31 results found
Danaci D, Bui M, Petit C, et al., 2021, En Route to Zero Emissions for Power and Industry with Amine-Based Post-combustion Capture, ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Vol: 55, Pages: 10619-10632, ISSN: 0013-936X
Patrizio P, Fajardy M, Bui M, et al., 2021, CO2 mitigation or removal: The optimal uses of biomass in energy system decarbonization, ISCIENCE, Vol: 24
Bui M, Zhang D, Fajardy M, et al., 2021, Delivering carbon negative electricity, heat and hydrogen with BECCS – Comparing the options, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol: 46, Pages: 15298-15321, ISSN: 0360-3199
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) will have an essential role in meeting our climate change mitigation targets. CCS technologies are technically mature and will likely be deployed to decarbonise power, industry, heat, and removal of CO2 from the atmosphere. The assumption of a 90% CO2 capture rate has become ubiquitous in the literature, which has led to doubt around whether CO2 capture rates above 90% are even feasible. However, in the context of a 1.5 °C target, going beyond 90% capture will be vital, with residual emissions needing to be indirectly captured via carbon dioxide removal (CDR) technologies. Whilst there will be trade-offs between the cost of increased rates of CO2 capture, and the cost of offsets, understanding where this lies is key to minimising the dependence on CDR. This study quantifies the maximum limit of feasible CO2 capture rate for a range of power and industrial sources of CO2, beyond which abatement becomes uneconomical. In no case, was a capture rate of 90% found to be optimal, with capture rates of up to 98% possible at a relatively low marginal cost. Flue gas composition was found to be a key determinant of the cost of capture, with more dilute streams exhibiting a more pronounced minimum. Indirect capture by deploying complementary CDR is also assessed. The results show that current policy initiatives are unlikely to be sufficient to enable the economically viable deployment of CCS in all but a very few niche sectors of the economy.
Rúa J, Bui M, Nord LO, et al., 2020, Does CCS reduce power generation flexibility? A dynamic study of combined cycles with post-combustion CO2 capture, International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Vol: 95, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 1750-5836
To date, the deployment, integration, and utilization of intermittent renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar power, in the global energy system has been the cornerstone of efforts to combat climate change. At the same time, it is recognized that renewable power represents only one element of the portfolio of technologies that will be required to deliver a technically feasible and financially viable energy system. In this context, carbon capture and storage (CCS) is understood to play a uniquely important role, providing significant value through flexible operation. It is therefore of vital importance that CCS technology can operate synergistically with intermittent renewable power sources, and consequently ensuring that CCS does not inhibit the flexible and dispatchable nature of thermal power plants. This work analyses the intrinsic dynamic performance of the power and CO2 capture plants independently and as an integrated system. Since the power plant represents the fast dynamics of the system and the steam extraction is the main point of integration between the CO2 capture and power plants, disturbances with fast dynamics are imposed on the steam extraction valve during steady state and dynamic operation of a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) to study the effects of the integration on power generation capacity. The results demonstrate that the integration of liquid-absorbent based post-combustion CO2 capture has negligible impact on the power generation dynamics of the NGCC.
