Imperial College London

DrMarkoAunedi

Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Research Fellow
 
 
 
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m.aunedi

 
 
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1108gElectrical EngineeringSouth Kensington Campus

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Publications

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30 results found

Aunedi M, Pantaleo AM, Kuriyan K, Strbac G, Shah Net al., 2020, Modelling of national and local interactions between heat and electricity networks in low-carbon energy systems, Applied Energy, Vol: 276, Pages: 1-18, ISSN: 0306-2619

Decarbonisation of the heating and cooling sector is critical for achieving long-term energy and climate change objectives. Closer integration between heating/cooling and electricity systems can provide additional flexibility required to support the integration of variable renewables and other low-carbon energy sources. This paper proposes a framework for identifying cost-efficient solutions for supplying district heating systems within both operation and investment timescales, while considering local and national-level interactions between heat and electricity infrastructures. The proposed optimisation model minimises the levelised cost of a portfolio of heating technologies, and in particular Combined Heat and Power (CHP) and polygeneration systems, centralised heat pumps (HPs), centralised boilers and thermal energy storage (TES). A number of illustrative case studies are presented, quantifying the impact of renewable penetration, electricity price volatility, local grid constraints and local emission targets on optimal planning and operation of heat production assets. The sensitivity analysis demonstrates that the cost-optimal TES capacity could increase by 41–134% in order to manage a constraint in the local electricity grid, while in systems with higher RES penetration reflected in higher electricity price volatility it may be optimal to increase the TES capacity by 50–66% compared to constant prices, allowing centralised electric HP technologies to divert excess electricity produced by intermittent renewable generators to the heating sector. This confirms the importance of reflecting the whole-system value of heating technologies in the underlying cost-benefit analysis of heat networks.

Journal article

Strbac G, Pudjianto D, Aunedi M, Djapic P, Teng F, Zhang X, Ameli H, Moreira R, Brandon Net al., 2020, Role and value of flexibility in facilitating cost-effective energy system decarbonisation, Progress in Energy, Vol: 2, Pages: 042001-042001

Journal article

Zeljko M, Aunedi M, Slipac G, Jakšić Det al., 2020, Applications of Wien Automatic System Planning (WASP) model to non-standard power system expansion problems, Energies, Vol: 13, ISSN: 1996-1073

This paper presents several applications of Wien Automatic System Planning (WASP) tool to address specific modeling challenges encountered in power system expansion planning problems. Although WASP has been used by power system planners around the world for many decades, its standard formulation does not allow the user to explicitly model many situations that can occur in realistic power systems. Examples of such situations include dual-fuel plants, options for electricity exports, energy exchange agreements with neighboring systems, and considering large generating units as candidates in relatively small-size systems. A number of alternative modeling solutions are proposed in the paper based on the authors’ long-term experience in carrying out generation expansion studies for electricity systems of various types and sizes. These solutions demonstrate the flexibility of using WASP to model atypical features of power systems.

Journal article

Georgiou S, Aunedi M, Strbac G, Markides CNet al., 2020, On the value of liquid-air and Pumped-Thermal Electricity Storage systems in low-carbon electricity systems, Energy, Vol: 193, ISSN: 0360-5442

We consider two medium-to-large scale thermomechanical electricity storage technologies currently under development, namely ‘Liquid-Air Energy Storage’ (LAES) and ‘Pumped-Thermal Electricity Storage’ (PTES). Consistent thermodynamic models and costing methods based on a unified methodology for the two systems from previous work are presented and used with the objective of integrating the characteristics of the technologies into a whole-electricity system assessment model and assessing their system-level value in various scenarios for system decarbonization. It is found that the value of storage depends on the cumulative installed capacity of storage in the system, with storage technologies providing greater marginal benefits at low penetrations. The system value of PTES was found to be slightly higher than that of LAES, driven by a higher storage duration and efficiency, although these results must be seen in light of the uncertainty in the (as yet, not demonstrated) performance of key PTES components, namely the reciprocating-piston compressors and expanders. At the same time, PTES was also found to have a higher power capital cost. The results indicate that the complexity of the decarbonization challenge makes it difficult to identify clearly a ‘best’ technology and suggest that the uptake of either technology can provide significant system-level benefits.

