Imperial College London

ProfessorMarinaBotto

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Immunology and Inflammation

Director of Bioservices. Head of Department
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 3313 2316m.botto Website

 
 
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Assistant

 

Miss Claudia Rocchi +44 (0)20 3313 2315

 
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Location

 

9N10Commonwealth BuildingHammersmith Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

206 results found

Jackson WD, Gulino A, Fossati-Jimack L, Castro Seoane R, Tian K, Best K, Köhl J, Belmonte B, Strid J, Botto Met al., 2020, C3 Drives Inflammatory Skin Carcinogenesis Independently of C5., J Invest Dermatol

Nonmelanoma skin cancer such as cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is the most common form of cancer and can occur as a consequence of DNA damage to the epithelium by UVR or chemical carcinogens. There is growing evidence that the complement system is involved in cancer immune surveillance; however, its role in cSCC remains unclear. Here, we show that complement genes are expressed in tissue from patients with cSCC, and C3 activation fragments are present in cSCC biopsies, indicating complement activation. Using a range of complement-deficient mice in a two-stage mouse model of chemically-induced cSCC, where a subclinical dose of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene causes oncogenic mutations in epithelial cells and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate promotes the outgrowth of these cells, we found that C3-deficient mice displayed a significantly reduced tumor burden, whereas an opposite phenotype was observed in mice lacking C5aR1, C5aR2, and C3a receptor. In addition, in mice unable to form the membrane attack complex, the tumor progression was unaltered. C3 deficiency did not affect the cancer response to 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene treatment alone but reduced the epidermal hyperplasia during 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced inflammation. Collectively, these data indicate that C3 drives tumorigenesis during chronic skin inflammation, independently of the downstream generation of C5a or membrane attack complex.

Journal article

Strid K, Botto M, Jackson W, Tian K, Castro Seoane R, Fossati-Jimack L, Gulino A, Best K, Kohl J, Belmonte Bet al., 2020, C3 Drives Inflammatory Skin Carcinogenesis Independently of C5, Journal of Investigative Dermatology, ISSN: 0022-202X

Journal article

Gajdasik DW, Gaspal F, Halford EE, Fiancette R, Dutton EE, Willis C, Rueckert T, Romagnani C, Gerard A, Bevington SL, MacDonald AS, Botto M, Vyse T, Withers DRet al., 2020, Th1 responses in vivo require cell-specific provision of OX40L dictated by environmental cues, NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2041-1723

Journal article

Doni A, Parente R, Laface I, Magrini E, Colombo FS, Petroni F, Porte R, Inforzato A, Bottazzi B, Garlanda C, Botto M, Mantovani Aet al., 2019, Serum amyloid P component as an essential component of resistance against Aspergillus fumigatus, 17th International Congress of Immunology of the International-Union-of-Immunological-Societies (IUIS), Publisher: WILEY, Pages: 1203-1203, ISSN: 0014-2980

Conference paper

Foschi V, Bortolotti D, Doyle AF, Stratigou V, Stephens L, Trivedi P, Rinaldi R, Padovan M, Bortoluzzi A, Lightstone L, Cairns TD, Botto M, Cook TH, Rizzo R, Govoni M, Pickering MCet al., 2019, Analysis of HLA-G expression in renal tissue in lupus nephritis: a pilot study, Lupus, Vol: 28, Pages: 1091-1100, ISSN: 1477-0962

BACKGROUND: The study aimed to investigate whether HLA-G antigen is expressed in the kidneys of patients affected by lupus nephritis (LN) and whether its detection in renal biopsies could be adopted as a marker of treatment response and prognosis. METHODS: Thirty renal biopsies from patients with LN were selected and analyzed through immunohistochemistry. Laboratory and clinical data were retrospectively collected at baseline, 6 and 12 months and at the latest clinical appointment. A number of patients (63.3%) were treated with rituximab (RTX) +/- methylprednisolone in the induction phase. The expression of HLA-G in glomeruli, tubules and infiltrating cells was examined and compared between lupus patients who achieved either complete or partial renal response and those who did not respond to treatment. RESULTS: HLA-G staining was observed in the glomeruli of 20 of 30 samples from patients with LN. The expression of the antigen was detected in podocytes, along glomerular capillary walls, on parietal glomerular epithelial cells and within the juxtaglomerular apparatus. Seventy per cent of patients whose glomeruli expressed HLA-G achieved partial or complete response at 6 months and 75% at the latest available follow up compared with 30% and 40%, respectively, of those who did not show any expression. The pattern of staining in tubules and infiltrating cells was highly variable precluding any clinical correlation. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that HLA-G is expressed in renal tissue in LN. Our retrospective data suggest that its expression could correlate with response to treatment.

