Imperial College London

DrMuireannCoen

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction

Senior Lecturer
 
 
 
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m.coen

 
 
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660 C/O Wendy TortoSir Alexander Fleming BuildingSouth Kensington Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
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79 results found

Patel V, Lee S, McPhail M, Da Silva K, Guilly S, Zamalloa A, Witherden E, Støy S, Manakkat Vijay GK, Pons N, Galleron N, Huang X, Gencer S, Coen M, Tranah TH, Wendon JA, Bruce K, Le Chatelier E, Ehrlich SD, Edwards LA, Shoaie S, Shawcross DLet al., 2021, Rifaximin reduces gut-derived inflammation and mucin degradation in cirrhosis and encephalopathy: RIFSYS randomised controlled trial., J Hepatol

BACKGROUND: Rifaximin is efficacious in the prevention of recurrent hepatic encephalopathy (HE) but its mechanism of action remains unclear. We postulated that rifaximin reduces gut microbiota-derived endotoxemia and systemic inflammation, a known driver of HE. DESIGN: A randomised placebo-controlled double-blind mechanistic study of rifaximin versus placebo was performed in cirrhotic patients with HE. Rifaximin-α 550mg (TARGAXAN) twice daily (n=19) or placebo (n=19) was administered for 90-days. PRIMARY OUTCOME: 50% reduction in neutrophil oxidative burst (OB) at 30-days. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Scale (PHES), shotgun metagenomic sequencing of saliva and faeces, plasma and faecal metabolome, blood bacterial DNA, neutrophil toll-like receptor (TLR)-2/4/9 and interleukin-8 expression, and plasma and faecal cytokine analysis. RESULTS: Patients were well-matched: median MELD [11 rifaximin-α versus 10 placebo]. Day 30 HE grade normalised on rifaximin-α but not placebo (p=0.014) with an improvement in PHES score; p=0.009. Rifaximin-α reduced circulating neutrophil TLR-4 expression on day-30 (p=0.021) with a reduction in plasma tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); p<0.001. Rifaximin-α suppressed oralisation of the gut, reducing the mucin-degrading sialidase-rich species Streptococcus spp, Veillonella atypica and parvula, Akkermansia and Hungatella. Rifaximin-α promoted a TNF-α and IL-17E enriched intestinal microenvironment augmenting anti-bacterial responses to invading pathobionts and promoting gut barrier repair. Those on rifaximin-α were less likely to develop infection [odds ratio 0.21(0.05-0.96)]. CONCLUSION: Rifaximin-treated patients were less likely to develop infection with resolution of overt and covert HE. Rifaximin-α reduced oralisation of the gut with mucin-degrading species attenuating systemic inflammation. These data link rifaximin-α as having a role in

Journal article

Trovato FM, Zia R, Napoli S, Wolfer K, Huang X, Morgan PE, Husbyn H, Elgosbi M, Lucangeli M, Miquel R, Wilson I, Heaton ND, Heneghan MA, Auzinger G, Antoniades CG, Wendon JA, Patel VC, Coen M, Triantafyllou E, McPhail MJet al., 2021, Dysregulation of the Lysophosphatidylcholine/Autotaxin/Lysophosphatidic Acid Axis in Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure Is Associated With Mortality and Systemic Inflammation by Lysophosphatidic Acid Dependent Monocyte Activation, HEPATOLOGY, Vol: 74, Pages: 907-925, ISSN: 0270-9139

Journal article

Gallego-Paüls M, Hernández-Ferrer C, Bustamante M, Basagaña X, Barrera-Gómez J, Lau C-HE, Siskos AP, Vives-Usano M, Ruiz-Arenas C, Wright J, Slama R, Heude B, Casas M, Grazuleviciene R, Chatzi L, Borràs E, Sabidó E, Carracedo Á, Estivill X, Urquiza J, Coen M, Keun HC, González JR, Vrijheid M, Maitre Let al., 2021, Variability of multi-omics profiles in a population-based child cohort., BMC Medicine, Vol: 19, Pages: 1-16, ISSN: 1741-7015

BACKGROUND: Multiple omics technologies are increasingly applied to detect early, subtle molecular responses to environmental stressors for future disease risk prevention. However, there is an urgent need for further evaluation of stability and variability of omics profiles in healthy individuals, especially during childhood. METHODS: We aimed to estimate intra-, inter-individual and cohort variability of multi-omics profiles (blood DNA methylation, gene expression, miRNA, proteins and serum and urine metabolites) measured 6 months apart in 156 healthy children from five European countries. We further performed a multi-omics network analysis to establish clusters of co-varying omics features and assessed the contribution of key variables (including biological traits and sample collection parameters) to omics variability. RESULTS: All omics displayed a large range of intra- and inter-individual variability depending on each omics feature, although all presented a highest median intra-individual variability. DNA methylation was the most stable profile (median 37.6% inter-individual variability) while gene expression was the least stable (6.6%). Among the least stable features, we identified 1% cross-omics co-variation between CpGs and metabolites (e.g. glucose and CpGs related to obesity and type 2 diabetes). Explanatory variables, including age and body mass index (BMI), explained up to 9% of serum metabolite variability. CONCLUSIONS: Methylation and targeted serum metabolomics are the most reliable omics to implement in single time-point measurements in large cross-sectional studies. In the case of metabolomics, sample collection and individual traits (e.g. BMI) are important parameters to control for improved comparability, at the study design or analysis stage. This study will be valuable for the design and interpretation of epidemiological studies that aim to link omics signatures to disease, environmental exposures, or both.

