44 results found
Sutanto I, Soebandrio A, Ekawati LL, et al., 2023, Tafenoquine co-administered with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax malaria (INSPECTOR): a randomised, placebo-controlled, efficacy and safety study., Lancet Infect Dis, Vol: 23, Pages: 1153-1163
BACKGROUND: Tafenoquine, co-administered with chloroquine, is approved for the radical cure (prevention of relapse) of Plasmodium vivax malaria. In areas of chloroquine resistance, artemisinin-based combination therapies are used to treat malaria. This study aimed to evaluate tafenoquine plus the artemisinin-based combination therapy dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for the radical cure of P vivax malaria. METHODS: In this double-blind, double-dummy, parallel group study, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-normal Indonesian soldiers with microscopically confirmed P vivax malaria were randomly assigned by means of a computer-generated randomisation schedule (1:1:1) to dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine alone, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine plus a masked single 300-mg dose of tafenoquine, or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine plus 14 days of primaquine (15 mg). The primary endpoint was 6-month relapse-free efficacy following tafenoquine plus dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine versus dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine alone in all randomly assigned patients who received at least one dose of masked treatment and had microscopically confirmed P vivax at baseline (microbiological intention-to-treat population). Safety was a secondary outcome and the safety population comprised all patients who received at least one dose of masked medication. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02802501 and is completed. FINDINGS: Between April 8, 2018, and Feb 4, 2019, of 164 patients screened for eligibility, 150 were randomly assigned (50 per treatment group). 6-month Kaplan-Meier relapse-free efficacy (microbiological intention to treat) was 11% (95% CI 4-22) in patients treated with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine alone versus 21% (11-34) in patients treated with tafenoquine plus dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (hazard ratio 0·44; 95% CI [0·29-0·69]) and 52% (37-65) in the primaquine plus dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine group. Adverse events over the first 28 days were
Peronnet E, Blein S, Venet F, et al., 2023, Immune Profiling Panel Gene Set Identifies Critically Ill Patients With Low Monocyte Human Leukocyte Antigen-DR Expression: Preliminary Results From the REAnimation Low Immune Status Marker (REALISM) Study., Crit Care Med, Vol: 51, Pages: 808-816
OBJECTIVES: There is a crucial unmet need for biomarker-guided diagnostic and prognostic enrichment in clinical trials evaluating immune modulating therapies in critically ill patients. Low monocyte expression of human leukocyte antigen-DR (mHLA-DR), considered as a reference surrogate to identify immunosuppressed patients, has been proposed for patient stratification in immunostimulation approaches. However, its widespread use in clinic has been somewhat hampered by technical constraints inherent to flow cytometry technology. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the ability of a prototype multiplex polymerase chain reaction tool (immune profiling panel [IPP]) to identify immunosuppressed ICU patients characterized by a low mHLA-DR expression. DESIGN: Retrospective observational cohort study. SETTING: Adult ICU in a University Hospital, Lyon, France. PATIENTS: Critically ill patients with various etiologies enrolled in the REAnimation Low Immune Status Marker study (NCT02638779). INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: mHLA-DR and IPP data were obtained from 1,731 blood samples collected from critically ill patients with various etiologies and healthy volunteers. A partial least square regression model combining the expression levels of IPP markers was trained and used for the identification of samples from patients presenting with evidence of immunosuppression, defined here as mHLADR less than 8,000 antibodies bound per cell (AB/C). The IPP gene set had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.86 (95% CI 0.83-0.89) for the identification of immunosuppressed patients. In addition, when applied to the 123 patients still in the ICU at days 5-7 after admission, IPP similarly enriched the number of patients with ICU-acquired infections in the immunosuppressed group (26%), in comparison with low mHLA-DR (22%). CONCLUSIONS: This study reports on the potential of the IPP gene set to identify ICU patients presenting with
Pérez-Galera S, Bravo-Ferrer JM, Paniagua M, et al., 2023, Risk factors for infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales: an international matched case-control-control study (EURECA)., EClinicalMedicine, Vol: 57