Journal article

Roumenina LT, Daugan MV, Noé R, Petitprez F, Vano YA, Sanchez-Salas R, Becht E, Meilleroux J, Clec'h BL, Giraldo NA, Merle NS, Sun C-M, Verkarre V, Validire P, Selves J, Lacroix L, Delfour O, Vandenberghe I, Thuilliez C, Keddani S, Sakhi IB, Barret E, Ferré P, Corvaïa N, Passioukov A, Chetaille E, Botto M, de Reynies A, Oudard SM, Mejean A, Cathelineau X, Sautès-Fridman C, Fridman WHet al., 2019, Tumor cells hijack macrophage-produced complement C1q to promote tumor growth, Cancer Immunology Research, Vol: 7, Pages: 1091-1105, ISSN: 2326-6066

Clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) possesses an unmet medical need, particularly at the metastatic stage, when surgery is ineffective. Complement is a key factor in tissue inflammation, favoring cancer progression through the production of complement component 5a (C5a). However, the activation pathways that generate C5a in tumors remain obscure. By data mining, we identified ccRCC as a cancer type expressing concomitantly high expression of the components that are part of the classical complement pathway. To understand how the complement cascade is activated in ccRCC and impacts patients' clinical outcome, primary tumors from three patient cohorts (n = 106, 154, and 43), ccRCC cell lines, and tumor models in complement-deficient mice were used. High densities of cells producing classical complement pathway components C1q and C4 and the presence of C4 activation fragment deposits in primary tumors correlated with poor prognosis. The in situ orchestrated production of C1q by tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) and C1r, C1s, C4, and C3 by tumor cells associated with IgG deposits, led to C1 complex assembly, and complement activation. Accordingly, mice deficient in C1q, C4, or C3 displayed decreased tumor growth. However, the ccRCC tumors infiltrated with high densities of C1q-producing TAMs exhibited an immunosuppressed microenvironment, characterized by high expression of immune checkpoints (i.e., PD-1, Lag-3, PD-L1, and PD-L2). Our data have identified the classical complement pathway as a key inflammatory mechanism activated by the cooperation between tumor cells and TAMs, favoring cancer progression, and highlight potential therapeutic targets to restore an efficient immune reaction to cancer.

Journal article

Gulati S, Beurskens FJ, de Kreuk B-J, Roza M, Zheng B, DeOliveira RB, Shaughnessy J, Nowak NA, Taylor RP, Botto M, He X, Ingalls RR, Woodruff TM, Song W-C, Schuurman J, Rice PA, Ram Set al., 2019, Complement alone drives efficacy of a chimeric antigonococcal monoclonal antibody, PLoS Biology, Vol: 17, ISSN: 1544-9173

Multidrug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a global health problem. Monoclonal antibody (mAb) 2C7 recognizes a gonococcal lipooligosaccharide epitope that is expressed by >95% of clinical isolates and hastens gonococcal vaginal clearance in mice. Chimeric mAb 2C7 (human immunoglobulin G1 [IgG1]) with an E430G Fc modification that enhances Fc:Fc interactions and hexamerization following surface-target binding and increases complement activation (HexaBody technology) showed significantly greater C1q engagement and C4 and C3 deposition compared to mAb 2C7 with wild-type Fc. Greater complement activation by 2C7-E430G Fc translated to increased bactericidal activity in vitro and, consequently, enhanced efficacy in mice, compared with "Fc-unmodified" chimeric 2C7. Gonococci bind the complement inhibitors factor H (FH) and C4b-binding protein (C4BP) in a human-specific manner, which dampens antibody (Ab)-mediated complement-dependent killing. The variant 2C7-E430G Fc overcame the barrier posed by these inhibitors in human FH/C4BP transgenic mice, for which a single 1 μg intravenous dose cleared established infection. Chlamydia frequently coexists with and exacerbates gonorrhea; 2C7-E430G Fc also proved effective against gonorrhea in gonorrhea/chlamydia-coinfected mice. Complement activation alone was necessary and sufficient for 2C7 function, evidenced by the fact that (1) "complement-inactive" Fc modifications that engaged Fc gamma receptor (FcγR) rendered 2C7 ineffective, nonetheless; (2) 2C7 was nonfunctional in C1q-/- mice, when C5 function was blocked, or in C9-/- mice; and (3) 2C7 remained effective in neutrophil-depleted mice and in mice treated with PMX205, a C5a receptor (C5aR1) inhibitor. We highlight the importance of complement activation for antigonococcal Ab function in the genital tract. Elucidating the correlates of protection against gonorrhea will inform the development of Ab-based gonococcal vaccines and immunotherapeuti

Journal article

Griffiths MR, Botto M, Morgan BP, Neal JW, Gasque Pet al., 2018, CD93 regulates CNS inflammation in two mouse models of autoimmune encephalomyelitis, Immunology, Vol: 155, Pages: 346-355, ISSN: 0019-2805

Microglia and non-professional immune cells (endothelial cells, neurons) participate in the recognition and removal of pathogens and tissue-debris in the injured CNS through major pro-inflammatory processes. However, the mechanisms involved in regulating these responses remain ill-characterised. We herein show that CD93 also known as complement C1qRp/AA4 stem cell marker has an important role in the regulation of inflammatory processes. The role of CD93 was evaluated in two models of neuroinflammation. We used the MOG-experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model and the antibody-dependent EAE (ADEAE) which were induced in wild type and CD93 knockout mice. We found that CD93 was highly expressed by neurons, endothelial cells and microglia (ramified > amoeboid). Astrocytes and oligodendrocytes did not to express CD93. We further observed that CD93 deficient (CD93-/-) mice presented a more robust brain and spinal cord inflammation in EAE and ADEAE. Encephalitis in CD93-/- was characterized by increased numbers of infiltrating M1 macrophages (CD11c+ CD206-) and amoeboid microglia exhibiting a more activated phenotype (Tomato Lectinhigh , Cox2high ). Damage and leakage of the blood brain barrier was increased in CD93-/- animals and was associated with a more robust neuronal injury when compared to wild type EAE mice. We propose that CD93 is an important neuro-immune regulator (NIREG) to control CNS inflammation.

