Imperial College London

ProfessorMikeCrawford

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Brain Sciences

Professor of Mental Health Research
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 3313 4161m.crawford

 
 
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Assistant

 

Ms Nicole Hickey +44 (0)20 3313 4161

 
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Location

 

7N11bCommonwealth BuildingHammersmith Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

245 results found

Barnicot K, Crawford M, 2019, Dialectical behaviour therapy v. mentalisation-based therapy for borderline personality disorder, Psychological Medicine, Vol: 49, Pages: 2060-2068, ISSN: 0033-2917

BACKGROUND: Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) and mentalisation-based therapy (MBT) are both widely used evidence-based treatments for borderline personality disorder (BPD), yet a head-to-head comparison of outcomes has never been conducted. The present study therefore aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of DBT v. MBT in patients with BPD. METHODS: A non-randomised comparison of clinical outcomes in N = 90 patients with BPD receiving either DBT or MBT over a 12-month period. RESULTS: After adjusting for potentially confounding differences between participants, participants receiving DBT reported a significantly steeper decline over time in incidents of self-harm (adjusted IRR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.87-0.99, p = 0.02) and in emotional dysregulation (adjusted β = -1.94, 95% CI -3.37 to -0.51, p < 0.01) than participants receiving MBT. Differences in treatment dropout and use of crisis services were no longer significant after adjusting for confounding, and there were no significant differences in BPD symptoms or interpersonal problems. CONCLUSIONS: Within this sample of people using specialist personality disorder treatment services, reductions in self-harm and improvements in emotional regulation at 12 months were greater amongst those receiving DBT than amongst those receiving MBT. Experimental studies assessing outcomes beyond 12 months are needed to examine whether these findings represent differences in the clinical effectiveness of these therapies.

Journal article

Bosco A, Paulauskaite L, Hall I, Crabtree J, Soni S, Biswas A, Cooper V, Poppe M, King M, Strydom A, Crawford MJ, Hassiotis Aet al., 2019, Process evaluation of a randomised controlled trial of PBS-based staff training for challenging behaviour in adults with intellectual disability., PLoS ONE, Vol: 14, Pages: 1-18, ISSN: 1932-6203

BACKGROUND: Positive Behaviour Support (PBS) for challenging behaviour is a complex intervention. Process evaluation is pivotal in fully understanding the mechanisms and contextual factors that impact on participant outcomes. AIMS: To conduct a process evaluation of a national clinical trial investigating the impact of PBS-based staff training on the level of challenging behaviour in adults with intellectual disability. METHOD: The Medical Research Council guidance for process evaluation of complex interventions was followed. Semi-structured interviews with 62 stakeholders from the intervention arm (service users, family and paid carers, service managers, staff who delivered the intervention and PBS trainers), quantitative data from the study database and an external evaluation of the quality of the PBS plans were used. RESULTS: Twenty-one health staff volunteered to be trained in delivering PBS. Available log data from 17 therapists revealed that they worked with 63 participants a median of 11.50 hours (IQR 8-32). Only 33 out of 108 reports had included all elements of the intervention. Another 47 reports had some elements of the intervention. All PBS plans were rated weak, indicating insufficient quality to impact challenging behaviour. Stakeholders reported an appreciation of PBS and its potential to impact quality of care and engagement with the participant. However, they also identified important challenges including managing PBS-related caseloads, paid carer turnover and service commitment to the delivery of PBS. CONCLUSIONS: PBS-based staff training was well received, but therapists found it difficult to undertake all the elements of the intervention in routine care. Implementing a workforce training strategy is important to better define the active components of PBS, and resource implications if the intervention is no better than usual care.

Journal article

Crawford M, Huddart D, Craig E, Zalewska K, Quirk A, Shiers D, Strathdee G, Cooper SJet al., Impact of secondary care financial incentives on the quality of physical health care for people with psychosis: A longitudinal controlled study, British Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN: 0007-1250

Background: Concerns have repeatedly been expressed about the quality of physical health care that people with psychosis receive. Aims: To examine whether the introduction of a financial incentive for secondary care services led to improvements in the quality of physical health care for people with psychosis.Method: Longitudinal data were collected over an eight-year period on the quality of physical health care that people with psychosis received from 56 Trusts in England before and after the introduction of the financial incentive. Control data were also collected from six Health Boards in Wales where a financial incentive was not introduced. We calculated the proportion of patients whose clinical records indicated that they had been screened for seven key aspects of physical health and whether they were offered interventions for problems identified during screening. Results: Data from 17947 people collected prior to (2011 and 2013) and following (2017) the introduction of the financial incentive in 2014 showed that the proportion of patients who received high quality physical health care in England rose from 12.85% to 31.65% (difference = 18.80, 95% CI =17.37 - 20.21). The proportion of patients who received high quality physical health care in Wales during this period rose from 8.40% to 13.96% (difference = 5.56, 95% CI =1.33 - 10.10). Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that financial incentives for secondary care mental health services are associated with marked improvements in the quality of care that patients receive. Further research is needed to examine their impact on aspects of care that are not incentivised.

