Imperial College London

ProfessorMartinBlunt

Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Earth Science & Engineering

Chair in Petroleum Engineering
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 6500m.blunt Website

 
 
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Location

 

2.38ARoyal School of MinesSouth Kensington Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

461 results found

El-Maghraby RM, Blunt MJ, 2013, Residual CO2 Trapping in Indiana Limestone, Environmental Science & Technology, Vol: 47, Pages: 227-233, ISSN: 0013-936X

Journal article

Andrew M, Bijeljic B, Blunt MJ, 2013, Reservoir-condition pore-scale imaging of supercritical carbon dioxide, Pages: 4977-4985

We present the results from a novel experimental apparatus that can image - at the micron scale - fluid displacements at elevated temperatures and pressures. The images are acquired using a micro-CT scanner (Xradia Versa 500) that has been adapted to allow core flood experiments to be conducted in situ, allowing continuous imaging at resolutions down to around 1 μm. A small cylindrical core - approximately 6 mm in diameter - is placed in a carbon fibre core holder that allows high pressures and temperatures to be imposed, while remaining largely transparent to x-rays. Fluids are injected into this mini-core holder, with flexible tubing to allow the core to rotate during scanning. We use this apparatus to study the displacement of supercritical carbon dioxide by brine, with application to carbon storage in aquifers. We study displacement in carbonate and sandstone rocks. Experiments in carbonates introduce additional challenges, since the carbon dioxide, brine and rock need to pre-equilibrated to prevent dissolution of carbon dioxide and chemical reaction (dissolution) with the rock during the experiments: this then reproduces conditions in the centre of a carbon dioxide plume where local thermodynamic equilibrium has been reached. We study displacement in Ketton limestone and Bentheimer sandstone. Both rocks have large inter-granular pores. In Ketton there is also significant intra-granular micro-porosity that remains brine-saturated during the experiments. We study primary drainage (injection of carbon dioxide) followed by secondary imbibition (injection of brine). We image the distribution of the phases during and at the end of the experiment. We show that significant quantities of carbon dioxide can be trapped as a residual phase in the pore space of both rock types, with a saturation matching that measured in core-scale (cm scale) experiments (0.202±0.012 in Ketton and 0.320±0.009 in Bentheimer). Trapped ganglia of all sizes are observed, with a

Conference paper

Blunt MJ, Bijeljic B, Dong H, Gharbi O, Iglauer S, Mostaghimi P, Paluszny A, Pentland Cet al., 2013, Pore-scale imaging and modelling, ADVANCES IN WATER RESOURCES, Vol: 51, Pages: 197-216, ISSN: 0309-1708

Journal article

Iglauer S, Paluszny A, Blunt MJ, 2013, Simultaneous oil recovery and residual gas storage: A pore-level analysis using in situ X-ray micro-tomography, FUEL, Vol: 103, Pages: 905-914, ISSN: 0016-2361

Journal article

Mostaghimi P, Blunt MJ, Bijeljic B, 2013, Computations of Absolute Permeability on Micro-CT Images, MATHEMATICAL GEOSCIENCES, Vol: 45, Pages: 103-125, ISSN: 1874-8961

Journal article

Jackson MD, Gomes JLMA, Mostaghimi P, Percival JR, Tollit BS, Pavlidis D, Pain CC, El-Sheikh AH, Muggeridge AH, Blunt MJet al., 2013, Reservoir modeling for flow simulation using surfaces, adaptive unstructured meshes and control-volume-finite-element methods, Pages: 774-792

We present new approaches to reservoir modeling and flow simulation that dispose of the pillar-grid concept that has persisted since reservoir simulation began. This results in significant improvements to the representation of multi-scale geological heterogeneity and the prediction of flow through that heterogeneity. The research builds on 20+ years of development of innovative numerical methods in geophysical fluid mechanics, refined and modified to deal with the unique challenges associated with reservoir simulation. Geological heterogeneities, whether structural, stratigraphic, sedimentologic or diagenetic in origin, are represented as discrete volumes bounded by surfaces, without reference to a pre-defined grid. Petrophysical properties are uniform within the geologically-defined rock volumes, rather than within grid-cells. The resulting model is discretized for flow simulation using an unstructured, tetrahedral mesh that honors the architecture of the surfaces. This approach allows heterogeneity over multiple length-scales to be explicitly captured using fewer cells than conventional corner-point or unstructured grids. Multiphase flow is simulated using a novel mixed finite element formulation centered on a new family of tetrahedral element types, PN(DG)-PN+1, which has a discontinuous Nth-order polynomial representation for velocity and a continuous (order N+1) representation for pressure. This method exactly represents Darcy force balances on unstructured meshes and thus accurately calculates pressure, velocity and saturation fields throughout the domain. Computational costs are reduced through (i) efficient parallelization and (ii) automatic mesh adaptivity in time and space. Within each rock volume, the mesh coarsens and refines to capture key flow processes, whilst preserving the surface-based representation of geological heterogeneity. Computational effort is thus focused on regions of the model where it is most required. Having validated the approach aga