Journal article

Shaughnessy J, Lewis LA, Zheng B, Carr C, Bass I, Gulati S, DeOliveira RB, Gose S, Reed GW, Botto M, Rice PA, Ram Set al., 2018, Human factor H domains 6 and 7 fused to IgG1 Fc are immunotherapeutic against neisseria gonorrhoeae, Journal of Immunology, Vol: 201, Pages: 2700-2709, ISSN: 1550-6606

Novel therapeutics against multidrug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae are urgently needed. Gonococcal lipooligosaccharide often expresses lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), which becomes sialylated in vivo, enhancing factor H (FH) binding and contributing to the organism’s ability to resist killing by complement. We previously showed that FH domains 18–20 (with a D-to-G mutation at position 1119 in domain 19) fused to Fc (FHD1119G/Fc) displayed complement-dependent bactericidal activity in vitro and attenuated gonococcal vaginal colonization of mice. Gonococcal lipooligosaccharide phase variation can result in loss of LNnT expression. Loss of sialylated LNnT, although associated with a considerable fitness cost, could decrease efficacy of FHD1119G/Fc. Similar to N. meningitidis, gonococci also bind FH domains 6 and 7 through Neisserial surface protein A (NspA). In this study, we show that a fusion protein comprising FH domains 6 and 7 fused to human IgG1 Fc (FH6,7/Fc) bound to 15 wild-type antimicrobial resistant isolates of N. gonorrhoeae and to each of six lgtA gonococcal deletion mutants. FH6,7/Fc mediated complement-dependent killing of 8 of the 15 wild-type gonococcal isolates and effectively reduced the duration and burden of vaginal colonization of three gonococcal strains tested in wild-type mice, including two strains that resisted complement-dependent killing but on which FH6,7/Fc enhanced C3 deposition. FH/Fc lost efficacy when Fc was mutated to abrogate C1q binding and in C1q−/− mice, highlighting the requirement of the classical pathway for its activity. Targeting gonococci with FH6,7/Fc provides an additional immunotherapeutic approach against multidrug-resistant gonorrhea.

Journal article

Crawford G, Hayes MD, Seoane RC, Ward S, Dalessandri T, Lai C, Healy E, Kipling D, Proby C, Moyes C, Green K, Best K, Haniffa M, Botto M, Dunn-Walters D, Strid Jet al., 2018, Epithelial damage and tissue gamma delta T cells promote a unique tumor-protective IgE response, NATURE IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 19, Pages: 859-870, ISSN: 1529-2908

IgE is an ancient and conserved immunoglobulin isotype with potent immunological function. Nevertheless, the regulation of IgE responses remains an enigma, and evidence of a role for IgE in host defense is limited. Here we report that topical exposure to a common environmental DNA-damaging xenobiotic initiated stress surveillance by γδTCR+ intraepithelial lymphocytes that resulted in class switching to IgE in B cells and the accumulation of autoreactive IgE. High-throughput antibody sequencing revealed that γδ T cells shaped the IgE repertoire by supporting specific variable-diversity-joining (VDJ) rearrangements with unique characteristics of the complementarity-determining region CDRH3. This endogenous IgE response, via the IgE receptor FcεRI, provided protection against epithelial carcinogenesis, and expression of the gene encoding FcεRI in human squamous-cell carcinoma correlated with good disease prognosis. These data indicate a joint role for immunosurveillance by T cells and by B cells in epithelial tissues and suggest that IgE is part of the host defense against epithelial damage and tumor development.

Journal article

Halim TYF, Rana BMJ, Walker JA, Kerscher B, Knolle MD, Jolin HE, Serrao EM, Haim-Vilmovsky L, Teichmann SA, Rodewald H-R, Botto M, Vyse TJ, Fallon PG, Li Z, Withers DR, McKenzie ANJet al., 2018, Tissue-restricted adaptive type 2 immunity Is orchestrated by expression of the costimulatory molecule OX40L on group 2 innate lymphoid cells, Immunity, Vol: 48, Pages: 1195-1207.e6, ISSN: 1074-7613

The local regulation of type 2 immunity relies on dialog between the epithelium and the innate and adaptive immune cells. Here we found that alarmin-induced expression of the co-stimulatory molecule OX40L on group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) provided tissue-restricted T cell co-stimulation that was indispensable for Th2 and regulatory T (Treg) cell responses in the lung and adipose tissue. Interleukin (IL)-33 administration resulted in organ-specific surface expression of OX40L on ILC2s and the concomitant expansion of Th2 and Treg cells, which was abolished upon deletion of OX40L on ILC2s (Il7raCre/+Tnfsf4fl/fl mice). Moreover, Il7raCre/+Tnfsf4fl/fl mice failed to mount effective Th2 and Treg cell responses and corresponding adaptive type 2 pulmonary inflammation arising from Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection or allergen exposure. Thus, the increased expression of OX40L in response to IL-33 acts as a licensing signal in the orchestration of tissue-specific adaptive type 2 immunity, without which this response fails to establish.