Journal article

Maitre L, Bustamante M, Hernández-Ferrer C, Thiel D, Lau C-H, Siskos A, Vives-Usano M, Ruiz-Arenas C, Robinson O, Mason D, Wright J, Cadiou S, Slama R, Heude B, Gallego-Paüls M, Casas M, Sunyer J, Papadopoulou EZ, Gutzkow KB, Andrusaityte S, Grazuleviciene R, Vafeiadi M, Chatzi L, Sakhi AK, Thomsen C, Tamayo I, Nieuwenhuijsen M, Urquiza J, Borràs E, Sabidó E, Quintela I, Carracedo Á, Estivill X, Coen M, González JR, Keun HC, Vrijheid Met al., 2021, Multi-omics signatures of the human early life exposome

<jats:title>Summary</jats:title><jats:p>Environmental exposures during early life play a critical role in life-course health, yet the molecular phenotypes underlying environmental effects on health are poorly understood. In the Human Early Life Exposome (HELIX) project, a multi-centre cohort of 1,301 mother-child pairs, we associated individual exposomes consisting of &gt;100 chemical, physical and lifestyle exposures assessed in pregnancy and childhood, with multi-omics profiles (methylome, transcriptome, metabolome and proteins) in childhood. We identified 1,170 associations, 249 in pregnancy and 921 in childhood, which revealed potential biological responses and sources of exposure. The methylome best captures the persistent influence of pregnancy exposures, including maternal smoking; while childhood exposures were associated with features from all omics layers, revealing novel signatures for indoor air quality, essential trace elements, endocrine disruptors and weather conditions. This study provides a unique resource (<jats:ext-link xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" ext-link-type="uri" xlink:href="https://helixomics.isglobal.org/">https://helixomics.isglobal.org/</jats:ext-link>) to guide future investigation on the biological effects of the early life exposome.</jats:p>

Journal article

Calvo-Serra B, Maitre L, Lau C-HE, Siskos AP, Gutzkow KB, Andrusaityte S, Casas M, Cadiou S, Chatzi L, Gonzalez JR, Grazuleviciene R, McEachan R, Slama R, Vafeiadi M, Wright J, Coen M, Vrijheid M, Keun HC, Escaramis G, Bustamante Met al., 2020, Urinary metabolite quantitative trait loci in children and their interaction with dietary factors, HUMAN MOLECULAR GENETICS, Vol: 29, Pages: 3830-3844, ISSN: 0964-6906

Journal article

Robinson O, 2020, In utero and childhood exposure to tobacco smoke and multi-layer molecular signatures in children, BMC Medicine, Vol: 18, Pages: 1-19, ISSN: 1741-7015

BackgroundThe adverse health effects of early life exposure to tobacco smoking have been widely reported. In spite of this, the underlying molecular mechanisms of in utero and postnatal exposure to tobacco smoke are only partially understood. Here, we aimed to identify multi-layer molecular signatures associated with exposure to tobacco smoke in these two exposure windows.MethodsWe investigated the associations of maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure with molecular features measured in 1203 European children (mean age 8.1 years) from the Human Early Life Exposome (HELIX) project. Molecular features, covering 4 layers, included blood DNA methylation and gene and miRNA transcription, plasma proteins, and sera and urinary metabolites.ResultsMaternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with DNA methylation changes at 18 loci in child blood. DNA methylation at 5 of these loci was related to expression of the nearby genes. However, the expression of these genes themselves was only weakly associated with maternal smoking. Conversely, childhood SHS was not associated with blood DNA methylation or transcription patterns, but with reduced levels of several serum metabolites and with increased plasma PAI1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1), a protein that inhibits fibrinolysis. Some of the in utero and childhood smoking-related molecular marks showed dose-response trends, with stronger effects with higher dose or longer duration of the exposure.ConclusionIn this first study covering multi-layer molecular features, pregnancy and childhood exposure to tobacco smoke were associated with distinct molecular phenotypes in children. The persistent and dose-dependent changes in the methylome make CpGs good candidates to develop biomarkers of past exposure. Moreover, compared to methylation, the weak association of maternal smoking in pregnancy with gene expression suggests different reversal rates and a methylation-based memory to

Journal article

Letertre M, Munjoma NC, Slade SE, Plumb RS, Swann J, Coen M, Nicholson JK, Wilson IDet al., 2020, Metabolic phenotyping using UPLC–MS and rapid microbore UPLC–IM–MS: determination of the effect of different dietary regimes on the urinary metabolome of the rat, Chromatographia, Vol: 83, Pages: 853-861, ISSN: 0009-5893

A rapid reversed-phase gradient method employing a 50 mm × 1 mm i.d., C18 microbore column, combined with ion mobility and high-resolution mass spectrometry, was applied to the metabolic phenotyping of urine samples obtained from rats receiving different diets. This method was directly compared to a “conventional” method employing a 150 × 2.1 mm i.d. column packed with the same C18 bonded phase using the same samples. Multivariate statistical analysis of the resulting data showed similar class discrimination for both microbore and conventional methods, despite the detection of fewer mass/retention time features by the former. Multivariate statistical analysis highlighted a number of ions that represented diet-specific markers in the samples. Several of these were then identified using the combination of mass, ion-mobility-derived collision cross section and retention time including N-acetylglutamate, urocanic acid, and xanthurenic acid. Kynurenic acid was tentatively identified based on mass and ion mobility data.

Journal article

Letertre MPM, Munjoma NC, Wolfer K, Pechlivanis A, McDonald J, Hardwick RN, Cherrington NJ, Coen M, Nicholson J, Hoyles L, Swann J, Wilson Iet al., 2020, A two-way interaction between methotrexate and the gut microbiota of male Sprague Dawley rats, Journal of Proteome Research, Vol: 19, Pages: 3326-3339, ISSN: 1535-3893

Methotrexate (MTX) is a chemotherapeutic agent that cancause a range of toxic side effects including gastrointestinal damage,hepatotoxicity, myelosuppression, and nephrotoxicity and has potentiallycomplex interactions with the gut microbiome. Following untargeted UPLCqtof-MS analysis of urine and fecal samples from male Sprague−Dawley ratsadministered at either 0, 10, 40, or 100 mg/kg of MTX, dose-dependentchanges in the endogenous metabolite profiles were detected. Semiquantitativetargeted UPLC-MS detected MTX excreted in urine as well as MTX and twometabolites, 2,4-diamino-N-10-methylpteroic acid (DAMPA) and 7-hydroxyMTX, in the feces. DAMPA is produced by the bacterial enzymecarboxypeptidase glutamate 2 (CPDG2) in the gut. Microbiota profiling(16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing) of fecal samples showed an increase inthe relative abundance of Firmicutes over the Bacteroidetes at low doses ofMTX but the reverse at high doses. Firmicutes relative abundance was positively correlated with DAMPA excretion in feces at 48 h,which were both lower at 100 mg/kg compared to that seen at 40 mg/kg. Overall, chronic exposure to MTX appears to inducecommunity and functionality changes in the intestinal microbiota, inducing downstream perturbations in CPDG2 activity, and thusmay delay MTX detoxication to DAMPA. This reduction in metabolic clearance might be associated with increased gastrointestinaltoxicity.