Conference paper

Anderson RA, Al-Ansi NA, Blunt MJB, 2013, Experiments and analysis of imbibition in carbonates

With around half the world's remaining conventional oil contained in fractured carbonate reservoirs, it is important that the fundamentals of the transfer of fluids from fracture to matrix are understood We present the results of an extensive series of spontaneous imbibition ambient-condition experiments on three carbonate cores of different length, designed to test recent theoretical models of imbibition We study the displacement dynamics, from an initial square-root-of-time recovery to an exponential relaxation to residual saturation as the wetting from reaches the end of the core We also quantify the effect of pore structure in highly heterogeneous systems The scaling models presented by Ma et al (1995), Li and Home (2004), and Schmid and Geiger (2012) were tested on the experimental data Schmid and Geiger's correlation was found to be the most reliable The recovery, as a function of dimensionless time, could be fitted with the mass transfer function proposed by Aronofsky et al (1958) and the analytical oil recovery solution presented by Tavassoli et al (2005) The work suggests that recent correlations for transfer rates in the literature, combined with benchmark experimental results, can be used as a reliable technique to help predict field-scale recovery rates in fractured reservoirs.

Conference paper

Vitoonkijvanich S, Al Sofi AM, Blunt MJ, 2013, Design of foam-assisted carbon dioxide storage in a north sea aquifer using streamline-based simulation

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) - the collection of CO2 from industrial sources and its injection underground - could potentially contribute to the reduction of atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases In this paper, we investigate the sequestration of CO2 in aquifers with the co-injection of surfactants for foam generation, to allow increased storage capacity This is equivalent to the use of foam for conformance control in enhanced oil recovery applications To study foam-assisted sequestration, we extend an in-house streamline-based simulator We use two foam models Hirasaki and Lawson (1985) and Rossen et al (1999) In both models foam hinders gas mobility through increasing its apparent viscosity The modified simulator is validated by comparison to analytical solutions We then investigate the performance of CO2 sequestration with the co-injection of surfactants We look at CO2 sequestration in a North Sea aquifer We study both simultaneous and alternating surfactant-gas injection at different fractional flows (i.e. water gas ratios) For cases where a seal provides a reliable trapping mechanism, the simulation results suggest that the use of surfactants to generate foam significantly improves the storage efficiency at a marginal increase in water consumption In this setting, CO2/surfactant simultaneous injection at a 0.5 CO2 fractional flow was found to be the optimum injection strategy for the case investigated If the seal is unreliable or absent, CO2/brine simultaneous injection at a 0.85 CO2 fractional flow was found to be the optimum injection strategy Although foam-assisted sequestration in this case furthers improve the storage efficiency, it does so at a significant increase in water consumption This is since, although foam generation improves the sweep during the sequestration phase, it significantly hinders the sweep during the chase brine injection phase Based on that, having a design where the surfactant will degrade just before or during the chase brine

Conference paper

Anderson RA, Al-Ansi NA, Blunt MJB, 2013, Experiments and analysis of imbibition in carbonates

With around half the world's remaining conventional oil contained in fractured carbonate reservoirs, it is important that the fundamentals of the transfer of fluids from fracture to matrix are understood We present the results of an extensive series of spontaneous imbibition ambient-condition experiments on three carbonate cores of different length, designed to test recent theoretical models of imbibition We study the displacement dynamics, from an initial square-root-of-time recovery to an exponential relaxation to residual saturation as the wetting from reaches the end of the core We also quantify the effect of pore structure in highly heterogeneous systems The scaling models presented by Ma et al (1995), Li and Home (2004), and Schmid and Geiger (2012) were tested on the experimental data Schmid and Geiger's correlation was found to be the most reliable The recovery, as a function of dimensionless time, could be fitted with the mass transfer function proposed by Aronofsky et al (1958) and the analytical oil recovery solution presented by Tavassoli et al (2005) The work suggests that recent correlations for transfer rates in the literature, combined with benchmark experimental results, can be used as a reliable technique to help predict field-scale recovery rates in fractured reservoirs.