BACKGROUND: Data on risk factors for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) with wider applicability are needed to inform preventive measures and efficient design of randomised trials. METHODS: An international matched case-control-control study was performed in 50 hospitals with high CRE incidence from March 2016 to November 2018 to investigate different aspects of infections caused by CRE (NCT02709408). Cases were patients with complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI), complicated intraabdominal (cIAI), pneumonia or bacteraemia from other sources (BSI-OS) due to CRE; control groups were patients with infection caused by carbapenem-susceptible Enterobacterales (CSE), and by non-infected patients, respectively. Matching criteria included type of infection for CSE group, ward and duration of hospital admission. Conditional logistic regression was used to identify risk factors. FINDINGS: Overall, 235 CRE case patients, 235 CSE controls and 705 non-infected controls were included. The CRE infections were cUTI (133, 56.7%), pneumonia (44, 18.7%), cIAI and BSI-OS (29, 12.3% each). Carbapenemase genes were found in 228 isolates: OXA-48/like, 112 (47.6%), KPC, 84 (35.7%), and metallo-β-lactamases, 44 (18.7%); 13 produced two. The risk factors for CRE infection in both type of controls were (adjusted OR for CSE controls; 95% CI; p value) previous colonisation/infection by CRE (6.94; 2.74-15.53; <0.001), urinary catheter (1.78; 1.03-3.07; 0.038) and exposure to broad spectrum antibiotics, as categorical (2.20; 1.25-3.88; 0.006) and time-dependent (1.04 per day; 1.00-1.07; 0.014); chronic renal failure (2.81; 1.40-5.64; 0.004) and admission from home (0.44; 0.23-0.85; 0.014) were significant only for CSE controls. Subgroup analyses provided similar results. INTERPRETATION: The main risk factors for CRE infections in hospitals with high incidence included previous colonization, urinary catheter and exposure to broad spectrum antibiotics. FUNDING: The study was f
Bachhav SS, Taylor M, Martin A, et al., 2023, A pharmacometrics approach to assess the feasibility of capillary microsampling to replace venous sampling in clinical studies: Tafenoquine case study., Br J Clin Pharmacol, Vol: 89, Pages: 1187-1197
AIM: Microsampling has the advantage of smaller blood sampling volume and suitability in vulnerable populations compared to venous sampling in clinical pharmacokinetics studies. Current regulatory guidance requires correlative studies to enable microsampling as a technique. A post hoc population pharmacokinetic (POPPK) approach was utilized to investigate blood capillary microsampling as an alternative to venous sampling. METHODS: Pharmacokinetic data from microsampling and venous sampling techniques during a paediatric study evaluating tafenoquine, a single-dose antimalarial for P. vivax, were used. Separate POPPK models were developed and validated based on goodness of fit and visual predictive checks, with pharmacokinetic data obtained via each sampling technique. RESULTS: Each POPPK model adequately described tafenoquine pharmacokinetics using a two-compartment model with body weight based on allometric scaling of clearance and volume of distribution. Tafenoquine pharmacokinetic parameter estimates including clearance (3.4 vs 3.7 L/h) were comparable across models with slightly higher interindividual variability (38.3% vs 27%) in capillary microsampling-based data. A bioavailability/bioequivalence comparison demonstrated that the point estimate (90% CI) of capillary microsample versus venous sample model-based individual post hoc estimates for area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC0-inf ) (100.7%, 98.0-103.5%) and Cmax (79.7%, 76.9-82.5%) met the 80-125% and 70-143% criteria, respectively. Overall, both POPPK models led to the same dose regimen recommendations across weight bins based on achieving target AUC. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis demonstrated that a POPPK approach can be employed to assess the performance of alternative pharmacokinetic sampling techniques. This approach provides a robust solution in scenarios where variability in pharmacokinetic data collected via venous sampling and microsampling may not result in a s
Drysdale M, Tan L, Martin A, et al., 2023, Plasmodium vivax in Children: Hidden Burden and Conspicuous Challenges, a Narrative Review., Infect Dis Ther, Vol: 12, Pages: 33-51, ISSN: 2193-8229
There has been progress towards decreasing malaria prevalence globally; however, Plasmodium vivax has been less responsive to elimination efforts compared with Plasmodium falciparum. P. vivax malaria remains a serious public health concern in regions where it is the dominant species (South and South-East Asia, the Eastern Mediterranean region, and South America) and is increasingly recognized for its contribution to overall morbidity and mortality worldwide. The incidence of P. vivax decreases with increasing age owing to rapidly acquired clinical immunity and there is a disproportionate burden of P. vivax in infants and children, who remain highly vulnerable to severe disease, recurrence, and anemia with associated developmental impacts. Diagnosis is sometimes difficult owing to the sensitivity of diagnostic tests to detect low levels of parasitemia. Additionally, the propensity of P. vivax to relapse following reactivation of dormant hypnozoites in the liver contributes to disease recurrence in infants and children, and potentiates morbidity and transmission. The 8-aminoquinolines, primaquine and tafenoquine, provide radical cure (relapse prevention). However, the risk of hemolysis in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency necessitates testing prior to administration of 8-aminoquinolines, which has limited their uptake. Additional challenges include lack of availability of pediatric dose formulations and problems with adherence to primaquine owing to the length of treatment recommended. A paucity of data and studies specific to pediatric P. vivax malaria impacts the ability to deliver targeted interventions. It is imperative that P. vivax in infants and children be the focus of future research, control initiatives, and anti-malarial drug development.