Journal article

Wilson I, Dargue R, Zia R, Lau C, Nicholls AW, Dare T, Lee K, Rajiv J, Muireann Cet al., 2020, Metabolism and effects on endogenous metabolism of paracetamol (acetaminophen) in a porcine model of liver failure, Toxicological Sciences, Vol: 175, Pages: 87-97, ISSN: 1096-0929

The metabolic fate, toxicity and effects on endogenous metabolism of paracetamol (acetaminophen, APAP) in 22 female Landrace cross large white pigs were evaluated in a model of acute liver failure (ALF). Anaesthetized pigs were initially dosed at 250 mg/kg via an oroduodenal tube with APAP serum concentrations maintained above 300 mg/L using maintenance doses of 0.5-4g/h until ALF. Studies were undertaken to determine both the metabolic fate of APAP and its effects on the endogenous metabolic phenotype of ALF in using 1H NMR spectroscopy. Increased concentrations of citrate combined with pre-ALF increases in circulating lactate, pyruvate and alanine in plasma suggest mitochondrial dysfunction and a switch in hepatic energy metabolism to glycolysis in response to APAP treatment. A specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay was used to quantify APAP and metabolites. The major circulating and urinary metabolite of APAP was the phenolic glucuronide (APAP-G), followed by p-aminophenol glucuronide (PAP-G) formed from N-deacetylated APAP. The PAP produced by N-deacetylation was the likely cause of the methaemoglobinemia and kidney toxicity observed in this, and previous, studies in the pig. The phenolic sulfate of APAP, and the glutathione-derived metabolites of the drug were only found as minor components (with the cysteinyl conjugate detected but not the mercapturate). Given its low sulfation, combined with significant capacity for N-deacetylation the pig may represent a poor translational model for toxicology studies for compounds undergoing significant metabolism by sulfation, or which contain amide bonds which when hydrolysed to unmask an aniline lead to toxicity. However, the pig may provide a useful model where extensive amide hydrolysis is seen for drugs or environmental chemicals in humans, but not in e.g., the rat and dog which are the pre-clinical species normally employed for safety assessment.

Journal article

Dargue R, Grant I, Nye L, Andy Nicholls A, Dare T, Stahl S, Plumb R, Lee K, Jalan R, Coen M, Wilson Iet al., 2020, The analysis of acetaminophen (paracetamol) and 7 metabolites in rat, pig and human plasma by U(H)PLC-MS, Bioanalysis, Vol: 12, Pages: 485-500, ISSN: 1757-6180

A U(H)PLC–MS/MS method is described for the analysis of acetaminophen and its sulphate, glucuronide, glutathione, cysteinyl and N-acetylcysteinyl metabolites in plasma using stable isotope-labeled internal standards. P-Aminophenol glucuronide and 3-methoxyacetaminophen were monitored and semi-quantified using external standards. The assay takes 7.5 min/sample, requires only 5 μl of plasma and involves minimal sample preparation. The method was validated for rat plasma and cross validated for human and pig plasma and mouse serum. LOQ in plasma for these analytes were 0.44 μg/ml (APAP-C), 0.58 μg/ml (APAP-SG), 0.84 μg/ml (APAP-NAC), 2.75 μg/ml (APAP-S), 3.00 μg/ml (APAP-G) and 16 μg/ml (APAP). Application of the method is illustrated by the analysis of plasma following oral administration of APAP to male Han Wistar rats.

Journal article

Moreau K, Coen M, Zhang AX, Pachl F, Castaldi MP, Dahl G, Boyd H, Scott C, Newham Pet al., 2020, Proteolysis-targeting chimeras in drug development: A safety perspective, British Journal of Pharmacology, Vol: 177, Pages: 1709-1718, ISSN: 0007-1188

Proteolysis‐targeting chimeras are a new drug modality that exploits the endogenous ubiquitin proteasome system to degrade a protein of interest for therapeutic benefit. As the first‐generation of proteolysis‐targeting chimeras have now entered clinical trials for oncology indications, it is timely to consider the theoretical safety risks inherent with this modality which include off‐target degradation, intracellular accumulation of natural substrates for the E3 ligases used in the ubiquitin proteasome system, proteasome saturation by ubiquitinated proteins, and liabilities associated with the “hook effect” of proteolysis‐targeting chimeras This review describes in vitro and non‐clinical in vivo data that provide mechanistic insight of these safety risks and approaches being used to mitigate these risks in the next generation of proteolysis‐targeting chimera molecules to extend therapeutic applications beyond life‐threatening diseases.

Journal article

Nye LC, Williams JP, Munjoma NC, Letertre MPM, Coen M, Bouwmeester R, Martens L, Swann JR, Nicholson JK, Plumb RS, McCullagh M, Gethings LA, Lai S, Langridge J, Vissers JPC, Wilson IDet al., 2019, A comparison of collision cross section values obtained via travelling wave ion mobility-mass spectrometry and ultra high performance liquid chromatography-ion mobility-mass spectrometry: Application to the characterisation of metabolites in rat urine, Journal of Chromatography A, Vol: 1602, Pages: 386-396, ISSN: 0021-9673

A comprehensive Collision Cross Section (CCS) library was obtained via Travelling Wave Ion Guide mobility measurements through direct infusion (DI). The library consists of CCS and Mass Spectral (MS) data in negative and positive ElectroSpray Ionisation (ESI) mode for 463 and 479 endogenous metabolites, respectively. For both ionisation modes combined, TWCCSN2 data were obtained for 542 non-redundant metabolites. These data were acquired on two different ion mobility enabled orthogonal acceleration QToF MS systems in two different laboratories, with the majority of the resulting TWCCSN2 values (from detected compounds) found to be within 1% of one another. Validation of these results against two independent, external TWCCSN2 data sources and predicted TWCCSN2 values indicated to be within 1–2% of these other values. The same metabolites were then analysed using a rapid reversed-phase ultra (high) performance liquid chromatographic (U(H)PLC) separation combined with IM and MS (IM-MS) thus providing retention time (tr), m/z and TWCCSN2 values (with the latter compared with the DI-IM-MS data). Analytes for which TWCCSN2 values were obtained by U(H)PLC-IM-MS showed good agreement with the results obtained from DI-IM-MS. The repeatability of the TWCCSN2 values obtained for these metabolites on the different ion mobility QToF systems, using either DI or LC, encouraged the further evaluation of the U(H)PLC-IM-MS approach via the analysis of samples of rat urine, from control and methotrexate-treated animals, in order to assess the potential of the approach for metabolite identification and profiling in metabolic phenotyping studies. Based on the database derived from the standards 63 metabolites were identified in rat urine, using positive ESI, based on the combination of tr, TWCCSN2 and MS data.