Bui M, Flø NE, de Cazenove T, et al., 2020, Demonstrating flexible operation of the Technology Centre Mongstad (TCM) CO2 capture plant, International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Vol: 93, Pages: 1-26, ISSN: 1750-5836
This study demonstrates the feasibility of flexible operation of CO2capture plants with dynamic modelling and experimental testing at the Technology Centre Mongstad (TCM) CO2capture facility in Norway. This paper presents three flexible operation scenarios: (i) effect of steam flow rate, (ii) time-varying solvent regeneration, and (iii) variable ramp rate. The dynamic model of the TCM CO2capture plant developed in gCCS provides further insights into the process dynamics. As the steam flow rate decreases, lean CO2loading increases, thereby reducing CO2capture rate and decreasing absorber temperature. The time-varying solvent regeneration scenario is demonstrated successfully. During “off-peak” mode (periods of low electricity price), solvent is regenerated, reducing lean CO2loading to 0.16molqY:/molMEAand increasing CO2capture rate to 89–97%. The “peak” mode(period of high electricity price) stores CO2within the solvent by reducing the reboiler heat supply and in-creasing solvent flow rate. During peak mode, lean CO2loading increases to 0.48molqY:/molMEA, reducing CO2 capture rate to 14.5%, which in turn decreases the absorber temperature profile. The variable ramp rate scenario demonstrates that different ramp rates can be applied successively to a CO2capture plant. By maintaining constant liquid-to-gas (L/G) ratio during the changes, the CO2capture performance will remain the same, i.e., constant lean CO2loading (0.14–0.16molqY:/molMEA) and CO2capture rate (87–89%). We show that flexible operation in a demonstration scale absorption CO2capture process is technically feasible. The deviation between the gCCS model and dynamic experimental data demonstrates further research is needed to improve existing dynamic modelling software. Continual development in our understanding of process dynamics during flexible operation of CO2capture plants will be essential. This paper provides additional value by presenting a com-prehensive dy
Bui M, Mac Dowell N, 2020, Chapter 1: Introduction-Carbon capture and storage, RSC Energy and Environment Series, Pages: 1-7, ISBN: 9781788014700
CO2 capture and storage (CCS) and greenhouse gas removal (GGR) are considered vital to meeting global climate change targets. However, despite their technical maturity, their deployment consistently lags behind what is known to be required. This introductory chapter explores why, and suggests some possible paths forward.
Danaci D, Bui M, Mac Dowell N, et al., 2020, Exploring the limits of adsorption-based CO2 capture using MOFs with PVSA – from molecular design to process economics, Molecular Systems Design and Engineering, Vol: 5, Pages: 212-231, ISSN: 2058-9689
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have taken the materials science world by storm, with potentials of near infinite possibilities and the panacea for adsorption-based carbon capture. Yet, no pilot-scale (or larger-scale) study exists on MOFs for carbon capture. Beyond material scalability issues, this clear gap between the scientific and engineering literature relates to the absence of suitable and accessible assessment of MOFs in an adsorption process. Here, we have developed a simple adsorbent screening tool with process economics to evaluate adsorbents for post-combustion capture, while also considering factors relevant to industry. Specifically, we have assessed the 25 adsorbents (22 MOFs, 2 zeolites, 1 activated carbon) against performance constraints – i.e. CO2 purity and recovery – and cost. We have considered four different CO2 capture scenarios to represent a range of CO2 inlet concentrations. The cost is compared to that of amine-based solvents for which a corresponding model was developed. Using the model developed, we have conceptually assessed the materials properties and process parameters influencing the purity, recovery and cost in order to design the ‘best’ adsorbent. We have also set-up a tool for readers to screen their own adsorbent. In this contribution, we show that minimal N2 adsorption and moderate enthalpies of adsorption are key in obtaining good process performance and reducing cost. This stands in contrast to the popular approaches of maximizing CO2 capacity or surface area. Of the 22 MOFs evaluated, UTSA-16 shows the best performance and lowest cost for post-combustion capture, having performance in-line with the benchmark, zeolite 13X. Mg-MOF-74 performs poorly. The cost of using the adsorbents remains overall higher than that of an amine-based absorption process. Ultimately, this study provides specific directions for material scientists to design adsorbents and assess their performance at the process scale. This
Bui M, Dowell NM, 2020, Preface, ISBN: 9781788014700
Danaci D, 2019, CO2 capture by adsorption processes, Carbon Capture and Storage, Editors: Bui, Mac Dowell, Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry, Pages: 106-167, ISBN: 978-1-78801-145-7
Adsorption is a reliable process technology that has been in use since the 1960s for gas separation applications. Since the mid 90s, interest has grown around CO2 emissions abatement with adsorption being one of the first technologies considered. There has since been significant research and development on both the materials science, and engineering aspects of adsorption for CO2 capture. Adsorbents with extensive histories such as zeolites, activated carbons, and layered double hydroxides have experienced resurgences, and novel adsorbents such as metal–organic frameworks and microporous organic polymers were conceived. Adsorption-based separations are cyclic processes, and methods to improve the attainable purity and recovery of the CO2 have also been investigated; this work has shown that 90%mol recovery and 95%mol purity are possible for post-combustion capture. Work is also underway to improve the throughput of gas–solid contacting devices as a form of process intensification, which is required for high volumetric flow rate applications. Although there are still some concerns around the stability of some adsorbents to impurities, there have been meaningful and significant advancements over the last 20–25 years. These have made adsorption a viable technology for carbon capture applications.