Conference paper

Petvipusit R, Elsheikh AH, Laforce T, King PR, Blunt MJet al., 2013, A robust multi-criterion optimization of CO2 sequestration under model uncertainty

Successful CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers relies on economic efficiency, sufficient capacity and longterm security of the storage formation. Unfortunately, these three criteria of CO2 storage are generally in conflict, and often difficult to guarantee when there is a lack of geological characteristics of the storage site. We overcome these challenges by developing: 1) multiwell CO2 injection strategies using a multi-criterion optimization to handle conflicting objectives; 2) CO2 injection management that is robust against model uncertainty. PUNQ-S3 model was modified as a leaky storage to study injection strategies associated with the risks of CO2 leakage under geological uncertainty. Based on our numerical results, the NSGA-II with the ASGI technique can effectively obtain a set of efficient-frontier injection strategies. For the uncertainty assessment, the impact of the model uncertainty to the outcomes is significant. Therefore, our findings suggest using the mixture distribution of the objective-function values, as opposed to the traditional Gaussian distribution to cover model uncertainty.

Conference paper

Bijeljic B, Raeini A, Mostaghimi P, Blunt MJet al., 2013, Predictions of non-Fickian solute transport in different classes of porous media using direct simulation on pore-scale images., Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys, Vol: 87

We present predictions of transport through micro-CT images of porous media that include the analysis of correlation structure, velocity, and the dynamics of the evolving plume. We simulate solute transport through millimeter-sized three-dimensional images of a beadpack, a sandstone, and a carbonate, representing porous media with an increasing degree of pore-scale complexity. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved to compute the flow field and a streamline simulation approach is used to move particles by advection, while the random walk method is employed to represent diffusion. We show how the computed propagators (concentration as a function of displacement) for the beadpack, sandstone, and carbonate depend on the width of the velocity distribution. A narrow velocity distribution in the beadpack leads to the least anomalous behavior, where the propagators rapidly become Gaussian in shape; the wider velocity distribution in the sandstone gives rise to a small immobile concentration peak, and a large secondary mobile peak moving at approximately the average flow speed; in the carbonate with the widest velocity distribution, the stagnant concentration peak is persistent, with a slower emergence of a smaller secondary mobile peak, characteristic of highly anomalous behavior. This defines different types of transport in the three media and quantifies the effect of pore structure on transport. The propagators obtained by the model are in excellent agreement with those measured on similar cores in nuclear magnetic resonance experiments by Scheven, Verganelakis, Harris, Johns, and Gladden, Phys. Fluids 17, 117107 (2005).

Journal article

Gharbi O, Blunt MJ, 2012, The impact of wettability and connectivity on relative permeability in carbonates: A pore network modeling analysis, WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH, Vol: 48, ISSN: 0043-1397

Journal article

Al-Qattan A, Blunt MJ, Gharbi O, Badamchizadeh A, Al-Kanderi JM, Al-Jadi M, Dashti HH, Chimmalgi V, Bond DJ, Skoreyko Fet al., 2012, Evaluation of the effect of asphaltene deposition in the reservoir for the development of the Magwa Marrat reservoir, Pages: 550-568

The Magwa Marrat reservoir was discovered in the mid-1980s and has been produced to date under primary depletion. Reservoir pressure has declined and is approaching the asphaltene onset pressure (AOP). A water flood is being planned and a decision needs to be taken as to the appropriate reservoir operating pressure. In particular the merits of operating the reservoir at pressures above and below the AOP need to be assessed. Some of the issues related to this decision relate to the effects of asphaltene deposition in the reservoir. Two effects have been evaluated. Firstly the effect of in-situ deposition of asphaltene on wettability and the influence that this may have on water-flood recovery has been investigated using pore scale network modes. Models were constructed and calibrated to available high pressure mercury capillary pressure data and to relative permeability data from reservoir condition core floods. The changes to relative permeability characteristics that would result from the reservoir becoming substantially more oil-wet have been evaluated. Based on this there seems to be a very limited scope for poorer water flood performance at pressures below AOP. Secondly the scope for impaired well performance has been evaluated. This has been done using a field trial where a well was produced at pressures above and substantially below AOP and pressure transient data were used to estimate near wellbore damage "skin". Also compositional simulation has been used to estimate near wellbore deposition effects. This has involved developing an equation of state model and identifying, using computer assisted history matching, a range of parameters that could be consistent with core flood experiments of asphaltene deposition. Results of simulation using these parameters are compared with field observation and used to predict the range of possible future well productivity decline. Overall this work allows an evaluation of the preferred operating pressure, which c