Journal article

King AM, Mullin LG, Wilson ID, Coen M, Rainville PD, Plumb RS, Gethings LA, Maker G, Trengove Ret al., 2019, Development of a rapid profiling method for the analysis of polar analytes in urine using HILIC-MS and ion mobility enabled HILIC-MS, Metabolomics, Vol: 15, ISSN: 1573-3882

IntroductionAs large scale metabolic phenotyping is increasingly employed in preclinical studies and in the investigation of human health and disease the current LC–MS/MS profiling methodologies adopted for large sample sets can result in lengthy analysis times, putting strain on available resources. As a result of these pressures rapid methods of untargeted analysis may have value where large numbers of samples require screening.ObjectivesTo develop, characterise and evaluate a rapid UHP-HILIC-MS-based method for the analysis of polar metabolites in rat urine and then extend the capabilities of this approach by the addition of IMS to the system.MethodsA rapid untargeted HILIC LC–MS/MS profiling method for the analysis of small polar molecules has been developed. The 3.3 min separation used a Waters BEH amide (1 mm ID) analytical column on a Waters Synapt G2-Si Q-Tof enabled with ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). The methodology, was applied to the metabolic profiling of a series of rodent urine samples from vehicle-treated control rats and animals administered tienilic acid. The same separation was subsequently linked to IMS and MS to evaluate the benefits that IMS might provide for metabolome characterisation.ResultsThe rapid HILIC–MS method was successfully applied to rapid analysis of rat urine and found, based on the data generated from the data acquired for the pooled quality control samples analysed at regular intervals throughout the analysis, to be robust. Peak area and retention times for the compounds detected in these samples showed good reproducibility across the batch. When used to profile the urine samples obtained from vehicle-dosed control and those administered tienilic acid the HILIC-MS method detected 3007 mass/retention time features. Analysis of the same samples using HILIC–IMS–MS enabled the detection of 6711 features. Provisional metabolite identification for a number of compounds was performed using the high coll

Journal article

Haug LS, Sakhi AK, Cequier E, Casas M, Maitre L, Basagana X, Andrusaityte S, Chalkiadaki G, Chatzi L, Coen M, de Bont J, Dedele A, Ferrand J, Grazuleviciene R, Ramon Gonzalez J, Gutzkow KB, Keun H, McEachan R, Meltzer HM, Petraviciene I, Robinson O, Saulnier P-J, Slama R, Sunyer J, Urquiza J, Vafeiadi M, Wright J, Vrijheid M, Thomsen Cet al., 2018, In-utero and childhood chemical exposome in six European mother-child cohorts, Environment International, Vol: 121, Pages: 751-763, ISSN: 0160-4120

BackgroundHarmonized data describing simultaneous exposure to a large number of environmental contaminants in-utero and during childhood is currently very limited.ObjectivesTo characterize concentrations of a large number of environmental contaminants in pregnant women from Europe and their children, based on chemical analysis of biological samples from mother-child pairs.MethodsWe relied on the Early-Life Exposome project, HELIX, a collaborative project across six established population-based birth cohort studies in Europe. In 1301 subjects, biomarkers of exposure to 45 contaminants (i.e. organochlorine compounds, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, toxic and essential elements, phthalate metabolites, environmental phenols, organophosphate pesticide metabolites and cotinine) were measured in biological samples from children (6–12 years) and their mothers during pregnancy, using highly sensitive biomonitoring methods.ResultsMost of the exposure biomarkers had high detection frequencies in mothers (35 out of 45 biomarkers with >90% detected) and children (33 out of 45 biomarkers with >90% detected). Concentrations were significantly different between cohorts for all compounds, and were generally higher in maternal compared to children samples. For most of the persistent compounds the correlations between maternal and child concentrations were moderate to high (Spearman Rho > 0.35), while for most non-persistent compounds correlations were considerably lower (Spearman Rho < 0.15). For mercury, PFOS and PFOA a considerable proportion of the samples of both mothers and their children exceeded the HBM I value established by The Human Biomonitoring Commission of the German Federal Environment Agency.DiscussionAlthough not based on a representative sample, our study suggests that children across Europe are exposed to a wide range of environmental contaminants in fetal life and childhood including many with potential advers

Journal article

Maitre L, Robinson O, Martinez D, Toledano MB, Ibarluzea J, Santa Marina L, Sunyer J, Villanueva CM, Keun HC, Vrijheid M, Coen Met al., 2018, Urine metabolic signatures of multiple environmental pollutants in pregnant women - an exposome approach, Environmental Science and Technology, Vol: 52, Pages: 13469-13480, ISSN: 0013-936X

Exposure to environmental pollutants, particularly during pregnancy, can have adverse consequences on child development but little is known about the effects of pollutant mixtures on endogenous metabolism in pregnant women. We aimed to identify urinary metabolic signatures associated with low level exposure to multiple environmental pollutants in pregnant women from the INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente) birth cohort (Spain, N = 750). 35 chemical exposures were quantified in first trimester blood samples (organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, PFAS), in cord blood (mercury), and twice in urine at 12 and 32 weeks of pregnancy (metals, phthalates, bisphenol A). 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolic profiles of urine were acquired in the same samples as pollutants. We explored associations between exposures and metabolism through an exposome-metabolome wide association scan and multivariate O2PLS modeling. Novel and reproducible associations were found across two periods of pregnancy for three nonpersistent pollutants and across two subcohorts for four of the persistent pollutants. We found novel metabolic signatures associated with arsenic exposure: TMAO and dimethylamine possibly related to gut microbial methylamine metabolism and homarine related to fish intake. Tobacco smoke exposure was related to coffee metabolism and PCBs with 3-hydroxyvaleric acid, usually released under ketoacidosis. These findings will have implications for further understanding of maternal-fetal health, and health across the life-course.