Tremblay J-A, Peron F, Kreitmann L, et al., 2022, A stratification strategy to predict secondary infection in critical illness-induced immune dysfunction: the REALIST score., Ann Intensive Care, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2110-5820
BACKGROUND: Although multiple individual immune parameters have been demonstrated to predict the occurrence of secondary infection after critical illness, significant questions remain with regards to the selection, timing and clinical utility of such immune monitoring tests. RESEARCH QUESTION: As a sub-study of the REALISM study, the REALIST score was developed as a pragmatic approach to help clinicians better identify and stratify patients at high risk for secondary infection, using a simple set of relatively available and technically robust biomarkers. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This is a sub-study of a single-centre prospective cohort study of immune profiling in critically ill adults admitted after severe trauma, major surgery or sepsis/septic shock. For the REALIST score, five immune parameters were pre-emptively selected based on their clinical applicability and technical robustness. Predictive power of different parameters and combinations of parameters was assessed. The main outcome of interest was the occurrence of secondary infection within 30 days. RESULTS: After excluding statistically redundant and poorly predictive parameters, three parameters remained in the REALIST score: mHLA-DR, percentage of immature (CD10- CD16-) neutrophils and serum IL-10 level. In the cohort of interest (n = 189), incidence of secondary infection at day 30 increased from 8% for patients with REALIST score of 0 to 46% in patients with a score of 3 abnormal parameters, measured ad D5-7. When adjusted for a priori identified clinical risk factors for secondary infection (SOFA score and invasive mechanical ventilation at D5-7), a higher REALIST score was independently associated with increased risk of secondary infection (42 events (22.2%), adjusted HR 3.22 (1.09-9.50), p = 0.034) and mortality (10 events (5.3%), p = 0.001). INTERPRETATION: We derived and presented the REALIST score, a simple and pragmatic stratification strategy which
Venet F, Textoris J, Blein S, et al., 2022, Immune Profiling Demonstrates a Common Immune Signature of Delayed Acquired Immunodeficiency in Patients With Various Etiologies of Severe Injury., Crit Care Med, Vol: 50, Pages: 565-575
OBJECTIVES: The host response plays a central role in the pathophysiology of sepsis and severe injuries. So far, no study has comprehensively described the overtime changes of the injury-induced immune profile in a large cohort of critically ill patients with different etiologies. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study. SETTING: Adult ICU in a University Hospital in Lyon, France. PATIENTS: Three hundred fifty-three septic, trauma, and surgical patients and 175 healthy volunteers were included in the REAnimation Low Immune Status Marker study. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Extensive immune profiling was performed by assessing cellular phenotypes and functions, protein, and messenger RNA levels at days 1-2, 3-4, and 5-7 after inclusion using a panel of 30 standardized immune markers. Using this immunomonitoring panel, no specificity in the immune profile was observed among septic, trauma, and surgical patients. This common injury-induced immune response was characterized by an initial adaptive (i.e., physiologic) response engaging all constituents of the immune system (pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine releases, and innate and adaptive immune responses) but not associated with increased risk of secondary infections. In contrary, the persistence in a subgroup of patients of profound immune alterations at the end of the first week after admission was associated with increased risk of secondary infections independently of exposure to invasive devices. The combined monitoring of markers of pro-/anti-inflammatory, innate, and adaptive immune responses allowed a better enrichment of patients with risk of secondary infections in the selected population. CONCLUSIONS: Using REAnimation Low Immune Status Marker immunomonitoring panel, we detected delayed injury-acquired immunodeficiency in a subgroup of severely injured patients independently of primary disease. Critically ill patients' immune status could be captured through the combined monitor
Vélez ID, Hien TT, Green JA, et al., 2022, Tafenoquine exposure assessment, safety, and relapse prevention efficacy in children with Plasmodium vivax malaria: open-label, single-arm, non-comparative, multicentre, pharmacokinetic bridging, phase 2 trial., Lancet Child Adolesc Health, Vol: 6, Pages: 86-95