Journal article

Saja M, Cook HT, Ruseva M, Szajna M, Pickering MC, Woollard KJ, Botto Met al., 2018, A triglyceride-rich lipoprotein environment exacerbates renal injury in the accelerated nephrotoxic nephritis model, Clinical and Experimental Immunology, Vol: 192, Pages: 337-347, ISSN: 1365-2249

Hyperlipidaemia accompanies chronic renal disease either as a consequence of the renal dysfunction or as part of generalized metabolic derangements. Under both situations, the lipid profile is characterized by accumulation of triglyceride‐rich lipoproteins (TGRLs). This lipid profile is recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular complications. Whether it may pose a risk for renal injury as well remains unclear. A hyper‐TGRL state was generated in C57BL/6 mice using poloxamer‐407 (P‐407) and immune complex‐mediated renal injury was triggered using the accelerated nephrotoxic nephritis (ANTN) model. The hyper‐TGRL animals were hypersensitive to ANTN demonstrated by greater haematuria and glomerular cellularity. These changes were accompanied by increased glomerular accumulation of CD68+ macrophages. The hypersensitive response to ANTN was not seen in low‐density lipoprotein receptor knock‐out mice fed with a high fat diet, where triglyceride levels were lower but cholesterol levels comparable to those obtained using P‐407. These data indicate that a hyper‐TGRL state might be more detrimental to the kidneys than low‐density lipoprotein‐driven hypercholesterolaemia during immune complex‐mediated nephritis. We speculate that the hyper‐TGRL environment primes the kidney to exacerbated renal damage following an inflammatory insult with increased accumulation of macrophages that may play a key role in mediating the injurious effects.

Journal article

Ling GS, Crawford G, Buang N, Bartok I, Tian K, Thielens NM, Bally I, Harker JA, Ashton-Rickardt PG, Rutschmann S, Strid J, Botto Met al., 2018, C1q restrains autoimmunity and viral infection by regulating CD8+ T cell metabolism, Science, Vol: 360, Pages: 558-563, ISSN: 0036-8075

Deficiency of C1q, the initiator of the complement classical pathway, is associated with the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Explaining this association in terms of abnormalities in the classical pathway alone remains problematic because C3 deficiency does not predispose to SLE. Here, using a mouse model of SLE, we demonstrate that C1q, but not C3, restrains the response to self-antigens by modulating the mitochondrial metabolism of CD8+ T cells, which can themselves propagate autoimmunity. C1q deficiency also triggers an exuberant effector CD8+ T cell response to chronic viral infection leading to lethal immunopathology. These data establish a link between C1q and CD8+ T cell metabolism and may explain how C1q protects against lupus, with implications for the role of viral infections in the perpetuation of autoimmunity.

Journal article

Tanigaki K, Sacharidou A, Peng J, Chambliss KL, Yuhanna IS, Ghosh D, Ahmed M, Szalai AJ, Vongpatanasin W, Mattrey RF, Chen Q, Azadi P, Lingvay I, Botto M, Holland WL, Kohler JJ, Sirsi SR, Hoyt K, Shaul PW, Mineo Cet al., 2017, Hyposialylated IgG activates endothelial IgG receptor FcγRIIB to promote obesity-induced insulin resistance., Journal of Clinical Investigation, Vol: 128, Pages: 309-322, ISSN: 0021-9738

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a common complication of obesity. Here, we have shown that activation of the IgG receptor FcγRIIB in endothelium by hyposialylated IgG plays an important role in obesity-induced insulin resistance. Despite becoming obese on a high-fat diet (HFD), mice lacking FcγRIIB globally or selectively in endothelium were protected from insulin resistance as a result of the preservation of insulin delivery to skeletal muscle and resulting maintenance of muscle glucose disposal. IgG transfer in IgG-deficient mice implicated IgG as the pathogenetic ligand for endothelial FcγRIIB in obesity-induced insulin resistance. Moreover, IgG transferred from patients with T2DM but not from metabolically healthy subjects caused insulin resistance in IgG-deficient mice via FcγRIIB, indicating that similar processes may be operative in T2DM in humans. Mechanistically, the activation of FcγRIIB by IgG from obese mice impaired endothelial cell insulin transcytosis in culture and in vivo. These effects were attributed to hyposialylation of the Fc glycan, and IgG from T2DM patients was also hyposialylated. In HFD-fed mice, supplementation with the sialic acid precursor N-acetyl-D-mannosamine restored IgG sialylation and preserved insulin sensitivity without affecting weight gain. Thus, IgG sialylation and endothelial FcγRIIB may represent promising therapeutic targets to sever the link between obesity and T2DM.

