107 results found
Tassell C, Aurisicchio M, 2023, Refill at home for fast-moving consumer goods: uncovering compliant and divergent consumer behaviour, Sustainable Production and Consumption, Vol: 39, Pages: 1-16, ISSN: 2352-5509
Context and problemConsumers of fast-moving consumer goods have become accustomed to a culture of convenience and disposability, cultivating practices that are at odds with recycling, reusing, and reducing. Through the concept of refill, the fast-moving consumer goods industry is moving beyond the disposability and recyclability of packaging and products to consider longer term, more durable reuse solutions. If practised as intended, reuse has the capacity to lower the intensity of materials used compared to disposal or recycling. However, research on actual reuse behaviour is sparse, and new work is necessary to explore how consumers handle material resources in reuse offerings.MethodIn-depth interviews with 26 consumers were conducted where the behaviour chain method was used to elicit and map resource journeys for 48 refill at home cases.ResultsConsumers of refill at home offerings were found to display both compliant behaviour and a range of divergent resource handling behaviours, which either increased or decreased the impact of reuse. The behaviours were structured in a framework consisting of six reuse resource handling behaviour types and 17 sub-types, which operate alone or in combination. Whilst consumers displayed many instances of compliant behaviour, overall divergent behaviours were more common, like using multiple reusable products for the same purpose or using single-use products in parallel. Interestingly, consumers of refill at home offerings with a service engaged in compliant behaviour in the majority of the instances. Consumers were found to employ divergent behaviours even at the end of life, often recycling non-recyclable reusable components and occasionally disposing of recyclables in residual waste.ConclusionsThe resulting framework of resource handling behaviours provides a more nuanced understanding of reuse in practice than previously offered. The behaviour chain method was found to have the structural and analytical rigour to dissect dif
Engelmann A, Zeeuw Van Der Laan A, Nybom L, et al., 2021, Developing the material service system concept: a case study of steel industrial drums, International Conference on Engineering Design, Publisher: Oxford University Press
Within the circular economy, the Product-Service System (PSS) is a key business model to slow downand dematerialise resource consumption between manufacturers or service providers and customers.Material-Service Systems (MSSs) have been proposed as a business model to develop the performanceeconomy focusing on the relationship between material suppliers and manufacturers. The aim of thisresearch is to introduce and develop the MSS concept and to apply it to a real-world case study. Theresearch involved two stages. First, a modelling method is proposed to represent the flow, transformationand ownership of resources by the stakeholders in a supply chain. Second, the method is tested usingsteel industrial drums as a case. The results indicate that the MSS has the potential to radically transformthe steel drums industry and it could work effectively with a PSS within a reuse system to reconditionand reintroduce obsolete drums into the market.
Tassell C, Aurisicchio M, 2021, A Systems Thinking Framework Integrating Circular Behaviour Research, PLATE
Muranko Z, Tassell C, Zeeuw van der Laan A, et al., 2021, Characterisation and environmental value proposition of reuse models for fast-moving consumer goods: reusable packaging and products, Sustainability, Vol: 13, Pages: 1-35, ISSN: 2071-1050
Problem: Fast-Moving Consumer Goods (FMCGs) are products that are purchased and consumed frequently to satisfy continuous consumer demand. In a linear economy, FMCGs are typically offered as single-use and disposable products. Limitations in product design, insufficient collection systems, and inefficient recovery processes prevent high recycling rates. As a result, FMCGs often end up in landfill or the environment, contributing to waste accumulation, and pollution. Whilst recycling is the most common waste prevention strategy practiced by the industry, the process is limited to addressing only the final stage of the product life cycle, omitting the overproduction and consumption of materials typical of FMCGs. Instead, reuse is a strategy that is capable of extending the value of resources by slowing material flows. Novel reuse models that require the consumer to interact with durable primary packaging and products are emerging in the FMCG industry. However, the constituent elements and operation principles of such reuse models are not fully understood. The aim of this research is to develop a comprehensive characterisation of reuse models and to evaluate their potential to deliver environmental value. Method: Ninety-two reuse offerings were selected and analysed to identify their reuse system elements. The analysis led to the identification of a framework including five reuse models, which were also evaluated to establish their capability to deliver environmental value when compared to conventional single-use and disposable FMCGs. Results: Currently in the FMCG sector, reusable products are mostly durable packaging, such as bottles and containers for beverages, foods, personal and home care goods, and are infrequently durable products, such as personal and baby care goods, including razors and nappies. Three reuse models involve exclusive reuse, a behaviour by which a reusable product is used and kept by a single user throughout the product lifetime. In exclusive r
Aurisicchio M, Yang X, 2021, Designing Conversational Agents: A Self-Determination Theory Approach, 2021 ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2021)
Aurisicchio M, Zeeuw Van Der Laan A, Tennant M, 2020, Material-Service Systems for Sustainable Resource Management, EcoDesign 2019
Baxter W, Roots S, Tuomala E, et al., 2020, Ritual Design Toolkit, London, Publisher: Interaction Foundry
Rituals are intentional behaviours with a distinct emotional outcome. They fill our lives with deeper meaning and are found everywhere from the workplace to the kitchen table. We have made the Ritual Design Toolkit to help you understand rituals, how to harness them, and how to design them. In our own work, we have used the toolkit in a range of applications including enhancing key moments in a customer journey, helping people adopt healthier eating habits and building and strengthening communities. The toolkit can be used for grand rituals and micro-interactions. Whether you are a manager of a team, a packaging designer, or a service enthusiast, you can find guidance here to build more meaningful moments into your work. The toolkit offers a ritual design process consisting of three main steps: scoping, creating and testing rituals.