Conference paper

Mostaghimi P, Bijeljic B, Blunt M, 2012, Simulation of Flow and Dispersion on Pore-Space Images, SPE Journal, Vol: 17, Pages: 1131-1141, ISSN: 1086-055X

Journal article

Mostaghimi P, Bijeljic B, Blunt MJ, 2012, Simulation of Flow and Dispersion on Pore-Space Images, SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Publisher: SOC PETROLEUM ENG, Pages: 1131-1141, ISSN: 1086-055X

Conference paper

Paul JD, Blunt MJ, 2012, Wastewater filtration and re-use: An alternative water source for London, SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, Vol: 437, Pages: 173-184, ISSN: 0048-9697

Journal article

Raeini AQ, Blunt MJ, Bijeljic B, 2012, Modelling two-phase flow in porous media at the pore scale using the volume-of-fluid method, JOURNAL OF COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS, Vol: 231, Pages: 5653-5668, ISSN: 0021-9991

Journal article

Iglauer S, Ferno MA, Shearing P, Blunt MJet al., 2012, Comparison of residual oil cluster size distribution, morphology and saturation in oil-wet and water-wet sandstone, JOURNAL OF COLLOID AND INTERFACE SCIENCE, Vol: 375, Pages: 187-192, ISSN: 0021-9797

Journal article

Chamwudhiprecha N, Blunt MJ, 2012, Carbon dioxide storage potential in the North Sea, Pages: 808-821

The feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO 2) injection into an extensive aquifer in the North Sea is assessed. The impact of seal permeability, horizontal permeability, perforation interval, number of wells, aquifer size and cap rock size on the effectiveness of large-scale storage is assessed. A compositional numerical simulation is performed in the period of 50 years (30 years of injection and 20 years post-injection). We study volumes equivalent to the emissions of a large power station in the UK, 10 Mtonnes/year and find the necessary aquifer dimensions, cap rock size and horizontal permeability to allow safe storage assuming that the pressure increases by no more than 10%. We find no impact of the number of wells on field-average pressure response as long as the total injection rate remains constant. However, using more wells enables CO 2 to be trapped by immobilization and dissolution while giving poor sweep efficiency. In order to achieve the target injection rate with 5 injectors, two appropriate aquifer dimensions are proposed: an area of 3,850 km 2 with thickness of 1,260 m; and an area of 11,550 km 2 with thickness of 630 m. For the same aquifer volume, thickness plays a more important role on pressure response than area. Only deeper layers of the aquifer should be perforated in order to minimize pressure build-up and enhance CO 2 displacement efficiency. Copyright 2011, International Petroleum Technology Conference.

Conference paper

Al-Bulushi NI, King PR, Blunt MJ, Kraaijveld Met al., 2012, Artificial neural networks workflow and its application in the petroleum industry, NEURAL COMPUTING & APPLICATIONS, Vol: 21, Pages: 409-421, ISSN: 0941-0643

Journal article

AlSofi AM, Blunt MJ, 2012, A segregated flow scheme to control numerical dispersion for multi-component flow simulations, COMPUTATIONAL GEOSCIENCES, Vol: 16, Pages: 335-350, ISSN: 1420-0597

Journal article

Blunt M, 2012, Editorial for the January 2012 Issue of Transport in Porous Media, TRANSPORT IN POROUS MEDIA, Vol: 91, Pages: 3-3, ISSN: 0169-3913

Journal article

Leal AMM, Blunt MJ, LaForce TC, 2012, A numerical method for chemical equilibrium calculations in multiphase systems

We present a method for calculating chemical equilibria of general multiphase systems. The method is based on a stoichiometric approach, which uses Newton's method to solve a system of mass-balance and mass-action equations. A stabilisation procedure is developed to promote convergence of the calculation when a presupposed phase in the chemical system is absent in the equilibrium state. The formulation of the chemical equilibrium problem is developed by presuming no specific details of the involved phases and species. As a consequence, the method is flexible and general enough so that the calculation can be customised with a combination of thermodynamic models that are appropriate for the problem of interest. Finally, we show the use of the method to solve relevant geochemical equilibrium problems found in modelling of carbon storage in highly saline aquifers.