BACKGROUND: Single-dose tafenoquine 300 mg is approved for Plasmodium vivax malaria relapse prevention in patients at least 16 years old. We aimed to determine appropriate oral tafenoquine paediatric dosing regimens, including a dispersible formulation, and evaluated tafenoquine efficacy and safety in children infected with P vivax. METHODS: This open-label, single-arm, non-comparative, multicentre, pharmacokinetic bridging, phase 2 study enrolled children (2-15 years) who weighed 5 kg or more, with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity more than 70% of the local population median, and P vivax malaria infection, from three community health centres in Vietnam and one in Colombia. Patients received 3-day chloroquine plus oral single-dose tafenoquine as dispersible tablets (50 mg) or film-coated tablets (150 mg). Dosing groups were assigned by body weight, predicted to achieve similar median exposures as the approved 300 mg dose for adults: patients who weighed 5 kg or more to 10 kg received 50 mg, those who weighed more than 10 to 20 kg received 100 or 150 mg, those who weighed more than 20 to 35 kg received 200 mg, and patients who weighed more than 35 kg received 300 mg. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was done to develop a paediatric population pharmacokinetic model. The primary outcome was the tafenoquine area under the concentration-time curve extrapolated to infinity (AUC[0-∞]) by patient body weight in the pharmacokinetic population (all patients who received tafenoquine with at least one valid pharmacokinetic sample) estimated from a paediatric population pharmacokinetic model. A key prespecified secondary outcome was 4-month recurrence-free efficacy. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02563496. FINDINGS: Between Feb 6, 2017, and Feb 17, 2020, 60 patients were enrolled into the study: 14 (23%) received tafenoquine 100 mg, five (8%) 150 mg, 22 (36%) 200 mg, and 19 (32%) 300 mg. The paediatric population pharmacokinetic model pre
Bidar F, Bodinier M, Venet F, et al., 2022, Concomitant Assessment of Monocyte HLA-DR Expression and Ex Vivo TNF-α Release as Markers of Adverse Outcome after Various Injuries-Insights from the REALISM Study, JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE, Vol: 11
Tan LKK, Reglinski M, Teo D, et al., 2021, Vaccine-induced, but not natural immunity, against the Streptococcal Inhibitor of complement protects against invasive disease, npj Vaccines, Vol: 6, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 2059-0105
Highly pathogenic emm1 Streptococcus pyogenes strains secrete the multidomain Streptococcal inhibitor of complement (SIC) that binds and inactivates components of the innate immune response. We aimed to determine if naturally occurring or vaccine-induced antibodies to SIC are protective against invasive S. pyogenes infection. Immunisation with full-length SIC protected mice against systemic bacterial dissemination following intranasal or intramuscular infection with emm1 S. pyogenes. Vaccine-induced rabbit anti-SIC antibodies, but not naturally occurring human anti-SIC antibodies, enhanced bacterial clearance in an ex vivo whole-blood assay. SIC vaccination of both mice and rabbits resulted in antibody recognition of all domains of SIC, whereas naturally occurring human anti-SIC antibodies recognised the proline-rich region of SIC only. We, therefore, propose a model whereby natural infection with S. pyogenes generates non-protective antibodies against the proline-rich region of SIC, while vaccination with full-length SIC permits the development of protective antibodies against all SIC domains.
Bodinier M, Peronnet E, Brengel-Pesce K, et al., 2021, Monocyte Trajectories Endotypes Are Associated With Worsening in Septic Patients., Front Immunol, Vol: 12
Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. The immune system plays a key role in sepsis onset and remains dysregulated over time in a heterogeneous manner. Here, we decipher the heterogeneity of the first week evolution of the monocyte HLA-DR (mHLA-DR) surface protein expression in septic patients, a key molecule for adaptive immunity onset. We found and verified four distinctive trajectories endotypes in a discovery (n = 276) and a verification cohort (n = 102). We highlight that 59% of septic patients exhibit low or decreasing mHLA-DR expression while in others mHLA-DR expression increased. This study depicts the first week behavior of mHLA-DR over time after sepsis onset and shows that initial and third day mHLA-DR expression measurements is sufficient for an early risk stratification of sepsis patients. These patients might benefit from immunomodulatory treatment to improve outcomes. Going further, our study introduces a way of deciphering heterogeneity of immune system after sepsis onset which is a first step to reach a more comprehensive landscape of sepsis.