Journal article

Lau CH, Siskos AP, Maitre L, Robinson O, Athersuch TJ, Want EJ, Urquiza J, Casas M, Vafeiadi M, Roumeliotaki T, McEachan RRC, Azad R, Haug LS, Meltzer HM, Andrusaityte S, Petraviciene I, Grazuleviciene R, Thomsen C, Wright J, Slama R, Chatzi L, Vrijheid M, Keun HC, Coen Met al., 2018, Determinants of the urinary and serum metabolome in children from six European populations, BMC Medicine, Vol: 16, ISSN: 1741-7015

BackgroundEnvironment and diet in early life can affect development and health throughout the life course. Metabolic phenotyping of urine and serum represents a complementary systems-wide approach to elucidate environment–health interactions. However, large-scale metabolome studies in children combining analyses of these biological fluids are lacking. Here, we sought to characterise the major determinants of the child metabolome and to define metabolite associations with age, sex, BMI and dietary habits in European children, by exploiting a unique biobank established as part of the Human Early-Life Exposome project (http://www.projecthelix.eu).MethodsMetabolic phenotypes of matched urine and serum samples from 1192 children (aged 6–11) recruited from birth cohorts in six European countries were measured using high-throughput 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and a targeted LC-MS/MS metabolomic assay (Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ p180 kit).ResultsWe identified both urinary and serum creatinine to be positively associated with age. Metabolic associations to BMI z-score included a novel association with urinary 4-deoxyerythronic acid in addition to valine, serum carnitine, short-chain acylcarnitines (C3, C5), glutamate, BCAAs, lysophosphatidylcholines (lysoPC a C14:0, lysoPC a C16:1, lysoPC a C18:1, lysoPC a C18:2) and sphingolipids (SM C16:0, SM C16:1, SM C18:1). Dietary-metabolite associations included urinary creatine and serum phosphatidylcholines (4) with meat intake, serum phosphatidylcholines (12) with fish, urinary hippurate with vegetables, and urinary proline betaine and hippurate with fruit intake. Population-specific variance (age, sex, BMI, ethnicity, dietary and country of origin) was better captured in the serum than in the urine profile; these factors explained a median of 9.0% variance amongst serum metabolites versus a median of 5.1% amongst urinary metabolites. Metabolic pathway correlations were identified, and concentrations of

Journal article

Maitre L, de Bont J, Casas M, Robinson O, Aasvang GM, Agier L, Andrušaitytė S, Ballester F, Basagaña X, Borràs E, Brochot C, Bustamante M, Carracedo A, de Castro M, Dedele A, Donaire-Gonzalez D, Estivill X, Evandt J, Fossati S, Giorgis-Allemand L, R Gonzalez J, Granum B, Grazuleviciene R, Bjerve Gützkow K, Småstuen Haug L, Hernandez-Ferrer C, Heude B, Ibarluzea J, Julvez J, Karachaliou M, Keun HC, Hjertager Krog N, Lau C-HE, Leventakou V, Lyon-Caen S, Manzano C, Mason D, McEachan R, Meltzer HM, Petraviciene I, Quentin J, Roumeliotaki T, Sabido E, Saulnier P-J, Siskos AP, Siroux V, Sunyer J, Tamayo I, Urquiza J, Vafeiadi M, van Gent D, Vives-Usano M, Waiblinger D, Warembourg C, Chatzi L, Coen M, van den Hazel P, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Slama R, Thomsen C, Wright J, Vrijheid Met al., 2018, Human Early Life Exposome (HELIX) study: a European population-based exposome cohort, BMJ Open, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2044-6055

Purpose Essential to exposome research is the collection of data on many environmental exposures from different domains in the same subjects. The aim of the Human Early Life Exposome (HELIX) study was to measure and describe multiple environmental exposures during early life (pregnancy and childhood) in a prospective cohort and associate these exposures with molecular omics signatures and child health outcomes. Here, we describe recruitment, measurements available and baseline data of the HELIX study populations.Participants The HELIX study represents a collaborative project across six established and ongoing longitudinal population-based birth cohort studies in six European countries (France, Greece, Lithuania, Norway, Spain and the UK). HELIX used a multilevel study design with the entire study population totalling 31 472 mother-child pairs, recruited during pregnancy, in the six existing cohorts (first level); a subcohort of 1301 mother-child pairs where biomarkers, omics signatures and child health outcomes were measured at age 6–11 years (second level) and repeat-sampling panel studies with around 150 children and 150 pregnant women aimed at collecting personal exposure data (third level).Findings to date Cohort data include urban environment, hazardous substances and lifestyle-related exposures for women during pregnancy and their offspring from birth until 6–11 years. Common, standardised protocols were used to collect biological samples, measure exposure biomarkers and omics signatures and assess child health across the six cohorts. Baseline data of the cohort show substantial variation in health outcomes and determinants between the six countries, for example, in family affluence levels, tobacco smoking, physical activity, dietary habits and prevalence of childhood obesity, asthma, allergies and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.Future plans HELIX study results will inform on the early life exposome and its association with molecul

Journal article

King AM, Grant I, Rainville PD, Isaac G, Coen M, Wilson ID, Plumb RSet al., 2018, Capillary ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of tienilic acid metabolites in urine following intravenous administration to the rat, Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, Vol: 1087-1088, Pages: 142-148, ISSN: 1570-0232

Capillary scale (100 mm × 150 μm id) UPLC/MS/MS, performed using reversed-phase gradient chromatography on sub 2 μm particles, has been successfully employed for the characterization of the metabolites of the drug tienilic acid (TA) excreted via the urine following oral administration to the rat. The capillary LC system provided a significant increase (range ca. 11-33-fold) in sensitivity compared with a conventional 150 mm × 2.1 mm id UPLC system. An investigation of the effect of the injection volume and sample mass loading on the capillary column on the results obtained for both endogenous metabolites and TA was performed. This demonstrated that the injection of up to 2 μL of rat urine onto the system was permitted whilst still providing excellent chromatographic results and robustness. Qualitative analysis of the urine revealed the presence of TA itself and a total of 15 metabolites of the drug, including those resulting from biotransformations such as hydroxylation or conjugation. The capillary chromatography system was shown to be robust, and capable of providing comprehensive drug metabolite profiles from small format urine samples such as those obtained from preclinical studies in rodents.