Journal article

Cortini A, Ellinghaus U, Malik TH, Cunninghame Graham DS, Botto M, Vyse TJet al., 2017, B cell OX40L supports T follicular helper cell development and contributes to SLE pathogenesis., Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, Vol: 76, Pages: 2095-2103, ISSN: 0003-4967

OBJECTIVES: TNFSF4 (encodes OX40L) is a susceptibility locus for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Risk alleles increase TNFSF4 expression in cell lines, but the mechanism linking this effect to disease is unclear, and the OX40L-expressing cell types mediating the risk are not clearly established. Blockade of OX40L has been demonstrated to reduce disease severity in several models of autoimmunity, but not in SLE. We sought to investigate its potential therapeutic role in lupus. METHODS: We used a conditional knockout mouse system to investigate the function of OX40L on B and T lymphocytes in systemic autoimmunity. RESULTS: Physiologically, OX40L on both B and T cells contributed to the humoral immune response, but B cell OX40L supported the secondary humoral response and antibody affinity maturation. Our data also indicated that loss of B cell OX40L impeded the generation of splenic T follicular helper cells. We further show that in two models of SLE-a spontaneous congenic model and the H2-IA(bm12) graft-versus-host-induced model-loss of B cell OX40L ameliorates the autoimmune phenotype. This improvement was, in each case, accompanied by a decline in T follicular helper cell numbers. Importantly, the germline knockout did not exhibit a markedly different phenotype from the B cell knockout in these models. CONCLUSIONS: These findings contribute to a model in which genetically determined increased OX40L expression promotes human SLE by several mechanisms, contingent on its cellular expression. The improvement in pathology in two models of systemic autoimmunity indicates that OX40L is an excellent therapeutic target in SLE.

Journal article

Lynskey NN, Reglinski M, Calay D, Siggins MK, mason JC, Botto M, Sriskandan Set al., 2017, Multi-functional mechanisms of immune evasion by the streptococcal complement inhibitor C5a peptidase, PLOS Pathogens, Vol: 13, ISSN: 1553-7366

The complement cascade is crucial for clearance and control of invading pathogens, and as such is a key target for pathogen mediated host modulation. C3 is the central molecule of the complement cascade, and plays a vital role in opsonization of bacteria and recruitment of neutrophils to the site of infection. Streptococcal species have evolved multiple mechanisms to disrupt complement-mediated innate immunity, among which ScpA (C5a peptidase), a C5a inactivating enzyme, is widely conserved. Here we demonstrate for the first time that pyogenic streptococcal species are capable of cleaving C3, and identify C3 and C3a as novel substrates for the streptococcal ScpA, which are functionally inactivated as a result of cleavage 7 amino acids upstream of the natural C3 convertase. Cleavage of C3a by ScpA resulted in disruption of human neutrophil activation, phagocytosis and chemotaxis, while cleavage of C3 generated abnormally-sized C3a and C3b moieties with impaired function, in particular reducing C3 deposition on the bacterial surface. Despite clear effects on human complement, expression of ScpA reduced clearance of group A streptococci in vivo in wildtype and C5 deficient mice, and promoted systemic bacterial dissemination in mice that lacked both C3 and C5, suggesting an additional complement-independent role for ScpA in streptococcal pathogenesis. ScpA was shown to mediate streptococcal adhesion to both human epithelial and endothelial cells, consistent with a role in promoting bacterial invasion within the host. Taken together, these data show that ScpA is a multi-functional virulence factor with both complement-dependent and independent roles in streptococcal pathogenesis.

Journal article

Kiriakidis S, Hoer SS, Burrows N, Biddlecome G, Khan MN, Thinnes CC, Schofield CJ, Rogers N, Botto M, Paleolog E, Maxwell PHet al., 2017, Complement C1q is hydroxylated by collagen prolyl 4 hydroxylase and is sensitive to off-target inhibition by prolyl hydroxylase domain inhibitors that stabilize hypoxia-inducible factor, Kidney International, Vol: 92, Pages: 900-908, ISSN: 0085-2538

Complement C1q is part of the C1 macromolecular complex that mediates the classical complement activation pathway: a major arm of innate immune defense. C1q is composed of A, B, and C chains that require post-translational prolyl 4-hydroxylation of their N-terminal collagen-like domain to enable the formation of the functional triple helical multimers. The prolyl 4-hydroxylase(s) that hydroxylate C1q have not previously been identified. Recognized prolyl 4-hydroxylases include collagen prolyl-4-hydroxylases (CP4H) and the more recently described prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD) enzymes that act as oxygen sensors regulating hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). We show that several small-molecule prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors that activate HIF also potently suppress C1q secretion by human macrophages. However, reducing oxygenation to a level that activates HIF does not compromise C1q hydroxylation. In vitro studies showed that a C1q A chain peptide is not a substrate for PHD2 but is a substrate for CP4H1. Circulating levels of C1q did not differ between wild-type mice or mice with genetic deficits in PHD enzymes, but were reduced by prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors. Thus, C1q is hydroxylated by CP4H, but not the structurally related PHD hydroxylases. Hence, reduction of C1q levels may be an important off-target side effect of small molecule PHD inhibitors developed as treatments for renal anemia.