Mallet F, Diouf L, Meunier B, et al., 2021, Herpes DNAemia and TTV Viraemia in Intensive Care Unit Critically Ill Patients: A Single-Centre Prospective Longitudinal Study., Front Immunol, Vol: 12
INTRODUCTION: We analysed blood DNAemia of TTV and four herpesviruses (CMV, EBV, HHV6, and HSV-1) in the REAnimation Low Immune Status Marker (REALISM) cohort of critically ill patients who had presented with either sepsis, burns, severe trauma, or major surgery. The aim was to identify common features related to virus and injury-associated pathologies and specific features linking one or several viruses to a particular pathological context. METHODS: Overall and individual viral DNAemia were measured over a month using quantitative PCR assays from the 377 patients in the REALISM cohort. These patients were characterised by clinical outcomes [severity scores, mortality, Intensive Care Unit (ICU)-acquired infection (IAI)] and 48 parameters defining their host response after injury (cell populations, immune functional assays, and biomarkers). Association between viraemic event and clinical outcomes or immune markers was assessed using χ2-test or exact Fisher's test for qualitative variables and Wilcoxon test for continuous variables. RESULTS: The cumulative incidence of viral DNAemia increased from below 4% at ICU admission to 35% for each herpesvirus during the first month. EBV, HSV1, HHV6, and CMV were detected in 18%, 12%, 10%, and 9% of patients, respectively. The incidence of high TTV viraemia (>10,000 copies/ml) increased from 11% to 15% during the same period. Herpesvirus viraemia was associated with severity at admission; CMV and HHV6 viraemia correlated with mortality during the first week and over the month. The presence of individual herpesvirus during the first month was significantly associated (p < 0.001) with the occurrence of IAI, whilst herpesvirus DNAemia coupled with high TTV viraemia during the very first week was associated with IAI. Herpesvirus viraemia was associated with a lasting exacerbated host immune response, with concurrent profound immune suppression and hyper inflammation, and delayed return to immune homeostasis. The percentag
Skoura N, Wang-Jairaj J, Della Pasqua O, et al., 2020, Effect of raxibacumab on immunogenicity of Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed: a phase 4, open-label, parallel-group, randomised non-inferiority study., Lancet Infect Dis, Vol: 20, Pages: 983-991
BACKGROUND: Raxibacumab is a monoclonal antibody against protective antigen, which is the cell-binding part of Bacillus anthracis toxin, and is approved for treatment and postexposure prophylaxis of inhalational anthrax. Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA), for anthrax prophylaxis, consists primarily of adsorbed protective antigen. We did a postapproval study to assess the effect of raxibacumab on immunogenicity of AVA. METHODS: We did an open-label, parallel-group, randomised non-inferiority study at three centres in the USA. We enrolled healthy volunteers (aged 18-65 years) with no evidence of exposure to protective antigen. Participants were randomly allocated (1:1) according to a pregenerated balanced independent randomisation schedule to either subcutaneous 0·5 mL AVA on days 1, 15, and 29 or raxibacumab intravenous infusion (40 mg/kg) immediately before AVA on day 1, followed by AVA only on days 15 and 29. It was an open-label study to investigators and participants; however, the sponsor remained blinded during the study. The primary outcome was the ratio of geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of anti-protective antigen antibodies (attributable to the immune response to AVA) between AVA and AVA plus raxibacumab 4 weeks after the first AVA dose in the per-protocol population. The per-protocol population comprised all individuals who received the allocated treatment within the protocol-specified visit window and completed the primary study outcome assessment, without a protocol deviation requiring exclusion. The non-inferiority margin for the ratio of GMCs was predefined (upper limit of 90% CI <1·5). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02339155. FINDINGS: Between Feb 24, 2015, and June 6, 2017, 873 participants were screened for eligibility, of whom 300 were excluded. 573 were randomly allocated either AVA (n=287) or AVA plus raxibacumab (n=286). The per-protocol population comprised 276 individuals assigned AVA and 269 allocated AV
Mommert M, Tabone O, Guichard A, et al., 2020, Dynamic LTR retrotransposon transcriptome landscape in septic shock patients., Crit Care, Vol: 24