Journal article

Athersuch TJ, Antoine DJ, Boobis AR, Coen M, Daly AK, Possamai L, Nicholson JK, Wilson IDet al., 2018, Paracetamol metabolism, hepatotoxicity, biomarkers and therapeutic interventions: a perspective, Toxicology Research, Vol: 7, Pages: 347-357, ISSN: 2045-452X

After over 60 years of therapeutic use in the UK, paracetamol (acetaminophen, N-acetyl-p-aminophenol, APAP) remains the subject of considerable research into both its mode of action and toxicity. The pharmacological properties of APAP are the focus of some activity, with the role of the metabolite N-arachidonoylaminophenol (AM404) still a topic of debate. However, that the hepatotoxicity of APAP results from the production of the reactive metabolite N-acetyl-p-benzoquinoneimine (NAPQI/NABQI) that can deplete glutathione, react with cellular macromolecules, and initiate cell death, is now beyond dispute. The disruption of cellular pathways that results from the production of NAPQI provides a source of potential biomarkers of the severity of the damage. Research in this area has provided new diagnostic markers such as the microRNA miR-122 as well as mechanistic biomarkers associated with apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation and tissue regeneration. Additionally, biomarkers of, and systems biology models for, glutathione depletion have been developed. Furthermore, there have been significant advances in determining the role of both the innate immune system and genetic factors that might predispose individuals to APAP-mediated toxicity. This perspective highlights some of the progress in current APAP-related research.

Journal article

Zia R, Patel VC, Gray N, Wilson ID, Wendon J, McPhail M, Coen Met al., 2017, Multi-platform metabonomics reveals a distinct metabolic phenotype of acute-on-chronic liver failure, 68th Annual Meeting of the American-Association-for-the-Study-of-Liver-Diseases (AASLD) / Liver Meeting, Publisher: Wiley, Pages: 675A-675A, ISSN: 0270-9139

Conference paper

Triantafyllou E, Pop O, Possamai L, Wilhelm A, Liaskou E, Singanayagam A, Bernsmeier C, Khamri W, Petts G, Dargue R, Davies S, Tickle J, Yuksel M, Patel V, Abeles R, Stamataki Z, Curbishley S, Ma Y, Wilson I, Coen M, Woollard K, Quaglia A, Wendon J, Thursz M, Adams D, Weston C, Antoniades Cet al., 2017, MerTK expressing hepatic macrophages promote the resolution of inflammation in acute liver failure, Gut, Vol: 67, Pages: 333-347, ISSN: 1468-3288

Objective Acute liver failure (ALF) is characterised by overwhelming hepatocyte death and liver inflammation with massive infiltration of myeloid cells in necrotic areas. The mechanisms underlying resolution of acute hepatic inflammation are largely unknown. Here, we aimed to investigate the impact of Mer tyrosine kinase (MerTK) during ALF and also examine how the microenvironmental mediator, secretory leucocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), governs this response.Design Flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, confocal imaging and gene expression analyses determined the phenotype, functional/transcriptomic profile and tissue topography of MerTK+ monocytes/macrophages in ALF, healthy and disease controls. The temporal evolution of macrophage MerTK expression and its impact on resolution was examined in APAP-induced acute liver injury using wild-type (WT) and Mer-deficient (Mer−/−) mice. SLPI effects on hepatic myeloid cells were determined in vitro and in vivo using APAP-treated WT mice.Results We demonstrate a significant expansion of resolution-like MerTK+HLA-DRhigh cells in circulatory and tissue compartments of patients with ALF. Compared with WT mice which show an increase of MerTK+MHCIIhigh macrophages during the resolution phase in ALF, APAP-treated Mer−/− mice exhibit persistent liver injury and inflammation, characterised by a decreased proportion of resident Kupffer cells and increased number of neutrophils. Both in vitro and in APAP-treated mice, SLPI reprogrammes myeloid cells towards resolution responses through induction of a MerTK+HLA-DRhigh phenotype which promotes neutrophil apoptosis and their subsequent clearance.Conclusions We identify a hepatoprotective, MerTK+, macrophage phenotype that evolves during the resolution phase following ALF and represents a novel immunotherapeutic target to promote resolution responses following acute liver injury.

Journal article

Maitre L, Lau C-HE, Vizcaino E, Robinson O, Casas M, Siskos AP, Want EJ, Athersuch T, Slama R, Vrijheid M, Keun HC, Coen Met al., 2017, Assessment of metabolic phenotypic variability in children's urine using H-1 NMR spectroscopy, Scientific Reports, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2045-2322

The application of metabolic phenotyping in clinical and epidemiological studies is limited by a poor understanding of inter-individual, intra-individual and temporal variability in metabolic phenotypes. Using 1H NMR spectroscopy we characterised short-term variability in urinary metabolites measured from 20 children aged 8–9 years old. Daily spot morning, night-time and pooled (50:50 morning and night-time) urine samples across six days (18 samples per child) were analysed, and 44 metabolites quantified. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and mixed effect models were applied to assess the reproducibility and biological variance of metabolic phenotypes. Excellent analytical reproducibility and precision was demonstrated for the 1H NMR spectroscopic platform (median CV 7.2%). Pooled samples captured the best inter-individual variability with an ICC of 0.40 (median). Trimethylamine, N-acetyl neuraminic acid, 3-hydroxyisobutyrate, 3-hydroxybutyrate/3-aminoisobutyrate, tyrosine, valine and 3-hydroxyisovalerate exhibited the highest stability with over 50% of variance specific to the child. The pooled sample was shown to capture the most inter-individual variance in the metabolic phenotype, which is of importance for molecular epidemiology study design. A substantial proportion of the variation in the urinary metabolome of children is specific to the individual, underlining the potential of such data to inform clinical and exposome studies conducted early in life.