Yao JG, Bui M, Dowell NM, 2019, Grid-scale energy storage with net-zero emissions: comparing the options, Sustainable Energy and Fuels, Vol: 3, Pages: 3147-3162, ISSN: 2398-4902
The transition to a low-carbon economy is an enormous challenge. With increasing deployment of intermittent renewable energy, there is a recognised need for scalable options for grid-scale, long-term, high energy density, energy storage. Grid-scale energy storage combined with carbon capture and utilisation (CCU) potentially provides a high level of flexibility and reliability. However, previous power-to-gas (P2G) studies have only examined the use of synthetic natural gas (SNG) derived from electrolytic hydrogen and either biomass- or industrially-derived CO2 for this application; making the whole power-to-power (P2P) value chain low carbon at best. Instead, our work assesses the techno-economic feasibility of using direct air capture to develop truly carbon-neutral P2P pathways. After assessing nine net-zero emission configurations using existing technologies, we found that using SNG as an energy storage carrier may be the least expensive route despite being more complex than power-to-hydrogen (P2H). P2H is currently held back by the high cost of H2 storage and the low volumetric density of H2 relative to SNG. Thus, bringing down the cost of H2 storage and building more salt caverns will be imperative for P2H, whereas reducing the cost of carbon capture should be a key priority for accelerating the deployment of power-to-methane (P2M) technologies.
Zhang D, Bui M, Fajardy M, et al., 2019, Unlocking the potential of BECCS with indigenous sources of biomass at a national scale, Sustainable Energy and Fuels, Vol: 4, Pages: 226-253, ISSN: 2398-4902
Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) could play a large role in meeting the 1.5C argets, but faces well-documented controversy in terms of land-use concerns, competition with food production, and cost. This study presents a bottom-up assessment of the scale at which BECCS plants – biomass pulverised combustion plants (“BECCS” in this study) and bioenergy combustion in combined heat and power plants (BE-CHP-CCS) – can be sustainably deployed to meet national carbon dioxide removal (CDR) targets, considering the use of both primary and secondary (waste-derived) biomass. This paper also presents a comprehensive, harmonised data set, which enables others to build upon this work. Land availability for biomass cultivation, processing, and conversion is quantified based on a land-use analysis, avoiding all competition with land used for food production, human habitation, and other protected areas. We find that secondary biomass sources provide a valuable supplement to primary biomass, augmenting indigenous biomass supplies. In initial phases of deployment, we observe that infrastructure is initially clustered near cities, and other sources of low cost, secondary biomass, but as CDR targets are increased and indigenous secondary biomass supplies are exhausted, infrastructure begins to move closer to potential biomass planting areas with higher yield. In minimising the cost of CDR on a cost per tonne CO2 removed basis, we find that the availability of secondary biomass, land availability, and yield are key factors that drive the cost of CDR. Importantly biomass conversion efficiency of a BECCS plant has an inverse effect on CDR costs, with less efficient plants resulting in lower costs compared to their more efficient counterparts. By consuming secondary biomass in BECCS and BE-CHP-CCS plants, the UK is able to be self-sufficient in biomass supply by utilising available indigenous biomass to remove up to 50 MtCO2 /yr, though for cost reas
Cabral RP, Bui M, Dowell NM, 2019, A synergistic approach for the simultaneous decarbonisation of power and industry via bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS), International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Vol: 87, Pages: 221-237, ISSN: 1750-5836
There is a need for a rapid and large scale decarbonisation to reduce CO2 emissions by 45% within 12 years. Thus, we propose a method that accelerates decarbonisation across multiple sectors via a synergistic approach with bioenergy with CCS (BECCS), which is able to remove 740 kgCO2 from air per MWh electricity generated. Industry is a hard-to-decarbonise sector which presents a unique set of challenges where, unlike the power sector, there are no obvious alternatives to CCS. One of these challenges is the significant variation of CO2 concentration, which directly influences CO2 capture costs, ranging from $10/tCO2 to over $170/tCO2 for high (95–99% CO2) and low CO2 concentration (4% CO2) applications, respectively. Re-purposing the existing coal-fired power plant fleet into BECCS displaces CO2 emissions from coal-use and enables a just transition, i.e., avoiding job loss, providing a supportive economic framework that does not rely on government subsidies. Negative emissions generated from capturing and storing atmospheric CO2 can be converted into negative emission credits (NECs) and auctioned to hard-to-decarbonise sectors, thus providing another revenue stream to the power plant. A levelised cost of electricity (LCOE) between $70 and $100 per MWh can be achieved through auctioning NECs at $90–$135 per tCO2. Offsetting the global industrial CO2 emissions of 9 GtCO2 would require 3000 BECCS plants under this framework. This approach could jumpstart industrial decarbonisation whilst giving this sector more time to develop new CCS technologies.