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is defined as a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. Numerous studies have explored the complex and dynamic transcriptome modulations observed in sepsis patients, but a large fraction of the transcriptome remains unexplored. This fraction could provide information to better understand sepsis pathophysiology. Multiple levels of interaction between human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) and the immune response have led us to hypothesize that sepsis is associated with HERV transcription and that HERVs may contribute to a signature among septic patients allowing stratification and personalized management. METHODS: We used a high-density microarray and RT-qPCR to evaluate the HERV and Mammalian Apparent Long Terminal Repeat retrotransposons (MaLR) transcriptome in a pilot study that included 20 selected septic shock patients, stratified on mHLA-DR expression, with samples collected on day 1 and day 3 after inclusion. We validated the results in an unselected, independent cohort that included 100 septic shock patients on day 3 after inclusion. We compared septic shock patients, according to their immune status, to describe the transcriptional HERV/MaLR and conventional gene expression. For differential expression analyses, moderated t tests were performed and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to analyze RT-qPCR results. RESULTS: We showed that 6.9% of the HERV/MaLR repertoire was transcribed in the whole blood, and septic shock was associated with an early modulation of a few thousand of these loci, in comparison to healthy volunteers. We provided evidence that a subset of HERV/MaLR and conventional genes were differentially expressed in septic shock patients, according to their immune status, using monocyte HLA-DR (mHLA-DR) expression as a proxy. A group of 193 differentially expressed HERV/MaLR probesets, tested in an independent septic shock cohort, identified two groups of patients with different i
Mallet F, Perret M, Tran T, et al., 2019, Early herpes and TTV DNAemia in septic shock patients: a pilot study., Intensive Care Med Exp, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2197-425X
BACKGROUND: Septic shock patients exhibit an increased incidence of viral reactivation. Precise timing of such reactivation-as an early marker of immune suppression, or as a consequence of the later-is not known precisely. Here, using a fully designed nucleic acid extraction automated procedure together with tailored commercial PCR kits, we focused on the description of early reactivation within the first week of ICU admission of several herpes viruses and Torque Teno virus (TTV) in 98 septic shock patients. RESULTS: Most of septic shock patients had at least one viremia event during the first week (88%). TTV and herpesviruses were detected in 56% and 53% of septic shock patient, respectively. The two most frequent herpesviruses detected within the first week were EBV (35%) and HSV1 (26%). Different kinetic were observed among herpesviruses, faster for EBV and HSV1 than for CMV and HHV6. Although no association was found between herpes viremia and secondary infections, patients with herpesviridae-related viremia were more severe, e.g., higher SOFA scores and plasma lactate levels. While reactivating only 1 virus was not associated with mortality, patients with multiple viremia events had higher ICU mortality. Surprisingly, EBV + TTV early reactivation seemed associated with a lower D28 mortality. No clear association was observed between viremia and immune biomarkers. CONCLUSION: Applying a semi-automated process of viral DNAemia determination to this cohort of 98 patients with septic shock, we observed that the number of patients with positive viremia increased during the first week in the ICU. Of note, there was no improvement in predicting the outcome when using viremia status. Nevertheless, this pilot study, introducing standardized procedures from extraction to detection, provides the basis for future standardized diagnostic criteria. A prospective longitudinal clinical study using these procedures will enable determination of whether such viremia
Lamb LE, Siggins MK, Scudamore C, et al., 2018, Impact of contusion injury on intramuscular emm1 group A-Streptococcus infection and Lymphatic spread, Virulence, Vol: 9, Pages: 1074-1084, ISSN: 2150-5594
Invasive group A Streptococcus (iGAS) is frequently associated with emm1 isolates, with an attendant mortality of around 20%. Cases occasionally arise in previously healthy individuals with a history of upper respiratory tract infection, soft tissue contusion, and no obvious portal of entry. Using a new murine model of contusion, we determined the impact of contusion on iGAS bacterial burden and phenotype. Calibrated mild blunt contusion did not provide a focus for initiation or seeding of GAS that was detectable following systemic GAS bacteremia, but instead enhanced GAS migration to the local draining lymph node following GAS inoculation at the same time and site of contusion. Increased migration to lymph node was associated with emergence of mucoid bacteria, although was not specific to mucoid bacteria. In one study, mucoid colonies demonstrated a significant increase in capsular hyaluronan that was not linked to a covRS or rocA mutation, but to a deletion in the promoter of the capsule synthesis locus, hasABC, resulting in a strain with increased fitness for lymph node migration. In summary, in the mild contusion model used, we could not detect seeding of muscle by GAS. Contusion promoted bacterial transit to the local lymph node. The consequences of contusion-associated bacterial lymphatic migration may vary depending on the pathogen and virulence traits selected.