Muranko Z, Aurisicchio M, Baxter W, et al., 2020, Behaviour chains in circular consumption systems: the reuse of FMCGs, Proceedings of the IS4CE2020 Conference of the International Society for the Circular Economy
Aurisicchio M, Tassell C, 2020, The Evolution of Reuse and Recycling Behaviours: An Integrative Review with Application to the Fast-Moving Consumer Goods Industry, Proceedings of the IS4CE2020 Conference of the International Society for the Circular Economy
Hsu P-Y, Aurisicchio M, Angeloudis P, et al., 2020, Understanding and visualizing schedule deviations in construction projects using fault tree analysis, Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, Vol: 27, Pages: 2501-2522, ISSN: 0969-9988
Delays in construction projects are both disruptive and expensive. Thus, potential causes of schedule deviation need to be identified and mitigated. In previous research, delay factors were predominantly identified through surveys administered to stakeholders in construction projects. Such delay factors are typically considered individually and presented at the same level without explicitly examining their sequence of occurrence and inter-relationships. In reality, owing to the complex structure of construction projects and long execution time, non-conformance to schedule occurs by a chain of cascading events. An understanding of these linkages is important not only for minimising the delays but also for revealing the liability of stakeholders. To explicitly illustrate the cause–effect and logical relationship between delay factors and further identify the primary factors which possess the highest significance toward the overall project schedule delay, the fault tree analysis (FTA) method, a widely implemented approach to root cause problems in safety-critical systems, has been systematically and rigorously executed.
Zeeuw van der Laan A, Aurisicchio M, 2020, A framework to use product-service systems as plans to produce closed-loop resource flows, Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol: 252, Pages: 1-15, ISSN: 0959-6526
The circular economy is a model of production and consumption to address the relentless depletion of resources and the accumulation of waste. In the circular economy literature, there are sparse suggestions that Product-Service Systems (PSSs) have the potential to produce closed-loop resource flows. This study explored this potential using a systematic literature review focused on the use phase and obsolescence. We identified twenty-one PSS elements that contribute to closed loops and categorised them by six architectural levels, i.e. services, resources, stakeholders, contract, value delivery, and systems and tools. We then structured the PSS elements and their contributions to closed loops under four subfunctions and consolidated them in a novel framework. Intercepting and transitioning obsolete resources are subfunctions demanded by a PSS to achieve an operational solution. Stating and governing resource lifetime are subfunctions wanted by a PSS to improve the solution. The results call for a functional approach to PSS design and consideration of obsolescence of products, components and materials. The implications of the results are that PSS elements contribute to achieving circularity by satisfying specific subfunctions and the data in the framework provide a basis for selecting suitable PSS elements.