Journal article

Stratigou V, Doyle, Carlucci F, Stephens L, Foschi V, Castelli M, Mckenna N, Cook, Lightstone, Cairns TD, Pickering MC, Botto Met al., 2017, Altered expression of signalling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) receptors in T cells from lupus nephritis patients - a potential biomarker of disease activity., Rheumatology, Vol: 56, Pages: 1206-1216, ISSN: 1462-0332

Objectives. The aim was to investigate whether the signalling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) signalling pathways contribute to LN and whether SLAM receptors could be valuable biomarkers of disease activity.Methods. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 30National Research Ethics Service SLE patients with biopsy-proven LN were analysed by flow cytometry. Clinical measures of disease activity were assessed. The expression of the SLAM family receptors on T-cell subpopulations [CD4, CD8 and double negative (DN) T cells] was measured and compared between lupus patients with active renal disease and those in remission.Results. The frequency of CD8 T cells expressing SLAMF3, SLAMF5 and SLAMF7 was significantly lower in LN patients who were in remission. In contrast, these subsets were similar in patients with active renal disease and in healthy individuals. Patients with active nephritis had an increased percentage of circulating monocytes, consistent with a potential role played by these cells in glomerular inflammation. Changes in the frequency of DN T cells positive for SLAMF2, SLAMF4 and SLAMF7 were observed in lupus patients irrespective of the disease activity. We detected alterations in the cellular expression of the SLAM family receptors, but these changes were less obvious and did not reveal any specific pattern. The percentage of DN T cells expressing SLAMF6 could predict the clinical response to B-cell depletion in patients with LN.Conclusion. Our study demonstrates altered expression of the SLAM family receptors in SLE T lymphocytes. This is consistent with the importance of the SLAM-associated pathways in lupus pathogenesis.

Journal article

Giacomassi C, Buang N, Ling GS, Crawford G, Cook, Scott D, Dazzi F, Strid, Botto Met al., 2016, Complement C3 exacerbates imiquimod-induced skin inflammation and psoriasiform dermatitis, Journal of Investigative Dermatology, Vol: 137, Pages: 760-763, ISSN: 1523-1747

The complement system is pivotal in protection against pathogens, but also plays important roles in bridging innate and adaptive immune responses (Scott and Botto, 2015) and in modulating local and systemic inflammation (Markiewski and Lambris, 2007). Activation of complement occurs through three different pathways (classical, alternative and lectin), converges at C3 cleavage and culminates in the formation of the membrane attack complex. The anaphylotoxic fragments, C3a and C5a, generated during the proteolytic cascade, recruit immune cells that can promote the removal of debris and pathogens, but can also cause tissue damage (Markiewski and Lambris, 2007).

Journal article

Mühlfeld C, Madsen J, Mackay RM, Schneider JP, Schipke J, Lutz D, Birkelbach B, Knudsen L, Botto M, Ochs M, Clark Het al., 2016, Effect of irradiation/bone marrow transplantation on alveolar epithelial type II cells is aggravated in surfactant protein D deficient mice., Histochemistry and Cell Biology, Vol: 147, Pages: 49-61, ISSN: 0948-6143

Irradiation followed by bone marrow transplantation (BM-Tx) is a frequent therapeutic intervention causing pathology to the lung. Although alveolar epithelial type II (AE2) cells are essential for lung function and are damaged by irradiation, the long-term consequences of irradiation and BM-Tx are not well characterized. In addition, it is unknown whether surfactant protein D (SP-D) influences the response of AE2 cells to the injurious events. Therefore, wildtype (WT) and SP-D(-/-) mice were subjected to a myeloablative whole body irradiation dose of 8 Gy and subsequent BM-Tx and compared with age- and sex-matched untreated controls. AE2 cell changes were investigated quantitatively by design-based stereology. Compared with WT, untreated SP-D(-/-) mice showed a higher number of larger sized AE2 cells and a greater amount of surfactant-storing lamellar bodies. Irradiation and BM-Tx induced hyperplasia and hypertrophy in WT and SP-D(-/-) mice as well as the formation of giant lamellar bodies. The experimentally induced alterations were more severe in the SP-D(-/-) than in the WT mice, particularly with respect to the surfactant-storing lamellar bodies which were sometimes extremely enlarged in SP-D(-/-) mice. In conclusion, irradiation and BM-Tx have profound long-term effects on AE2 cells and their lamellar bodies. These data may explain some of the clinical pulmonary consequences of this procedure. The data should also be taken into account when BM-Tx is used as an experimental procedure to investigate the impact of bone marrow-derived cells for the phenotype of a specific genotype in the mouse.

