Imperial College London


Faculty of MedicineSchool of Public Health

Chair in Biostatistics



m.blangiardo Website




528Norfolk PlaceSt Mary's Campus






BibTex format

author = {Piel, F and Fecht, D and Hodgson, S and Blangiardo, M and Toledano, M and Hansell, A and Elliott, P},
doi = {ije/dyaa006},
journal = {International Journal of Epidemiology},
pages = {686--699},
title = {Small-area methods for investigation of environment and health},
url = {},
volume = {49},
year = {2020}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Small-area studies offer a powerful epidemiological approach to study disease patterns at the population level and assess health risks posed by environmental pollutants. They involve a public health investigation on a geographic scale (e.g. neighbourhood) with overlay of health, environmental, demographic and potential confounder data. Recent methodological advances, including Bayesian approaches, combined with fast growing computational capabilities permit more informative analyses than previously possible, including the incorporation of data at different scales, from satellites to individual-level survey information. Better data availability has widened the scope and utility of small-area studies, but also led to greater complexity, including choice of optimal study area size and extent, duration of study periods, range of covariates and confounders to be considered, and dealing with uncertainty. The availability of data from large, well-phenotyped cohorts such as UK Biobank enables the use of mixed-level study designs and the triangulation of evidence on environmental risks from small-area and individual-level studies, therefore improving causal inference, including use of linked biomarker and -omics data. As a result, there are now improved opportunities to investigate the impacts of environmental risk factors on human health, particularly for the surveillance and prevention of non-communicable diseases.
AU - Piel,F
AU - Fecht,D
AU - Hodgson,S
AU - Blangiardo,M
AU - Toledano,M
AU - Hansell,A
AU - Elliott,P
DO - ije/dyaa006
EP - 699
PY - 2020///
SN - 1464-3685
SP - 686
TI - Small-area methods for investigation of environment and health
T2 - International Journal of Epidemiology
UR -
UR -
VL - 49
ER -