Journal article

Aunedi M, Kuriyan K, Pantaleo AM, Strbac G, Shah Net al., 2019, Multi-scale modelling of interactions between heat and electricity networks in low-carbon energy systems, 14th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems – SDEWES Conference, Publisher: SDEWES

Decarbonisation of the heating and cooling sector is critical for achieving long-term energy and climate change objectives. Closer integration between heating/cooling and electricity systems can provide additional flexibility required to support the integration of variable renewables and other low-carbon energy sources. This paper proposes a framework for identifying cost-efficient solutions for supplying district heating systems within both operation and investment timescales, while considering local and national-level interactions between heat and electricity infrastructures. The proposed approach cost-optimises the portfolio of heating technologies, including Combined Heat and Power (CHP) and polygeneration systems, large-scale heat pumps (HPs), gas boilers and thermal energy storage (TES). It is implemented as a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) optimisation model that minimises net cost of heat supply, taking into account investment and operation cost of heat supply and storage options as well as the impact of local and wider interactions with the electricity system.

Conference paper

Sun M, Djapic P, Aunedi M, Pudjianto D, Strbac Get al., 2019, Benefits of smart control of hybrid heat pumps: an analysis of field trial data, Applied Energy, Vol: 247, Pages: 525-536, ISSN: 0306-2619

Smart hybrid heat pumps have the capability to perform smart switching between electricity and gas by employing a fully-optimized control technology with predictive demand-side management to automatically use the most cost-effective heating mode across time. This enables a mechanism for delivering flexible demand-side response in a domestic setting. This paper conducts a comprehensive analysis of the fine-grained data collected during the world’s first sizable field trial of smart hybrid heat pumps to present the benefits of the smart control technology. More specifically, a novel flexibility quantification framework is proposed to estimate the capability of heat pump demand shifting based on preheating. Within the proposed framework, accurate estimation of baseline heat demand during the days with interventions is fundamentally critical for understanding the effectiveness of smart control. Furthermore, diversity of heat pump demand is quantified across different numbers of households as an important input into electricity distribution network planning. Finally, the observed values of the Coefficient of Performance (COP) have been analyzed to demonstrate that the smart control can optimize the heat pump operation while taking into account a variety of parameters including the heat pump output water temperature, therefore delivering higher average COP values by maximizing the operating efficiency of the heat pump. Finally, the results of the whole-system assessment of smart hybrid heat pumps demonstrate that the system value of smart control is between 2.1 and 5.3 £ bn/year.

Journal article

Strbac G, Pudjianto D, Aunedi M, Papadaskalopoulos D, Djapic P, Ye Y, Moreira R, Karimi H, Fan Yet al., 2019, Cost-effective decarbonization in a decentralized market the benefits of using flexible technologies and resources, IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, Vol: 17, Pages: 25-36, ISSN: 1540-7977

Journal article

Georgiou S, Aunedi M, Strbac G, Markides Cet al., 2018, Application of liquid-air and pumped-thermal electricity storage systems in low-carbon electricity systems, Heat Powered Cycles - HPC-2018

In this study, we considertwo medium-to large-scale electricity storage systems currently under development, namely ‘Liquid-Air Energy Storage’ (LAES) and ‘Pumped-Thermal Electricity Storage’ (PTES). Consistent thermodynamic models and costing methodologies for the twosystems are presented,with the objective of integrating the characteristics of these technologies intoa whole-electricity system assessment model,andassessingtheirsystem-levelvalue in different scenarios for power system decarbonisation.It is found that the value of storage variesgreatlydepending on the cumulative installed capacity of storage in the electrical system, withthe storage technologies providinggreater marginal benefits at low penetrations. Two carbon target scenarios showed similar results, with a limited effect of the carbon target on the system value of storage (althoughit is noted thatthis may change for even more ambitious carbon targets). On the other hand, the location and installed capacity of storage plants isfound to have a significantimpact on the system value and acceptable cost of thesetechnologies. The whole-system value of PTES was foundto be slightly higher than that of LAES, driven by a higher storage duration and efficiency,however, due to the higher power capital cost of PTES, this becomes less attractive for implementation at lower volumes than LAES.