Rol M-L, Venet F, Rimmele T, et al., 2017, The REAnimation Low Immune Status Markers (REALISM) project: a protocol for broad characterisation and follow-up of injury-induced immunosuppression in intensive care unit (ICU) critically ill patients., BMJ Open, Vol: 7
INTRODUCTION: The host response to septic shock is dynamic and complex. A sepsis-induced immunosuppression phase has recently been acknowledged and linked to bad outcomes and increased healthcare costs. Moreover, a marked suppression of the immune response has also been partially described in patients hospitalized in intensive care unit (ICU) for severe trauma or burns. It has been hypothesized that immune monitoring could enable identification of patients who might most benefit from novel, adjunctive immune-stimulating therapies. However, there is currently neither a clear definition for such injury-induced immunosuppression nor a stratification biomarker compatible with clinical constraints. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We set up a prospective, longitudinal single-centre clinical study to determine the incidence, severity and persistency of innate and adaptive immune alterations in ICU patients. We optimized a workflow to describe and follow the immunoinflammatory status of 550 patients (septic shock, severe trauma/burn and major surgery) during the first 2 months after their initial injury. On each time point, two immune functional tests will be performed to determine whole-blood TNF-α production in response to ex vivo lipopolysaccharide stimulation and the T lymphocyte proliferation in response to phytohaemagglutinin. In addition, a complete immunophenotyping using flow cytometry including monocyte HLA-DR expression and lymphocyte subsets will be obtained. New markers (ie, levels of expression of host mRNA and viral reactivation) will be also evaluated. Reference intervals will be determined from a cohort of 150 age-matched healthy volunteers. This clinical study will provide, for the first time, data describing the immune status of severe ICU patients over time. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval has been obtained from the institutional review board (no 69HCL15_0379) and the French National Security agency for drugs and health-related products. Results w
Hamilton C, Tan L, Miethke T, et al., 2017, Immunity to uropathogens: the emerging roles of inflammasomes, Nature Reviews Urology, Vol: 14, Pages: 284-295, ISSN: 1759-4812
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) cause a huge burden of morbidity worldwide with recurrence of UTIs becoming significantly frequent due to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains. Recent research has focussed on interactions between the innate and adaptive immune responses to pathogens colonizing the urinary tract. Inflammasomes are part of the innate immune defense and respond rapidly to several infectious diseases. Assembly of the multiprotein inflammasome complex activates Caspase-1, processes proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, and induces pyroptosis. These effector pathways, in turn, act at different levels to either prevent or resolve infection, or eliminate the infectious agent itself. Whilst in certain instances inflammasome activation promotes tissue pathology, the precise functions of inflammasomes in UTIs remain unexplored. In this review, we discuss recent studies on the roles of inflammasomes in UTIs with a particular focus on common infections of the urinary tract. An improved understanding of inflammasomes may provide valuable novel approaches for the design of diagnostics and therapeutics for complicated UTIs, thus enabling us to counteract the challenge of drug resistance.
Lamb L, MacDonald W, Scudamore C, et al., 2015, THE EFFECT OF TRAUMA ON INVASIVE GROUP A STREPTOCOCCAL (IGAS) DISEASE, JOURNAL OF INFECTION, Vol: 71, Pages: 686-686, ISSN: 0163-4453
Lamb L, McDonald W, Scudamore C, et al., 2015, The effect of trauma on invasive group A streptococcal disease, Spring Meeting on Clinician Scientists in Training, Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, Pages: 60-60, ISSN: 0140-6736
Lamb LEM, Sriskandan S, Tan LKK, 2014, Bromine, bear-claw scratch fasciotomies, and the Eagle effect: management of group A streptococcal necrotising fasciitis and its association with trauma, The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Vol: 15, Pages: 109-121, ISSN: 1474-4457
Necrotising fasciitis is a rare, but potentially fatal, soft-tissue infection. Historical depictions of the disease have been described since classical times and were mainly recorded in wartime reports of battle injuries. Although several different species of bacteria can cause necrotising fasciitis, perhaps the most widely known is group A streptococcus (GAS). Infection control, early surgical debridement, and antibiotic therapy are now the central tenets of the clinical management of necrotising fasciitis; these treatment approaches all originate from those used in wars in the past 150 years. We review reports from the 19th century, early 20th century, and mid-20th century onwards to show how the management of necrotising fasciitis has progressed in parallel with prevailing scientific thought and medical practice. Historically, necrotising fasciitis has often, but not exclusively, been associated with penetrating trauma. However, along with a worldwide increase in invasive GAS disease, recent reports have cited cases of necrotising fasciitis following non-combat-related injuries or in the absence of antecedent events. We also investigate the specific association between GAS necrotising fasciitis and trauma. In the 21st century, molecular biology has improved our understanding of GAS pathogenesis, but has not yet affected attributable mortality.
