under experimental conditions wherein the polymer components were able to cycle across their LCST. RESULTS: Two PEI-PNIPAm conjugate polymers with different LCSTs displayed coil-globule transitions when complexed to plasmid DNA, leading to variations in molecular architecture as shown by changes in emission maxima of an environment-sensitive fluorophore attached to the PNIPAm chains. Gel retardation assays demonstrated differences in electrophoretic mobilities of polymer-DNA complexes with temperatures below and above polymer LCSTs. Atomic force micrographs showed changes in the structures of polymer-DNA complexes for a polymer undergoing a phase transition around body temperature but not for the polymer with LCST outside this range. Transfection experiments in C2C12 and COS-7 cells demonstrated that the highest expression of transgene occurred in an assay that involved a 'cold-shock' below polymer LCST during transfection. CONCLUSIONS: Designed changes in thermoresponsive polycation vector configuration via temperature-indu
Yates LL, Górecki DC, 2006, The nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB): from a versatile transcription factor to a ubiquitous therapeutic target., Acta Biochim Pol, Vol: 53, Pages: 651-662, ISSN: 0001-527X
The nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) transcription factors regulate a plethora of cellular pathways and processes including the immune response, inflammation, proliferation, apoptosis and calcium homeostasis. In addition to the complexity of its physiological roles, the composition and function of this family of proteins is very complicated. While the basic understanding of NF-kappaB signalling is extensive, relatively little is know of the in vivo dynamics of this pathway or what controls the balance between various outcomes. Although we know a large number of NF-kappaB-responsive genes, the contribution of these genes to a specific response is not always clear. Finally, the involvement of NF-kappaB in pathological processes is only now beginning to be unravelled. In addition to cancer and immunodeficiency disorders, altered regulation of NF-kappaB has been associated with several inherited diseases. These findings indicate that modulation of the NF-kappaB pathways may be beneficial. However, our limited knowledge of NF-kappaB signalling hinders therapeutic approaches: in many situations it is not clear whether the enhancement or inhibition of NF-kappaB activity would be beneficial or which pathways to interfere with and what the required level of activation is. Further studies of the role of NF-kappaB are needed as these may result in novel therapeutic strategies for a wide variety of diseases.
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