Zeeuw Van Der Laan A, Aurisicchio M, 2019, Archetypical consumer roles in closing the loops of resource flows for Fast-Moving Consumer Goods, Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol: 236, Pages: 1-16, ISSN: 0959-6526
After the depletion of their consumable components, Fast-Moving Consumer Goods (FMCGs) become obsolete. In an attempt to close the loop of resources (i.e. products, components or materials) FMCGs can be designed with revalorisation services. In these product-service systems (PSSs) consumers are assigned a key role in closing the loops of resource flows. To understand and define this role, we dissected eighteen examples of PSSs. From this analysis, four dimensions emerged that characterise distinct aspects of the PSSs: the form of obsolescence; the change of resources from obsolete to operative or recoverable; the prerequisite activities required of consumers for revalorisation; and the facilitators of activities (i.e. investments and incentives). These dimensions were used to model four data-driven archetypical roles of consumers named after the interaction between consumers and the resource in the obsolete state, namely keep, bring, consign or abandon obsolete components. The research concluded that revalorisation always takes place in designated locations. The roles that consumers fulfil in closed-loop PSSs involve carrying out activities to position resources in such locations. The roles always come at a cost, but PSSs can be designed to reduce it. PSSs can also be designed to induce a perceivable value of obsolete resources, which can be used to increase role fulfilment. This research presents a comprehensive understanding of the roles of consumers in the specific context of closed-loop FMCGs, identifies tactics to increase the fulfilment of these roles and suggests further research on behaviours and PSSs to understand the roles of other stakeholders in various type of PSSs.
Hsu P-Y, Aurisicchio M, Angeloudis P, 2019, Risk-averse supply chain for modular construction projects, Automation in Construction, Vol: 106, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 0926-5805
The traditional in-situ construction method is currently being replaced by modular building systems, that take advantage of modern manufacturing, transportation, and assembly methods. This transformation poses a challenge to construction supply chains, which have, thus far, been concentrated on raw material transportation only. A mathematical model is conceived in this study for the design and optimisation of risk-averse logistics configurations for modular construction projects under operational uncertainty. The model considers the manufacturing, storage, and assembly stages, along with the selection of optimal warehouse locations. Using robust optimisation, the model accounts for common causes of schedule deviations in construction sites, including inclement weather, late deliveries, labour productivity fluctuations and crane malfunctions. A school dormitory construction project is used as a case study, demonstrating that the proposed model outperforms existing techniques in settings with multiple sources of uncertainty.
Yang X, Aurisicchio M, Baxter W, 2019, Understanding Affective Experiences With Conversational Agents, CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI), Publisher: ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY
Rago A, 2019, Gradual Evaluation in Argumentation Frameworks: Methods, Properties and Applications
Gradual evaluation methods in argumentation frameworks provide semantics for assessing the gradual acceptance of arguments, differing from the qualitative semantics that have been used in argument evaluation since argumentation’s conception. These methods and their semantics are wide-ranging; they comprise those for group acceptance, probabilistic measures and game-theoretical strength, amongst many others. This affords numerous application areas and so the requisite behaviour for each needs to be justified by theoretical proofs of useful properties for a specific application.Our contributions to this field span three interweaving sub-categories, namely methods, properties and applications. For gradual evaluation methods, we develop a number of novel and useful methods themselves. For each method we detail the semantics’ and the frameworks’ definitions then undertake theoretical evaluations based on their properties, before applications targeting real-world problems are suggested for each method. As for gradual evaluation properties, we undertake a systematic analysis for this research landscape by first identifying groups of conceptually related properties in the literature and provide a simplifying and unifying perspective for these properties by showing that all the considered literature properties are implied by four, novel parametric principles. We then validate these principles by showing that they are satisfied by several quantitative argumentation formalisms in the literature. We also instantiate the extensive number of implied properties of these principles which are not present in the literature. These properties are also used to extract argumentation explanations for recommendations in recommender systems, a novel concept and application.
Zeeuw Van Der Laan A, Aurisicchio M, 2019, Gateways to Revalorisation in Future Circular Cities: A Vision for Closed-Loop Resource Flows, Sustainable Innovations 22nd International Conference
Zeeuw Van Der Laan A, Aurisicchio M, 2019, Designing Product-Service Systems to Close Resource Loops: Circular Design Guidelines, CIRP Lifecycle Engineering, Publisher: Elsevier BV, Pages: 631-636, ISSN: 2212-8271
Hsu P-Y, Panagiotis A, Aurisicchio M, 2018, Optimal logistics planning for modular construction using two-stage stochastic programming, Automation in Construction, Vol: 94, Pages: 47-61, ISSN: 0926-5805
The construction sector is currently undergoing a shift from stick-built construction to modular building systems that take advantage of modern prefabrication techniques. Long established in-situ construction practices are thus being replaced by processes imported from the manufacturing sector, where component fabrication takes place within a factory environment. As a result of this transformation, current construction supply chains, which have focused on the delivery of raw materials to sites, are no longer apt and need to make way to new, strengthened, and time-critical logistics systems. The aim of this study is to establish a mathematical model for the optimisation of logistics processes in modular construction covering three tiers of operation: manufacturing, storage and assembly. Previous studies have indicated that construction site delays constitute the largest cause of schedule deviations. Using the model outlined in this paper we seek to determine how factory manufacturing and inventory management should react to variations in the demand on construction sites. A two-stage stochastic programming model is developed to capture all possible demand variations on site. The model is evaluated using a case study from the residential construction sector. The application shows that the model is effective and can serve as decision support to optimise modular construction logistics.