Tan LKK, Sriskandan S, 2014, Step on the GAS: Are We Almost There for Clindamycin and Intravenous Immunoglobulin?, Clinical Infectious Diseases, Vol: 59, Pages: 366-368, ISSN: 1537-6591
Tan LKK, Eccersley LRJ, Sriskandan S, 2014, Current views of haemolytic streptococcal pathogenesis., Current opinion in infectious diseases, Vol: 27, Pages: 155-164, ISSN: 0951-7375
<h4>Purpose of review</h4>Increasing disease caused by beta-haemolytic streptococci indicates the need for improved understanding of pathogenesis.<h4>Recent findings</h4>Streptococcus pyogenes, or group A Streptococcus (GAS), causes significant disease worldwide. The closely related Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDSE) is increasingly recognized as causing a similar disease spectrum. Whole-genome sequencing applied to the study of outbreaks may reveal factors that contribute to pathogenesis and changes in epidemiology. The role of quorum sensing in biofilm formation, and interspecies communication with other streptococci, is discussed. GAS has evolved multiple mechanisms to evade the humoral arm of innate immunity, including complement, which is well known in protecting the host from bacteria, and the coagulation-fibrinolytic system, which is increasingly recognized as an innate immune effector.<h4>Summary</h4>Molecular biology has enhanced our understanding of the intricate balance of host-pathogen interactions that result in clearance or establishment of invasive streptococcal infection. Although the skin and oropharynx remain the usual ecological niche of GAS and SDSE, occasionally the bacteria find themselves within deeper tissues and blood. Recent research has armed us with better knowledge of bacterial adaptations to this alternative environment. However, the challenge is to translate this knowledge into clinical practice, through the development of novel therapeutic options and ultimately a vaccine against GAS.
Jongerius I, Lavender H, Tan L, et al., 2013, Distinct Binding and Immunogenic Properties of the Gonococcal Homologue of Meningococcal Factor H Binding Protein, PLOS PATHOGENS, Vol: 9, ISSN: 1553-7366
Price H, Dunn D, Pillay D, et al., 2013, Suppression of HBV by Tenofovir in HBV/HIV Coinfected Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, PLOS ONE, Vol: 8, ISSN: 1932-6203
Johnson S, Tan L, van der Veen S, et al., 2012, Design and Evaluation of Meningococcal Vaccines through Structure-Based Modification of Host and Pathogen Molecules, PLOS PATHOGENS, Vol: 8, ISSN: 1553-7366
Eccersley L, Tan L, 2012, The impact of twice-daily consultant ward rounds on the length of stay in two general medical wards - effect on training?, CLINICAL MEDICINE, Vol: 12, Pages: 186-187, ISSN: 1470-2118
Lucidarme J, Tan L, Exley RM, et al., 2011, Characterization of <i>Neisseria meningitidis</i> Isolates That Do Not Express the Virulence Factor and Vaccine Antigen Factor H Binding Protein, CLINICAL AND VACCINE IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 18, Pages: 1002-1014, ISSN: 1556-6811
Lionel T, Joe C, Li Y, et al., 2010, THE VACCINE ANTIGEN FACTOR H BINDING PROTEIN FROM NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS CAN BE MODIFIED TO REDUCE BINDING TO FACTOR H WITH NO CHANGE IN IMMUNOGENICITY, Publisher: W B SAUNDERS CO LTD, Pages: 516-517, ISSN: 0163-4453
Scourfield A, Tan LKK, Nelson M, 2010, Severe septic-shock like reaction to co-trimoxazole in an HIV-positive man, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF STD & AIDS, Vol: 21, Pages: 521-523, ISSN: 0956-4624
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