Danaci D, Bui M, Dowell NM, et al., 2019, An adsorbent screening tool with process economics for carbon capture by PVSA
, 2019, Carbon Capture and Storage, Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry, ISBN: 9781788011457
Bui M, Tait P, Lucquiaud M, et al., 2018, Dynamic operation and modelling of amine-based CO2 capture at pilot scale, International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Vol: 79, Pages: 134-153, ISSN: 1750-5836
This study combines pilot plant experiments and dynamic modelling to gain insight into the interaction between key process parameters in producing the dynamic response of an amine-based CO2 capture process. Three dynamic scenarios from the UKCCSRC PACT pilot plant are presented: (i) partial load stripping, (ii) capture plant ramping, and (iii) reboiler decoupling. These scenarios are representative of realistic flexible operation of non-baseload CCS power stations. Experimental plant data was used to validate a dynamic model developed in gCCS. In the capture plant ramping scenario, increased liquid-to-gas (L/G) ratio resulted in higher CO2 capture rate. The partial load stripping scenario demonstrated that the hot water flow directly affects reboiler temperature, which in turn, has an impact on the solvent lean loading and CO2 capture rate. The reboiler decoupling scenario demonstrates a similar relationship. Turning off the heat supply to the reboiler leads to a gradual decline in reboiler temperature, which increases solvent lean loading and reduces CO2 capture rate. The absorber column temperature profile is influenced by the degree of CO2 capture. For scenarios that result in lower solvent lean loading, the absorber temperature profile shifts to higher temperature (due to the higher CO2 capture rate).
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is broadly recognised as having the potential to play a key role in meeting climate change targets, delivering low carbon heat and power, decarbonising industry and, more recently, its ability to facilitate the net removal of CO2 from the atmosphere. However, despite this broad consensus and its technical maturity, CCS has not yet been deployed on a scale commensurate with the ambitions articulated a decade ago. Thus, in this paper we review the current state-of-the-art of CO2 capture, transport, utilisation and storage from a multi-scale perspective, moving from the global to molecular scales. In light of the COP21 commitments to limit warming to less than 2 °C, we extend the remit of this study to include the key negative emissions technologies (NETs) of bioenergy with CCS (BECCS), and direct air capture (DAC). Cognisant of the non-technical barriers to deploying CCS, we reflect on recent experience from the UK's CCS commercialisation programme and consider the commercial and political barriers to the large-scale deployment of CCS. In all areas, we focus on identifying and clearly articulating the key research challenges that could usefully be addressed in the coming decade.
Bui M, Fajardy M, Mac Dowell N, 2017, Bio-energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS): Opportunities for performance improvement, Fuel, Vol: 213, Pages: 164-175, ISSN: 0016-2361
This study evaluates the performance of a 500 MW pulverised fuel BECCS system. A performance matrix is developed to assess the opportunities for BECCS performance improvement in terms of: energy efficiency, carbon intensity, and pollutant emissions. The effect of fuel properties was analysed for variable (i) coal type (high/medium sulphur content), (ii) biomass type (wheat straw and wood chips), (iii) moisture content, and (iv) biomass co-firing proportion %. It was observed that the co-firing of biomass increased the quantity and quality of waste heat available for recovery from the exhaust gas. The opportunities to improve energy efficiency in the BECCS system include enhancing heat recovery and using high performance solvents for CO2 capture, such as biphasic materials. Implementing these approaches increased the power generation efficiency from 31%HHV (conventional MEA system) to 38%HHV (using an advanced biphasic solvent with heat recovery). Furthermore, power generation efficiency was found to influence the carbon intensity on an annual basis and annual capacity (load factor) of the BECCS system. Significant reductions to SOX emissions were achieved by increasing biomass co-firing % or using low sulphur coal.