Piselli A, Baxter W, Simonato M, et al., 2018, Development and evaluation of a methodology to integrate technical and sensorial properties in materials selection., Materials and Design, Vol: 153, Pages: 259-272, ISSN: 0261-3069
In the materials selection process, the use of different tools, languages and perspectives frequently causes disagreement between engineers and industrial designers.The aim of the paper is to define an integrated method for materials selection that provides industrial designers with measurable data to support and explain aesthetic decisions on materials.A new method for materials selection consisting of multiple tools structured in a two-step framework is presented. The method is tested through a case study of professional kitchen appliances where metal components are replaced with polymers. The first step involved the application of an established technique to identify polymeric bulk solutions, based on their technical properties. The second step employed a sensory analysis test to choose suitable finishes. Thirty-seven individuals performed the test: the subjects highlighted their main perceptions of metal and metal-look polymer finishes.The research demonstrates that the proposed method is suitable for the evaluation of both technical and sensorial properties of materials. In particular, Mapping test represents a rapid, low cost and effective tool to help industrial designers justify Colour Materials and Finish (CMF) choices with quantifiable information.
Michalakoudis I, Aurisicchio M, Childs P, et al., 2018, Empowering manufacturing personnel through functional understanding, Production Planning and Control, Vol: 29, Pages: 688-703, ISSN: 0953-7287
A growing interest in organizational knowledge management, along with increasingly widespread adoption of Quality Standards such as ISO 9001, has increasingly led organizations to implement training programs for all employees. Training for the manufacturing workforce, however, remains limited to informal “On-the-Job” training, administered by peer colleagues or supervisors - particularly in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) where economic, educational, cognitive and cultural constraints to training are often deeply embedded. This paper proposes a methodology for training the manufacturing workforce on the functions of products and their constituent parts, and presents a case study conducted in a UK-based manufacturing SME - aiming to verify our two research hypotheses: Functional Analysis Diagrams (FAD) of the company’s products and parts would assist in knowledge assimilation; and, the knowledge assimilation has a positive effect on work quality and productivity levels. This intervention provided training on the purpose of the processes the participants are involved, aiming to empower them in supporting the optimization of these same processes. By using surveys and applying statistical inference on long-term quantitative data, the study confirmed subjective observations of substantial improvements in work quality (scrap reduction of 63%) and increased productivity (setup time reduced by 67%). To our knowledge, we were the first to examine the effect of functional modelling methods for workforce training in a manufacturing setup. Although this paper presents a single case study, the results suggest that the proposed methodology can be a promising solution for the industry.
Haughton TW, Angeloudis P, Parpas P, et al., 2018, Optimal Component Modularisation of Process Plants for Modular Construction, EURO 2018
Bin Bahrudin FI, Aurisicchio M, 2018, The appraisal of sustainable materials, Design 2018, Publisher: Design Society, Pages: 2575-2584, ISSN: 1847-9073
This paper seeks to understand how users appraise and perceive sustainable materials. Using thinking aloud sessions, appraisals of sustainable materials embodied in commercial products were collected from users and categorised. To account for the appraisalof systemic features of materials we have extended a previous categorisation ofmaterial appraisals. We have also investigated the relationships between the appraisal themes of sustainable materials. The results stress the influence of material origin in the appraisal.This understanding is useful to facilitate the uptake of the materials.