Journal article

Gray N, Zia R, King A, Patel VC, Wendon J, McPhail MJW, Coen M, Plumb RS, Wilson ID, Nicholson JKet al., 2017, High speed quantitative UPLC-MS analysis of multiple amines in human plasma and serum via pre-column derivatization with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate: Application to acetaminophen-induced liver failure, Analytical Chemistry, Vol: 89, Pages: 2478-2487, ISSN: 1520-6882

A targeted reversed-phase gradient UPLC-MS/MS assay has been developed for the quantification/monitoring of amino acids and amino-containing compounds in human plasma and serum using pre-column derivatization with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AccQTag UltraTM). Derivatization of the target amino-containing compounds reagent required minimal sample preparation and resulted in analytes with excellent chromatographic and mass spectrometric properties. The resulting method, which requires only 10 µl of sample, provides the reproducible and robust separation of 66 analytes in 7.5 minutes, including baseline resolution of isomers such as e.g. leucine and isoleucine. The assay has been validated for the quantification of 33 amino compounds (predominantly amino acids) over a concentration range from 2-20 and 800µM. Intra- and inter-day accuracy of between 0.05-15.6 and 0.78 -13.7 % and precision between 0.91-16.9 % and 2.12-15.9 % were obtained. A further 33 biogenic amines can be monitored in samples for relative changes in concentration rather than quantification. Application of the assay to samples derived from healthy controls and patients suffering from acetaminophen (APAP, paracetamol) induced acute liver failure (ALF) showed significant differences in the amounts of aromatic and branched chain amino acids between the groups as well as a number of other analytes, including the novel observation of increased concentrations of sarcosine in ALF patients. The properties of the developed assay, including short analysis time, make it suitable for high throughput targeted UPLC-ESI-MS/MS metabonomic analysis in clinical and epidemiological environments.

Journal article

Maitre L, Villanueva CM, Lewis M, Ibarluzea J, SantaMarina L, Vrijheid M, Sunyer J, Coen M, Toledano MBet al., 2016, Maternal urinary metabolic signatures of fetal growth and associated clinical and environmental factors in the INMA study, BMC Medicine, Vol: 14, ISSN: 1741-7015

BackgroundMaternal metabolism during pregnancy is a major determinant of the intra-uterine environment and fetal outcomes. Herein, we characterize the maternal urinary metabolome throughout pregnancy to identify maternal metabolic signatures of fetal growth in two subcohorts and explain potential sources of variation in metabolic profiles based on lifestyle and clinical data.MethodsWe used 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to characterize maternal urine samples collected in the INMA birth cohort at the first (n = 412 and n = 394, respectively, in Gipuzkoa and Sabadell cohorts) and third trimesters of gestation (n = 417 and 469). Metabolic phenotypes that reflected longitudinal intra- and inter-individual variation were used to predict measures of fetal growth and birth weight.ResultsA metabolic shift between the first and third trimesters of gestation was characterized by 1H NMR signals arising predominantly from steroid by-products. We identified 10 significant and reproducible metabolic associations in the third trimester with estimated fetal, birth, and placental weight in two independent subcohorts. These included branched-chain amino acids; isoleucine, valine, leucine, alanine and 3 hydroxyisobutyrate (metabolite of valine), which were associated with a significant fetal weight increase at week 34 of up to 2.4 % in Gipuzkoa (P < 0.005) and 1 % in Sabadell (P < 0.05). Other metabolites included pregnancy-related hormone by-products of estrogens and progesterone, and the methyl donor choline. We could explain a total of 48–53 % of the total variance in birth weight of which urine metabolites had an independent predictive power of 12 % adjusting for all other lifestyle/clinical factors. First trimester metabolic phenotypes could not predict reproducibly weight at later stages of development. Physical activity, as well as other modifiable lifestyle/clinical factors, suc

Journal article

Robinson O, Toledano MB, Sands C, Beckonert O, Want EJ, Goldin R, Hauser ML, Fenwick A, Thursz MR, Coen Met al., 2016, Global metabolic changes induced by plant-derived pyrrolizidine alkaloids following a human poisoning outbreak and in a mouse model, Toxicology Research, Vol: 5, Pages: 1594-1603, ISSN: 2045-4538

Several hundred cases of Hirmi Valley Liver Disease (HVLD), an often fatal liver injury, occurred from 2001 to 2011 in a cluster of rural villages in Tigray, Ethiopia. HVLD is principally caused by contamination of the food supply with plant derived pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), with high exposure to the pesticide DDT among villagers increasing their susceptibility. In an untargeted global approach we aimed to identify metabolic changes induced by PA exposure through 1H NMR spectroscopic based metabolic profiling. We analysed spectra acquired from urine collected from HVLD cases and controls and a murine model of PA exposure and PA/DDT co-exposure, using multivariate partial least squares discriminant analysis. In the human models we identified changes in urinary concentrations of tyrosine, pyruvate, bile acids, N-acetylglycoproteins, N-methylnicotinamide and formate, hippurate, p-cresol sulphate, p-hydroxybenzoate and 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid. Tyrosine and p-cresol sulphate were associated with both exposure and disease. Similar changes to tyrosine, one-carbon intermediates and microbial associated metabolites were observed in the mouse model, with tyrosine correlated with the extent of liver damage. These results provide mechanistic insight and implicate the gut microflora in the human response to challenge with toxins. Pathways identified here may be useful in translational research and as “exposome” signals.

Journal article

Zia R, Coen M, McPhail M, Wilson Iet al., 2016, Metabonomics: The future of personalized healthcare in liver intensive care?, Biochemist, Vol: 38, Pages: 27-30, ISSN: 0954-982X

Metabonomics involves the use of high-resolution analytical platforms to characterize the low-molecular-mass metabolic composition of biofluids and tissues. The resulting complex metabolic phenotype data are modelled using multivariate statistical approaches to identify systems levels panels of metabolites that discriminate between phenotypes (metabotypes), providing mechanistic insight and candidate biomarkers. With the increasing incidence of liver cirrhosis nationally, the pressures on NHS liver units is set to intensify, with mortality rates in these patients remaining high. This article describes a personalized medicine approach to stratify patients' mortality risk using metabolic phenotyping. This could aid doctors in clinical decision-making for patient transplant candidacy and critical care management to improve current survival rates.