Conference paper

Leal AMM, Blunt MJ, LaForce TC, 2012, A numerical method for chemical equilibrium calculations in multiphase systems

We present a method for calculating chemical equilibria of general multiphase systems. The method is based on a stoichiometric approach, which uses Newton's method to solve a system of mass-balance and mass-action equations. A stabilisation procedure is developed to promote convergence of the calculation when a presupposed phase in the chemical system is absent in the equilibrium state. The formulation of the chemical equilibrium problem is developed by presuming no specific details of the involved phases and species. As a consequence, the method is flexible and general enough so that the calculation can be customised with a combination of thermodynamic models that are appropriate for the problem of interest. Finally, we show the use of the method to solve relevant geochemical equilibrium problems found in modelling of carbon storage in highly saline aquifers.

Conference paper

Abushaikha A, Blunt MJ, Gosselin OR, LaForce TCet al., 2012, Improved mobility calculation for finite element simulation (SPE 154480), Pages: 3174-3182

We implement a novel up-winding scheme for the mobility calculation using the computed velocities in a finite element (FE) unstructured-mesh simulator for fractured reservoirs. In the finite-element finitevolume (FEFV) numerical discretisation method, the pressure and transport equations are decoupled. The pressure is calculated using finite elements, and the saturation is calculated using finite volumes. Each element is shared between several control volumes-three for triangles (2D-fractures) and four for tetrahedral (3D-matrix). Consequently, the saturations used in calculating the mobilities-hence updating pressure-are unclear. Some researchers use the average value between the elemental control volumes, or the integration points of the finite elements. For two-dimensional radial flow, this does not produce accurate saturations profiles when compared to the Buckley-Leverett reference solution. In this paper, we present a new formulation to calculate the FE mobility. We use the velocity vector, which is piece-wise constant in first order elements, to find the upstream saturation-where the tail of velocity vector intersects an element. We compare the results of this new mobility calculation against other FEFV fractured reservoir simulators. We test the new method on a fracture network outcrop meshed using discrete fractures and matrix elements. This novel approach produces more accurate saturation profiles than previous methods even with higher order methods and better models multi-phase displacements in complex reservoir. It can be easily implemented in current FEFV based simulators.

Conference paper

Latham JP, Xiang J, Belayneh M, Nick HM, Tsang C, Blunt MJet al., 2012, Modelling stress-dependent permeability in fractured rock including effects of propagating and bending fractures, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, Vol: 57, Pages: 100-112

Journal article

El-Maghraby RM, Pentland CH, Iglauer S, Blunt MJet al., 2012, A fast method to equilibrate carbon dioxide with brine at high pressure and elevated temperature including solubility measurements, Journal of Supercritical Fluids, Vol: 62, Pages: 55-59

Journal article

Tanino Y, Blunt MJ, 2012, Capillary trapping in sandstones and carbonates: dependence on pore structure, WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH, Vol: 48

Journal article

Iglauer S, Wuelling W, Pentland CH, Al-Monsoori SK, Blunt MJet al., 2011, Capillary-Trapping Capacity of Sandstones and Sandpacks, SPE JOURNAL, Vol: 16, Pages: 778-783, ISSN: 1086-055X

Journal article

AlSofi AM, Blunt MJ, 2011, Polymer flooding design and optimization under uncertainty, Pages: 1593-1604

We use a streamline-based simulator that accurately captures non-Newtonian rheology and controls numerical dispersion to investigate polymer flooding design. First, we develop and test a parallel design algorithm to optimize polymer floods with respect to net present value in terms of slug size, polymer concentration and initiation; in which simulations are ran simultaneously and the results are combined through scaling of optimal slug size. In terms of optimal strategies, the optimization results illustrate that polymer-flooding design - with respect to concentration, slug size, and initiation - is more intuitive than earlier expected. It is always beneficial to start polymer flooding as soon as possible preferably before any waterflooding. The optimal slug size is close to being continuous. The optimal concentration is generally high and represents a balance between mobility gains and injectivity losses. Second, we quantify the impact of uncertainty on both the design and profitability of polymer flooding. This serves as a guide to associated data acquisition efforts, where pre-polymer flooding initiation, efforts can be focused on reducing uncertainties of high impact factors thereby increasing the probability of success. The same methods can be applied to other augmented waterfloods, such as low salinity flooding. Copyright 2011, Society of Petroleum Engineers.

Conference paper

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