Journal article

Wang Y, Jenkins SA, Gu C, Shree A, Martinez-Moczygemba M, Herold J, Botto M, Wetsel RA, Xu Yet al., 2016, Bacillus anthracis Spore Surface Protein BclA Mediates Complement Factor H Binding to Spores and Promotes Spore Persistence, PLOS Pathogens, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1553-7366

Spores of Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, are known to persist in the host lungs for prolonged periods of time, however the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that BclA, a major surface protein of B. anthracis spores, mediated direct binding of complement factor H (CFH) to spores. The surface bound CFH retained its regulatory cofactor activity resulting in C3 degradation and inhibition of downstream complement activation. By comparing results from wild type C57BL/6 mice and complement deficient mice, we further showed that BclA significantly contributed to spore persistence in the mouse lungs and dampened antibody responses to spores in a complement C3-dependent manner. In addition, prior exposure to BclA deletion spores (ΔbclA) provided significant protection against lethal challenges by B. anthracis, whereas the isogenic parent spores did not, indicating that BclA may also impair protective immunity. These results describe for the first time an immune inhibition mechanism of B. anthracis mediated by BclA and CFH that promotes spore persistence in vivo. The findings also suggested an important role of complement in persistent infections and thus have broad implications.

Journal article

Barbour TD, Ling GS, Ruseva MM, Fossati-Jimack L, Cook HT, Botto M, Pickering MCet al., 2016, Complement receptor 3 mediates renal protection in experimental C3 glomerulopathy, Kidney International, Vol: 89, Pages: 823-832, ISSN: 1523-1755

C3 glomerulopathy is a complement-mediated renal disease that is frequently associated with abnormalities in regulation of the complement alternative pathway. Mice with deficiency of factor H (Cfh–/–), a negative alternative pathway regulator, are an established experimental model of C3 glomerulopathy in which complement C3 fragments including iC3b accumulate along the glomerular basement membrane. Here we show that deficiency of complement receptor 3 (CR3), the main receptor for iC3b, enhances the severity of spontaneous renal disease in Cfh–/– mice. This effect was found to be dependent on CR3 expression on bone marrow–derived cells. CR3 also mediated renal protection outside the setting of factor H deficiency, as shown by the development of enhanced renal injury in CR3-deficient mice during accelerated nephrotoxic nephritis. The iC3b–CR3 interaction downregulated the proinflammatory cytokine response of both murine and human macrophages to lipopolysaccharide stimulation in vitro, suggesting that the protective effect of CR3 on glomerular injury was mediated via modulation of macrophage-derived proinflammatory cytokines. Thus, CR3 has a protective role in glomerulonephritis and suggests that pharmacologic potentiation of the macrophage CR3 interaction with iC3b could be therapeutically beneficial.

Journal article

Bulla R, Tripodo C, Rami D, Ling GS, Agostinis C, Guarnotta C, Zorzet S, Durigutto P, Botto M, Tedesco Fet al., 2016, C1q acts in the tumour microenvironment as a cancer-promoting factor independently of complement activation., Nature Communications, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2041-1723

Complement C1q is the activator of the classical pathway. However, it is now recognized that C1q can exert functions unrelated to complement activation. Here we show that C1q, but not C4, is expressed in the stroma and vascular endothelium of several human malignant tumours. Compared with wild-type (WT) or C3- or C5-deficient mice, C1q-deficient (C1qa(-/-)) mice bearing a syngeneic B16 melanoma exhibit a slower tumour growth and prolonged survival. This effect is not attributable to differences in the tumour-infiltrating immune cells. Tumours developing in WT mice display early deposition of C1q, higher vascular density and an increase in the number of lung metastases compared with C1qa(-/-) mice. Bone marrow (BM) chimeras between C1qa(-/-) and WT mice identify non-BM-derived cells as the main local source of C1q that can promote cancer cell adhesion, migration and proliferation. Together these findings support a role for locally synthesized C1q in promoting tumour growth.

Journal article

Carlucci F, Botto M, Ishaque A, Sheng Ling G, Szajna M, Sandison A, Donatien P, Cook HTet al., 2016, C1q modulates the response to TLR7 stimulation by pristane-primed macrophages: implications for pristane-induced lupus, Journal of Immunology, Vol: 196, Pages: 1488-1494, ISSN: 1550-6606

The complement component C1q is known to play a controversial role in thepathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but the underlying mechanismsremain poorly understood. Intraperitoneal injection of pristane induces a lupus-likesyndrome whose pathogenesis implicates the secretion of type I IFN by CD11b+Ly6Chigh inflammatory monocytes in a TLR7-dependent fashion. C1q has also beenshown to influence the secretion of IFN-α. Herein we explored whether C1qdeficiency could affect pristane-induced lupus (PIL). Surprisingly, C1qa-/- micedeveloped lower titres of circulating antibodies and milder arthritis compared to thecontrols. In keeping with the clinical scores, two weeks after pristane injection theperitoneal recruitment of CD11b+ Ly6Chigh inflammatory monocytes in the C1qa-/-mice was impaired. Furthermore, C1q-deficient pristane-primed resident peritonealmacrophages secreted significantly less CCL3, CCL2, CXCL1 and IL-6 whenstimulated in vitro with TLR7 ligand. Replenishing C1q in vivo during the pristanepriming phase rectified this defect. Conversely, pristane-primed macrophages fromC3-deficient mice did not show any impaired cytokine production. These findingsdemonstrate that C1q deficiency impairs the TLR7-dependent chemokine productionby pristane-primed peritoneal macrophages and suggest that C1q, and not C3, isinvolved in the handling of pristane by phagocytic cells which is required to triggerdisease in this model.