Conference paper

Teng F, Pudjianto D, Aunedi M, Strbac Get al., 2018, Assessment of Future Whole-System Value of Large-Scale Pumped Storage Plants in Europe, Energies, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1996-1073

This paper analyses the impacts and benefits of the pumped storage plant (PSP) and its upgrade to variable speed on generation and transmission capacity requirements, capital costs, system operating costs and carbon emissions in the future European electricity system. The combination of a deterministic system planning tool, Whole-electricity System Investment Model (WeSIM), and a stochastic system operation optimisation tool, Advanced Stochastic Unit Commitment (ASUC), is used to analyse the whole-system value of PSP technology and to quantify the impact of European balancing market integration and other competing flexible technologies on the value of the PSP. Case studies on the Pan-European system demonstrate that PSPs can reduce the total system cost by up to €13 billion per annum by 2050 in a scenario with a high share of renewables. Upgrading the PSP to variable-speed drive enhances its long-term benefits by 10–20%. On the other hand, balancing market integration across Europe may potentially reduce the overall value of the variable-speed PSP, although the effect can vary across different European regions. The results also suggest that large-scale deployment of demand-side response (DSR) leads to a significant reduction in the value of PSPs, while the value of PSPs increases by circa 18% when the total European interconnection capacity is halved. The benefit of PSPs in reducing emissions is relatively negligible by 2030 but constitutes around 6–10% of total annual carbon emissions from the European power sector by 2050.

Journal article

Teng F, Aunedi M, Strbac G, Trovato V, Dallagi Aet al., 2018, Provision of ancillary services in future low-carbon UK electricity system, IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference Europe (ISGT-Europe), Publisher: IEEE, ISSN: 2165-4816

Integration of intermittent RES into the electricity system imposes a considerable demand for additional flexibility. This paper analyses the challenges on the provision of ancillary services and potential solutions from emerging flexible technologies (including flexible generation, energy storage, demand side response and interconnection) in the future UK electricity system. The results suggest that the cost of reserve and response services in 2030 may increase up to 1.23 B£ and 1.04 B£, respectively. Alternative flexible technologies have been demonstrated to play an important role in the provision of ancillary services, although the benefits vary among different technologies. Furthermore, these flexible technologies can also reduce carbon emission and hence the required amount of high-cost low-carbon generation to achieve the same carbon target.

Conference paper

Teng F, Aunedi M, Moreira R, Strbac G, Papadopoulos P, Laguna Aet al., 2017, Business case for distributed energy storage, 24th International Conference & Exhibition on Electricity Distribution (CIRED), Pages: 1605-1608

© 2017 The Institution of Engineering and Technology. All rights reserved. This study presents the analysis carried out to quantify the value that distributed energy storage (ES) installation may deliver to its owner by simultaneously providing multiple services to a number of entities in the electricity sector. In this analysis, a full spectrum of services that ES may deliver are considered: energy arbitrage, balancing services, supporting low-carbon generation, network support, frequency regulation services, and capacity market. The results demonstrate that the net revenues from any single service would be difficult to justify the relatively high investment cost. Optimised provision of multiple services is therefore the key route for ES to make a profitable business case in the market. The potential synergies and conflicts between TSO and DNO services supplied by ES are also analysed.

Conference paper

Strbac G, Aunedi M, Konstantelos I, Moreira R, Teng F, Moreno R, Pudjianto D, Laguna A, Papadopoulos Pet al., 2017, Opportunities for Energy Storage: Assessing Whole-System Economic Benefits of Energy Storage in Future Electricity Systems, IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, ISSN: 1540-7977

Journal article

Aunedi M, Pudjianto D, Strbac G, 2017, Calculating system integration costs of low-carbon generation technologies in future GB electricity system, 5th IET International Conference on Renewable Power Generation (RPG) 2016, Publisher: Institution of Engineering and Technology

System integration costs (SIC) of generation technologies, also referred to as system externalities, include various categories of additional costs that are incurred in the system in addition to the cost of building and operating the generation capacity that is added to the system. SIC may include increased balancing cost, cost of additional backup capacity, cost of reinforcing network infrastructure and the cost of maintaining system carbon emissions. In this paper we present a whole-system approach to quantifying the SIC and explore different approaches to calculating the relative SIC of a generation technology when compared to another technology. The results show that the SIC of low-carbon generation technologies will significantly depend on the composition of the generation mix, with higher penetrations of variable renewables giving rise to a higher SIC. Also, SIC will significantly depend on the deployment level of flexible options such as more flexible generation technologies, energy storage, demand side response or interconnection. The additional system cost driven by low-carbon technologies can provide a very useful input to inform the energy policy and support the selection of the low-carbon portfolio with the lowest total system cost.