Journal article

McPhail MJW, Shawcross D, Lewis MR, Coltart I, Want E, Veselkov K, Abeles RD, Kyriakides M, Pop O, Triantafyllou E, Antoniades CG, Quaglia A, Bernal W, Auzinger G, Coen M, Nicholson J, Wendon JA, Holmes E, Taylor-Robinson SD, Jassem W, O'Grady J, Heaton Net al., 2016, Mutlivariate metabotyping of plasma accurately predicts survival in decompensated cirrhosis, Journal of Hepatology, Vol: 64, Pages: 1058-1067, ISSN: 1600-0641

Background & AimsPredicting survival in decompensated cirrhosis (DC) is important in decision making for liver transplantation and resource allocation. We investigated whether high-resolution metabolic profiling can determine a metabolic phenotype associated with 90-day survival.MethodsTwo hundred and forty-eight subjects underwent plasma metabotyping by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and reversed-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF-MS; DC: 80-derivation set, 101-validation; stable cirrhosis (CLD) 20 and 47 healthy controls (HC)).Results1H NMR metabotyping accurately discriminated between surviving and non-surviving patients with DC. The NMR plasma profiles of non-survivors were attributed to reduced phosphatidylcholines and lipid resonances, with increased lactate, tyrosine, methionine and phenylalanine signal intensities. This was confirmed on external validation (area under the receiver operating curve [AUROC] = 0.96 (95% CI 0.90–1.00, sensitivity 98%, specificity 89%). UPLC-TOF-MS confirmed that lysophosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylcholines [LPC/PC] were downregulated in non-survivors (UPLC-TOF-MS profiles AUROC of 0.94 (95% CI 0.89–0.98, sensitivity 100%, specificity 85% [positive ion detection])). LPC concentrations negatively correlated with circulating markers of cell death (M30 and M65) levels in DC. Histological examination of liver tissue from DC patients confirmed increased hepatocyte cell death compared to controls. Cross liver sampling at time of liver transplantation demonstrated that hepatic endothelial beds are a source of increased circulating total cytokeratin-18 in DC.ConclusionPlasma metabotyping accurately predicts mortality in DC. LPC and amino acid dysregulation is associated with increased mortality and severity of disease reflecting hepatocyte cell death.

Journal article

Kyriakides M, Maitre L, Stamper B, Mohar I, Kavanagh T, Foster J, Wilson I, Holmes E, Nelson S, Coen Met al., 2016, Comparative metabonomic analysis of hepatotoxicity induced by acetaminophen and its less toxic meta-isomer, Archives of Toxicology, Vol: 90, Pages: 3073-3085, ISSN: 1432-0738

The leading cause of drug-induced liver injury in the developed world is overdose with N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP). A comparative metabonomic approach was applied to the study of both xenobiotic and endogenous metabolic profiles reflective of in-vivo exposure to APAP (300 mg/kg) and its structural isomer N-acetyl-m-aminophenol (AMAP; 300 mg/kg) in C57BL/6J mice, which was anchored with histopathology. Liver and urine samples were collected at 1, 3 and 6 hours post-treatment and analyzed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (liver only).Histopathology revealed the presence of centrilobular necrosis from 3 hours post-APAP treatment, while an AMAP-mediated necrotic end-point was not observed within the time-scale of this study, yet two of five treated mice showed minimal centrilobular eosinophilia. The 1H-NMR spectroscopic xenobiotic metabolic profile of APAP-treated animals comprised of mercapturate (urine and liver) and glutathionyl (liver) conjugates detected at 1 hour post-treatment. This finding corroborated the hepatic endogenous metabolic profile which showed depletion of glutathione from 1 hour onwards. In contrast, AMAP glutathionyl conjugates were not detected, nor was AMAP-induced depletion of hepatic glutathione observed.APAP administration induced significant endogenous hepatic metabolic perturbations, primarily linked to oxidative and energetic stress, and perturbation of amino acid metabolism. Early depletion of glutathione was followed by depletion of additional sulphur containing metabolites, while altered levels of mitochondrial and glycolytic metabolites indicated a disruption of energy homeostasis. In contrast, AMAP administration caused minimal, transient, distinct metabolic perturbations and by 6 hours the metabolic profiles of AMAP-treated mice were indistinguishable from those of controls.

Journal article

Stahl SH, Yates JW, Nicholls AW, Kenna JG, Coen M, Ortega F, Nicholson JK, Wilson IDet al., 2015, Systems toxicology: modelling biomarkers of glutathione homeostasis and paracetamol metabolism, Drug Discovery Today: Technologies, Vol: 15, Pages: 9-14, ISSN: 1740-6749

One aim of systems toxicology is to deliver mechanistic, mathematically rigorous, models integrating biochemical and pharmacological processes that result in toxicity to enhance the assessment of the risk posed to humans by drugs and other xenobiotics. The benefits of such ‘in silico’ models would be in enabling the rapid and robust prediction of the effects of compounds over a range of exposures, improving in vitro–in vivo correlations and the translation from preclinical species to humans. Systems toxicology models of organ toxicities that result in high attrition rates during drug discovery and development, or post-marketing withdrawals (e.g., drug-induced liver injury (DILI)) should facilitate the discovery of safe new drugs. Here, systems toxicology as applied to the effects of paracetamol (acetaminophen, N-acetyl-para-aminophenol (APAP)) is used to exemplify the potential of the approach.

Journal article

Coen M, Wilson ID, 2015, Preclinical drug efficacy and safety using NMR spectroscopy, eMagRes, Vol: 4, Pages: 277-287, ISSN: 2055-6101

One of the earliest applications of the use of NMR spectroscopy for the analysis of biofluids and tissues was the study of the effects of drugs on preclinical species (mainly rodents). This approach provided novel mechanistic insight into toxic and pathological processes at a systems level. Such metabonomic or metabolic profiling studies follow the small molecule alterations that occur across time in biofluids and tissues in response to changes in physiological status, therapeutic intervention, development of disease, or toxicity. In the context of preclinical safety assessment, this approach enables unique metabolic phenotypes to be identified, that reflect onset, progression, and recovery from toxic insult. Here, the analytical techniques used to obtain these metabolic profiles are introduced together with the multivariate statistical tools used to interrogate metabolic profiles.

Journal article

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