Journal article

Saja MF, Baudino L, Jackson WD, Cook HT, Malik TH, Fossati-Jimack L, Ruseva M, Pickering MC, Woollard KJ, Botto Met al., 2015, Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins Modulate the Distribution and Extravasation of Ly6C/Gr1(low) Monocytes, CELL REPORTS, Vol: 12, Pages: 1802-1815, ISSN: 2211-1247

Journal article

Vernon KA, Ruseva MM, Cook HT, Botto M, Malik TH, Pickering MCet al., 2015, Partial complement factor H deficiency associates with C3 glomerulopathy and thrombotic microangiopathy, Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, Vol: 27, Pages: 1334-1342, ISSN: 1046-6673

The complement–mediated renal diseases C3 glomerulopathy (C3G) and atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) strongly associate with inherited and acquired abnormalities in the regulation of the complement alternative pathway (AP). The major negative regulator of the AP is the plasma protein complement factor H (FH). Abnormalities in FH result in uncontrolled activation of C3 through the AP and associate with susceptibility to both C3G and aHUS. Although previously developed FH–deficient animal models have provided important insights into the mechanisms underlying susceptibility to these unique phenotypes, these models do not entirely reproduce the clinical observations. FH is predominantly synthesized in the liver. We generated mice with hepatocyte–specific FH deficiency and showed that these animals have reduced plasma FH levels with secondary reduction in plasma C3. Unlike mice with complete FH deficiency, hepatocyte–specific FH–deficient animals developed neither plasma C5 depletion nor accumulation of C3 along the glomerular basement membrane. In contrast, subtotal FH deficiency associated with mesangial C3 accumulation consistent with C3G. Although there was no evidence of spontaneous thrombotic microangiopathy, the hepatocyte–specific FH–deficient animals developed severe C5–dependent thrombotic microangiopathy after induction of complement activation within the kidney by accelerated serum nephrotoxic nephritis. Taken together, our data indicate that subtotal FH deficiency can give rise to either spontaneous C3G or aHUS after a complement-activating trigger within the kidney and that the latter is C5 dependent.

Journal article

Ambrose N, Khan E, Ravindran R, Lightstone E, Abraham S, Botto M, Johns M, Haskard DOet al., 2015, The exaggerated inflammatory response in behçet's syndrome: Identification of dysfunctional post-transcriptional regulation of the IFN?/CXCL10 (IP-10) pathway, Clinical and Experimental Immunology, Vol: 181, Pages: 427-433, ISSN: 1365-2249

The mechanisms underlying the exaggerated inflammatory response in Behçet's syndrome (BS) remain poorly understood. We investigated the response of CD14+ blood monocytes to interferon (IFN)-γ, focusing on the chemokine CXCL10. Chemokine synthesis and release were analysed at a protein and mRNA level following stimulation with IFN-γ. Findings in BS patients were compared with 25 healthy controls (HC), 15 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 15 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) disease control patients. BS monocytes produced significantly more CXCL10 protein than HC monocytes from 2 h following IFN-γ stimulation, despite equivalent quantities of mRNA, suggesting more efficient translation. This was significantly more pronounced in BS with high disease activity and in those with ocular and neurological clinical manifestations. The imbalance between CXCL10 protein and mRNA expression was not observed in either RA or SLE patients, and was not seen with other chemokines studied (CXCL9, CXCL11 and CCL2). Furthermore, BS monocytes treated with an alternative stimulant (LPS) did not show abnormal tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α release. Sucrose density gradients to segregate monocyte CXCL10 mRNA into free RNA or polysome-associated RNA showed equal proportions in BS and HC samples, suggesting that the difference between BS and HC may be due to reduced negative control of CXCL10 translation in BS at a post-initiation level. We conclude that BS monocytes have dysfunctional post-transcriptional regulation of CXCL10 mRNA, resulting in over-expression of CXCL10 protein upon IFN-γ stimulation. As CXCL10 is a chemokine that recruits mononuclear cells, this abnormality may contribute to the exaggerated inflammatory responses that characterizes BS.

Journal article

Scott D, Botto M, 2015, The paradoxical roles of C1q and C3 in autoimmunity., Immunobiology, Vol: 221, Pages: 719-725, ISSN: 0722-6365

In this review we will focus on the links between complement and autoimmune diseases and will highlight how animal models have provided insights into the manner by which C1q and C3 act to modulate both adaptive and innate immune responses. In particular we will highlight how C1q may not only act as initiator of the classical complement pathway, but can also mediate multiple immune responses in a complement activation independent manner.

Journal article

Clarke AJ, Ellinghaus U, Cortini A, Stranks A, Simon AK, Botto M, Vyse TJet al., 2015, Autophagy is activated in systemic lupus erythematosus and required for plasmablast development, ANNALS OF THE RHEUMATIC DISEASES, Vol: 74, Pages: 912-920, ISSN: 0003-4967

Journal article

Pekkarinen PT, Heikkila N, Kisand K, Peterson P, Botto M, Daha MR, Drouet C, Isaac L, Helminen M, Haahtela T, Meri S, Jarva H, Arstila TPet al., 2015, Dysregulation of adaptive immune responses in complement C3-deficient patients, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 45, Pages: 915-921, ISSN: 0014-2980

Journal article

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