Conference paper

Teng F, Aunedi M, Strbac G, 2015, Benefits of flexibility from smart electrified transportation and heating in the future UK electricity system, Applied Energy, Vol: 167, Pages: 420-431, ISSN: 1872-9118

This paper presents an advanced stochastic analytical framework to quantify the benefits of smart electric vehicles (EVs) and heat pumps (HPs) on the carbon emission and the integration cost of renewable energy sources (RES) in the future UK electricity system. The typical operating patterns of EVs/HPs as well as the potential flexibility to perform demand shifting and frequency response are sourced from recent UK trials. A comprehensive range of case studies across several future UK scenarios suggest that smart EVs/HPs could deliver measurable carbon reductions by enabling a more efficient operation of the electricity system, while at the same time making the integration of electrified transport and heating demand significantly less carbon intensive. The second set of case studies establish that smart EVs/HPs have significant potential to support cost-efficient RES integration by reducing: (a) RES balancing cost, (b) cost of required back-up generation capacity, and (c) cost of additional low-carbon capacity required to offset lower fuel efficiency and curtailed RES output while achieving the same emission target. Frequency response provision from EVs/HPs could significantly enhance both the carbon benefit and the RES integration benefit of smart EVs/HPs.

Journal article

Teng F, Aunedi M, Pudjianto D, Strbac Get al., 2015, Benefits of demand-side response in providing frequency response service in the future GB power system, Frontiers in Energy Research, Vol: 3, ISSN: 2296-598X

The demand for ancillary service is expected to increase significantly in the future Great Britain (GB) electricity system due to high penetration of wind. In particular, the need for frequency response, required to deal with sudden frequency drops following a loss of generator, will increase because of the limited inertia capability of wind plants. This paper quantifies the requirements for primary frequency response and analyses the benefits of frequency response provision from demand-side response (DSR). The results show dramatic changes in frequency response requirements driven by high penetration of wind. Case studies carried out by using an advanced stochastic generation scheduling model suggest that the provision of frequency response from DSR could greatly reduce the system operation cost, wind curtailment, and carbon emissions in the future GB system characterized by high penetration of wind. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that the benefit of DSR shows significant diurnal and seasonal variation, whereas an even more rapid (instant) delivery of frequency response from DSR could provide significant additional value. Our studies also indicate that the competing technologies to DSR, namely battery storage, and more flexible generation could potentially reduce its value by up to 35%, still leaving significant room to deploy DSR as frequency response provider.

Journal article

Strbac G, Aunedi M, Papadaskalopoulos D, Pudjianto Det al., 2015, Modelling Requirements for Least-Cost and Market-Driven Whole-System Analysis

Report

Strbac G, Moreno Vieyra R, Konstantelos I, Aunedi M, Pudjianto Det al., 2014, Strategic Development of North Sea Grid Infrastructure to Facilitate Least-Cost Decarbonisation, Strategic Development of North Sea Grid Infrastructure to Facilitate Least-Cost Decarbonisation, Publisher: E3G

Offshore wind power is expected to make a significant contribution towards de-carbonisingthe European energy system. It is envisaged that today’s installed capacity levels of about 5GW of offshore wind generation may reach 150GW by 2030, with approximately half of thiscapacity located in the North Seas. Given Europe’s goal of increased integration of the powermarkets by expanding cross-border interconnectors, there is a significant opportunity tointegrate offshore wind generation and interconnector projects in the North Seas in order totake advantage of potentially significant economies of scale and thus reduce network costs.