Bui M, Fajardy M, Dowell NM, 2017, Thermodynamic Evaluation of Carbon Negative Power Generation: Bio-energy CCS (BECCS), Energy Procedia, Vol: 114, Pages: 6010-6020, ISSN: 1876-6102
Bio-energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) is an important greenhouse gas removal (GGR) technology with the potential to provide significant reductions in atmospheric CO2 concentration. The power generation efficiency of BECCS can be improved by using heat recovered from flue gas to supply energy requirements of the solvent regeneration process. This paper assesses the influence of solvent selection and biomass co-firing proportion on recoverable heat, energy efficiency and carbon intensity of a 500 MW pulverized fuel BECCS system. The effects of (i) coal type (high and medium sulphur content), (ii) biomass type (wheat straw and clean wood chips, (iii) variable moisture content, and (iv) biomass co-firing % on AFT and emissions of SOX and NOX was evaluated. Compared to firing of coal alone, co-firing low moisture biomass generated higher adiabatic flame temperature. As biomass co-firing proportion increased, SOX emissions decreased, whereas NOX emissions increased with greater AFT. Factors that enhanced BECCS efficiency included the use of high performance solvents and higher heat recovery (higher AFT and flue gas flow rate). These results lead to the development of a performance matrix which summarizes the effect of key process parameters.
Bui M, Fajardy M, Mac Dowell N, 2017, Bio-Energy with CCS (BECCS) performance evaluation: Efficiency enhancement and emissions reduction, APPLIED ENERGY, Vol: 195, Pages: 289-302, ISSN: 0306-2619
In this study we evaluate the feasibility of the recovery of waste heat from the power plant boiler system of a pulverised fuel power plant with amine-based CO2 capture. This recovered heat can, as a function of fuel type and solvent selection, provide up to 100% of the heat required for solvent regeneration, thus obviating the need for withdrawing steam from the power plant steam cycle and significantly reducing the efficiency penalty imposed upon the power plant by the CO2 capture process. In studying the thermochemistry of the combustion process, it was observed that co-firing with low moisture biomass achieved higher adiabatic flame temperatures (AFT) than coal alone. The formation and emission of SOX reduced as biomass co-firing proportion increased, whereas NOX emissions were observed to be a function of AFT. The power generation efficiency of a 500 MW 50% co-firing BECCS system increased from 31%HHV with a conventional MEA solvent, to 34%HHV with a high performance capture solvent. The heat recovery approach described in this paper enabled a further efficiency increase up to 38%HHV with the high performant solvent. Such a system was found to remove 0.83 MtCO2 from the atmosphere per year at 90% capacity factor.
Bui M, Fajardy M, MacDowell N, 2017, Bio-energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS): Opportunities for efficiency improvement, Pages: 661-674
Bui M, Fajardy M, DoweII NM, 2017, Bio-energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS): Opportunities for efficiency improvement, Pages: 294-307
Bui M, Fajardy M, Dowell NM, 2017, Bio-energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS): Opportunities for efficiency improvement, Pages: 1132-1145
Smit B, Styring P, Wilson G, et al., 2016, Modelling - from molecules to megascale: general discussion, Faraday Discussions, Vol: 192, Pages: 493-509, ISSN: 1359-6640
Bui M, Gunawan I, Verheyen VT, et al., 2016, Dynamic operation of liquid absorbent-based post-combustion CO2 capture plants, Absorption-Based Post-combustion Capture of Carbon Dioxide, Editors: Feron, Publisher: Woodhead Publishing, ISBN: 978-0-08-100514-9
Dynamic (or flexible) operation has been proposed as a strategy to reduce the impact of integrating post-combustion CO2 capture (PCC) into power plants. It provides a means for counteracting ongoing variations in the composition of flue gas and absorbent, and also accounts for dynamic variations in carbon and electricity pricing, and electricity demand. For example, in periods of low energy demand, electricity prices will be lower and capture rates may be ramped up accordingly. During high-demand periods, electricity prices will be higher, and capture may be turned down or switched off completely. Flexible PCC operation can also coordinate the balance between electricity demand and legislative requirements for CO2 emission reductions, to improve the economic feasibility of PCC. However, dynamic PCC operation imposes process disturbances when the CO2 capture plant is ramped up or turned down. The immediate and long-term effects of these disturbances are unclear. Thus, recent research is now focusing on the feasibility of flexible PCC operation on a technical basis. Dynamic modeling and pilot plant studies will improve our understanding of dynamic PCC behavior and enable process control to be optimized.