Morrone M, Garion C, Aurisicchio M, et al., 2018, A coupled multiphysics FEM model to investigate electromagnetic, thermal and mechanical effects in complex assemblies: the design of the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider beam screen, Applied Mathematical Modelling: simulation and computation for engineering and environmental systems, Vol: 57, Pages: 280-301, ISSN: 0307-904X
In the framework of the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) project, new beam screens will be installed by 2024 within the cold bore of the superconducting magnets. The beam screen is an octagonal shaped pipe that shields the 1.9 K magnet cryogenic system from the heat loads and damage to the magnet coils that would be otherwise induced by the highly penetrating collision debris. It also ensures that proper vacuum conditions required for the stability of the beam are met.A failure scenario of the beam screen is represented by the magnet quench, a resistive transition of the superconducting magnets, that can compromise its mechanical integrity. During a quench the magnet gradient of the quadrupole, in which the beam screen is inserted, decays from 140 T/m to about 0 T/m in 0.4 s inducing high magnitude forces in the assembly. Understanding the magnetic, thermal and mechanical behaviours of the beam screen assembly during the quench is critical to enable its effective design and operation. A numerical model, that can accurately predict the behaviours of the beam screen during a magnet quench, has been developed.Compared to the analytical formulations used to design the beam screen currently installed in the LHC, the multiphysics FEM model developed in this research introduces multiple elements of novelty and improved performance. First, self-inductance effects are accounted for and found to reduce the induced forces up to approximately 2000 % at high electrical conductivity values. Second, the one-way and two-way coupling of the magnetic with the mechanical and thermal interfaces are explored and the best trade-off is defined. Third, the mechanical response of the assembly is evaluated dynamically over the evolution of the magnetic field decay rather than just in a quasi-static manner. Fourth, three dimensional geometries can also be studied enabling the design of the components to be placed along the beam axis.The model has been verified by comparison to a
Baxter W, Aurisicchio M, 2018, Ownership by Design, Psychological Ownership and Consumer Behaviour, Editors: Peck, Shu
Ownership is central to the successful design of many offerings. This is made more evident with large contextual shifts in terms of immaterial ownership, ownership by multiple users, and time dependent ownership. Psychological ownership theory links naturally to existing experience design models and is thus useful in approaching how to design for ownership. Designers should consider the motives and routes to ownership described by psychological ownership theory but also the paths to ownership formed through interaction with an object. The result is a new frame for design in which the objective is to create a possession, not simply an object. Designing an object, which is owned, means focusing on the interactions between a user and the object through the entire lifecycle including consideration of when an object enters and exits a person’s possessions. Within this new frame, there are at least four main ways in which designers can create intentional ownership experiences. Specifically, they can help: give meaning to the ownership deprived experiences increasingly prevalent in modern digital and shared contexts; structure the ownership experience; reduce redundant effort made once an object is taken into a person's possession; and mitigate contaminated interaction, which is likely to prevent ownership from occurring.
Hsu P-Y, Aurisicchio M, Angeloudis P, 2017, Investigating Schedule Deviation in Construction Projects through Root Cause Analysis, International Conference on ENTERprise Information Systems (CENTERIS) / International Conference on Project MANagement (ProjMAN) / International Conference on Health and Social Care Information Systems and Technologies (HCist), Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, Pages: 732-739, ISSN: 1877-0509
Hsu P-Y, Aurisicchio MARCO, Angeloudis P, 2017, Establishing outsourcing and supply chain plans for prefabricated construction projects under uncertain productivity, International Conference on Computational Logistics - 2017, Publisher: Springer, Pages: 529-543, ISSN: 1611-3349
Wee TPY, Aurisicchio M, Starzyk I, 2017, THE APPLICATION OF QUALITY FUNCTIONAL DEPLOYMENT TO MODULAR OFFSITE CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS, 21st International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED), Publisher: DESIGN SOC, Pages: 523-532, ISSN: 2220-4334
Yang X, Aurisicchio M, Mackrill J, et al., 2017, ON THE PRODUCTS AND EXPERIENCES THAT MAKE US HAPPY, 21st International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED), Publisher: DESIGN SOC, Pages: 499-508, ISSN: 2220-4334
Hsu P-Y, Aurisicchio M, Angeloudis P, 2017, Supply chain design for modular construction projects, 25th Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction (IGLC), Publisher: IGLC, ISSN: 2309-0979
The construction sector is currently undergoing a shift from stick-built construction techniques to modular building systems. If construction supply chains are to support this transformation, they need to be modified and strengthened using an adapted logistics system. The aim of this study is to establish a mathematical model for the logistics of modular construction covering the three common tiers of operations: manufacturing, storage and construction. Previous studies have indicated that construction site delays constitute the largest cause of schedule deviations. Using the model outlined in this paper we seek to determine how factory manufacturing and inventory management should be adapted to variations in demand on the construction site. We propose a Mixed Integer Linear Programming model that captures construction scenarios with demands for modular products that are either foreseeable or abruptly disrupted. The use of the model is illustrated through a case study of bathroom pods for a building project. The model outputs include supply chain configurations that reduce total costs across a range of scenarios. The model could serve as a decision support tool for modular construction logistics.
Baxter W, Aurisicchio M, Mugge R, et al., 2017, Decontaminating experiences with circular offerings, Product Lifetimes and The Environment (PLATE) 2017
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