Report

Pudjianto D, Aunedi M, Djapic P, Strbac Get al., 2014, Whole-systems assessment of the value of energy storage in low-carbon electricity systems, IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, Vol: 5, Pages: 1098-1109, ISSN: 1949-3061

Energy storage represents one of the key enabling technologies to facilitate an efficient system integration of intermittent renewable generation and electrified transport and heating demand. This paper presents a novel whole-systems approach to valuing the contribution of grid-scale electricity storage. This approach simultaneously optimizes investment into new generation, network and storage capacity, while minimising system operation cost, and also considering reserve and security requirements. Case studies on the system of Great Britain (GB) with high share of renewable generation demonstrate that energy storage can simultaneously bring benefits to several sectors, including generation, transmission and distribution, while supporting real-time system balancing. The analysis distinguishes between bulk and distributed storage applications, while also considering the competition against other technologies, such as flexible generation, interconnection and demand-side response.

Journal article

Aunedi M, Kountouriotis P-A, Calderon JEO, Angeli D, Strbac Get al., 2013, Economic and Environmental Benefits of Dynamic Demand in Providing Frequency Regulation, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, Vol: 4, Pages: 2036-2048, ISSN: 1949-3053

Journal article

Papadaskalopoulos D, Strbac G, Mancarella P, Aunedi M, Stanojevic Vet al., 2013, Decentralized Participation of Flexible Demand in Electricity Markets-Part II: Application With Electric Vehicles and Heat Pump Systems, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, Vol: 28, Pages: 3667-3674, ISSN: 0885-8950

Journal article

Aunedi M, Strbac G, 2013, Efficient System Integration of Wind Generation through Smart Charging of Electric Vehicles, 8th International Conference and Exhibition on Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies (EVER), Publisher: IEEE

Conference paper

Pudjianto D, Djapic P, Aunedi M, Gan CK, Strbac G, Huang S, Infield Det al., 2013, Smart control for minimizing distribution network reinforcement cost due to electrification, ENERGY POLICY, Vol: 52, Pages: 76-84, ISSN: 0301-4215

Journal article

Strbac G, Aunedi M, Pudjianto D, Stanojevic Vet al., 2013, Smart Grid: Facilitating Cost-Effective Evolution to a Low-Carbon Future, Transition to Renewable Energy Systems, Pages: 741-771, ISBN: 9783527332397

© 2013 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. All rights reserved. This chapter contains sections titled: Overview of the Present Electricity System Structure and Its Design and Operation Philosophy System Integration Challenges of Low-Carbon Electricity Systems Smart Grid: Changing the System Operation Paradigm Quantifying the Benefits of Smart Grid Technologies in a Low-Carbon future Integration of Demand-Side Response in System Operation and Planning Implementation of Smart Grid: Distributed Energy Marketplace References

Book chapter

Silva V, Stanojevic V, Aunedi M, Pudjianto D, Strbac Get al., 2012, Smart domestic appliances as enabling technology for demand-side integration: Modelling, value and drivers, The Future of Electricity Demand: Customers, Citizens and Loads, Pages: 243-281, ISBN: 9781107008502

© Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge 2011. Introduction: Decarbonization of future electricity systems requires a significant proportion of electricity consumption to be supplied from nuclear, carbon capture and storage (CCS) plant and renewable sources. Since nuclear and CCS plant are less flexible than, for instance, natural gas-fired combined cycle plants, and renewable sources such as wind, solar and tidal are intermittent, this creates serious challenges to the way the current system is operated. In order to ensure that the system is capable of maintaining a supply and demand balance, the reduction in generation flexibility as a result of incorporating more low-carbon generation technologies has to be balanced with an increase in flexibility from demand. Consequently demand-side flexibility needs to be developed and smart domestic appliances can play an important role (IEA, 2008). In order to gain insight and understanding of the role and value of smart appliances, comprehensive studies of its economic value are required. Such analysis needs to consider relevant parameters such as consumers' behaviour and acceptance, appliance technology and future scenarios of power-system development regarding flexibility of generation and network capacity. This chapter presents a framework to assess the value of smart appliances, as flexible demand, to increase system flexibility and to provide new sources of ancillary services. The increased flexibility will improve system efficiency, reduce operating costs and carbon emissions, and increase utilization of renewable sources; from these benefits the value of smart appliances will be derived. However, any decrease in the value of energy services received as a result of, for instance, inconvenience caused by curtailment or rescheduling of consumption should, in theory, be deducted from such benefits. At the core of the framework is a model that simulates annual system operation, scheduling simultaneously genera

Book chapter

Pudjianto D, Gan CK, Stanojevic V, Aunedi M, Djapic P, Strbac Get al., 2010, Value of integrating distributed energy resources in the UK electricity system

Continuous connection of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) technology on a "fit and forget" basis may lead to inefficiently low utilization of generation and network assets. In order to mitigate this effect, a reappraisal of the technical, regulatory, and commercial frameworks that shape decisions on future network design, investment, operation, and pricing are required. The transition of distribution network operation from passive to active would facilitate cost effective integration of DER and an efficient evolution towards a low carbon electricity system. In this context, this paper summarizes the results from a range of quantitative studies on the UK electricity system that have been carried out to assess the benefits of active management of distribution networks. ©2010 IEEE.