Bui M, Gunawan I, Verheyen V, et al., 2016, Flexible operation of CSIRO's post-combustion CO2 capture pilot plant at the AGL Loy Yang power station, International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Vol: 48, Pages: 188-203, ISSN: 1750-5836
Flexible operation has the potential to significantly improve the economic viability of post-combustion CO2 capture (PCC). However, the impact of disturbances from flexible operation of the PCC process is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of flexible operation in a PCC pilot plant by implementing step-changes for improved dynamic data reliability. The flexible operation campaign was conducted at the CSIRO PCC pilot plant at AGL Loy Yang using monoethanolamine (MEA) absorbent. The pilot plant was operated under a broad range of transient conditions (changing flue gas flow, liquid absorbent flow and steam pressure) to capture the dynamics of a PCC process during flexible operation. The study demonstrated that the dynamics of flue gas flow rate was faster than absorbent flow rate. The greatest CO2 removal% was achieved at the lowest flue gas flow rate or at the highest absorbent flow rate; however, the latter provided improved energy efficiency. The steam pressure parameter could adjust the temperature of all columns simultaneously which can be used to compensate for effects from ambient conditions or heat losses. These results verify the technical feasibility of flexible PCC operation and provide a suitable dataset for dynamic model validation.
Bui M, Gunawan I, Verheyen V, et al., 2014, Dynamic modelling and optimisation of flexible operation in post-combustion CO2 capture plants-A review, COMPUTERS & CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, Vol: 61, Pages: 245-265, ISSN: 0098-1354
Bui M, Gunawan I, Verheyen TV, et al., 2014, Dynamic operation of post-combustion CO2 capture in Australian coal-fired power plants, 12TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON GREENHOUSE GAS CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, GHGT-12, Vol: 63, Pages: 1368-1375, ISSN: 1876-6102
Theeyattuparampil VV, Zarzour OA, Koukouzas N, et al., 2013, Carbon capture and storage: State of play, challenges and opportunities for the GCC countries, International Journal of Energy Sector Management, Vol: 7, Pages: 223-242, ISSN: 1750-6220
Purpose: The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries have consistently ranked high in per capita carbon emissions, not to mention the fact that a lifestyle with a high ecological footprint in a fragile ecosystem can affect the regional environment, prosperity and social stability. The adoption of carbon capture and storage (CCS) in the GCC countries has been consistently gaining attention, as it is widely seen as a suitable mitigation measure, particularly in a region where heavy industry and geological exploitation have led to wealth and prosperity. Additionally, making captured CO<DN>2</DN> available for enhanced oil recovery is expected to create significant economic value. However, the lack of a coordinated environmental regulation regime to cap future carbon emissions is posing significant risks for further CCS development. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach: This paper reviews the state of play with regard to CCS in the GCC region and investigate the opportunities and challenges facing CCS development in the UAE by use of the interview technique. Findings: This paper finds that the lack of CCS-related regulations, absence of CCS policy at a national level and limited human capital resources are impeding the development of CCS in the UAE. Findings from this study can offer GCC policy-makers relevant insights into how best to develop CCS projects for the GCC region. Originality/value: This is an original research, that has not been conducted before. This is first of a kind assessment for the GCC region. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Bui M, Gunawan I, Verheyen V, et al., 2013, Dynamic modeling and validation of post-combustion CO2 capture plants in Australian coal-fired power stations, GHGT-11, Vol: 37, Pages: 2694-2702, ISSN: 1876-6102
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