Conference paper

Aunedi M, Štrbac G, Pudjianto D, 2009, Characterisation of portfolios of distributed energy resources under uncertainty

The paper proposes a model to determine the optimal strategy of offering electricity at the day-ahead market for a portfolio of Distributed Energy Resources. The stochastic nature of the problem is taken into account through uncertainty of generator output and forecasts of day-ahead and imbalance prices. The model attempts to maximise the expected profit of the portfolio when exposed to imbalance prices and output uncertainty. Portfolios analysed included conventional generators, wind generators, or both. The results indicate that the proposed approach is able to adapt the offering strategy to the risk profile in different times of the day. Also, significant synergic effects are demonstrated when wind and conventional generators are aggregated into a single portfolio, due to increased flexibility in internal portfolio balancing.

Conference paper

Aunedi M, Škrlec D, Štrbac G, 2008, Optimizing the operation of distributed generation in market environment using genetic algorithms, Pages: 780-785

Restructuring and deregulation of the electricity sector have altered the behavior of market players, shifting the objective from cost minimization to profit maximization. Development of distributed generation units, along with concerns raised over the security of supply has prompted many customers to consider the installation of their own local capacity for generating electricity (and heat). This paper proposes a methodology for optimizing the operation of a portfolio of distributed units, based on profit maximization using genetic algorithms. Genetic algorithms are an optimization method based on the analogy with biological evolution, where the so-called population of solutions evolves through generations as a result of recombination, mutation and selection processes. Optimization is carried out based on the day-ahead forecast of hourly market prices of electricity. The method is tested on a set of distributed units, demonstrating the ability to find good solutions in an acceptable time period. © 2008 IEEE.

Conference paper

Aunedi M, Skrlec D, Strbac G, 2008, Optimizing the Operation of Distributed Generation in Market Environment Using Genetic Algorithms, IEEE Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference, Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 759-+, ISSN: 2158-8481

Conference paper

Aunedi M, Ortega Calderon JE, Silva V, Mitcheson PD, Strbac Get al., 2008, Economic and Environmental Impact of Dynamic Demand

Report

Aunedi M, Green T, Early Insights into System Impacts of Smart Local Energy Systems

A whole-system, investment-optimising model has been used to examine thechange in total cost of meeting demand for electricity when Smart Local EnergySystems (SLES) are deployed. Our assumption is that SLES, alongside their otherfeatures, enhance the flexibility of electricity consumption throughdemand-side response (DSR) and facilitate use of local energy storage. We findthat with the flexibility of SLES present, variable renewables such as offshorewind can displace firm but more expensive low-carbon sources such as CCS.Considering a 100 gCO2/kWh emissions target in 2030, a 10% penetration of SLEScould reduce total costs by {\pounds}1.2bn/year relative to no SLES, while athigher penetration of 50% SLES, savings increase twofold to{\pounds}2.8bn/year. Under a more stringent emissions limit of 25 gCO2/kWh in2040, the savings rise to {\pounds}2.9bn/year for 10% SLES uptake and risethreefold to {\pounds}8.7bn/year at 50% uptake. These results hold for costs ofenabling DSR of less than {\pounds}100/kW and it is not until an unlikely{\pounds}5,000/kW that the savings are nullified. The savings from substitutingwind for CCS remain substantial even if the anticipated reduction of cost ofwind in 2040 does not materialise. Cost savings from the flexibility providedby SLES are affected by realisation of domestic DSR through other means. A 20%uptake level of non-SLES DSR in 2040 still allows SLES to create cost savingsof {\pounds}6.8bn/year at 50% penetration (a 20% fall from{\pounds}8.7bn/year).

Journal article

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