Journal article

Tyrer P, Mulder R, Kim Y-R, Crawford MJet al., 2019, The development of the ICD-11 classification of personality disorders: An amalgam of science, pragmatism, and politics., Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, Vol: 15, Pages: 481-502, ISSN: 1548-5943

The nomenclature of personality disorders in the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems represents the most radical change in the classification history of personality disorders. A dimensional structure now replaces categorical description. It was argued by the Working Group that only a dimensional system was consistent with the empirical evidence and, in the spirit of clinical utility, the new system is based on two steps. The first step is to assign one of five levels of severity, and the second step is to assign up to five prominent domain traits. There was resistance to this structure from those who feel that categorical diagnosis, particularly of borderline personality disorder, should be retained. After lengthy discussion, described in detail here, there is now an option for a borderline pattern descriptor to be selected as a diagnostic option after severity has been determined. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Clinical Psychology Volume 15 is May 7, 2019. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

Journal article

Sanatinia R, Afzal S, MacLaren T, McNulty A, Adele C, Morah A, Crawford Met al., 2019, Improved mental health among LABILE study participants: a qualitative exploration, Personality and Mental Health, Vol: 13, Pages: 75-83, ISSN: 1932-8621

Results of the LABILE trial showed no difference between people with borderline personality disorder who were prescribed lamotrigine,and those on placebo. However, most study participants experienced sustained improvement in their mental health during the trial.We conducted a thematic analysis of qualitative data from interviews with 47 LABILE study participants to identify factors that may have contributedto this improvement.We identified three main themes: initial reasons and expectations regarding trial participation,patients’experiencesof the trial,and areas of change.Reasons for participating in the trial included a searchfor consistent and stable professional careas well as altruistic motives. Improvements in symptoms over the course of the trial were explained by severalfactors including consistency provided by the research team, salience of the social context,and theavailability of alternative support networks.Whilst participants appreciated the autonomy provided by the voluntary nature of the trial, they felt that improvements stemmedfromthe ‘structure’ brought about by their actively engaging in the study. 2Thisstudy highlights the importance of clear, and transparent communication when treating people with borderline personality disorder. Mental health professionals should ensurethat services for people with borderline personality disorder areconsistentand structured.

Journal article

Lei H, Barnicot K, Maynard E, Etherington A, Zalewska K, Quirk A, Sanatinia R, Cooper SJ, Crawford MJet al., 2019, Factors influencing use of community treatment orders and quality of care that people receive: results of a national survey in England and Wales, BJPsych Bulletin, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 2056-4694

Aims and method: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the National Audit of Psychosis to identify factors associated with use of community treatment orders (CTOs) and assess the quality of care that people on CTOs receive.Results: Between 1.1 and 20.2% of patients in each trust were being treated on a CTO. Male gender, younger age, greater use of in-patient services, coexisting substance misuse and problems with cognition predicted use of CTOs. Patients on CTOs were more likely to be screened for physical health, have a current care plan, be given contact details for crisis support, and be offered cognitive-behavioural therapy.Clinical implications: CTOs appear to be used as a framework for delivering higher-quality care to people with more complex needs. High levels of variation in the use of CTOs indicate a need for better evidence about the effects of this approach to patient care.Declaration of interest: None.

Journal article

Hall K, Barnicot K, Crawford M, Moran Pet al., 2019, A systematic review of interventions aimed at improving the cardiovascular health of people diagnosed with personality disorders, Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN: 0933-7954

PURPOSE: People with personality disorders have significantly reduced life expectancy and increased rates of cardiovascular disease compared to members of the general population. Given that more people die annually of cardiovascular disease across the globe than from any other cause, it is important to identify the evidence for interventions aimed at improving cardiovascular health among people with personality disorders. METHODS: Systematic literature review. PsycINFO, MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched using NICE Healthcare Databases, as well as CENTRAL and trial registries. We sought to identify randomised controlled trials of interventions pertaining to adults with a primary diagnosis of personality disorder, where the primary outcome measure was cardiovascular health before and after the intervention. RESULTS: A total of 1740 records were identified and screened by two independent reviewers. No papers meeting the inclusion criteria were identified. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review did not identify any randomised controlled trials testing interventions aimed at improving the cardiovascular health of people with personality disorders. Research in this area could have important public health implications, spanning the fields of psychiatry and general medicine.

Journal article

Ntouva A, Porter J, Crawford MJ, Britton A, Gratus C, Newton T, Tsakos G, Heilmann A, Pikhart H, Watt RGet al., 2019, Alcohol screening and brief advice in NHS general dental practices: a cluster randomized controlled feasibility trial, Alcohol and Alcoholism, ISSN: 0735-0414

AIM: To assess the feasibility and acceptability of screening for alcohol misuse and delivering brief advice to eligible patients attending NHS dental practices in London. METHODS: A two-arm cluster randomized controlled feasibility trial was conducted. Twelve dental practices were recruited and randomized to intervention and control arms. Participants attending for a dental check were recruited into the study and were eligible if they consumed alcohol above recommended levels assessed by the AUDIT-C screening tool. All eligible participants were asked to complete a baseline socio-demographic questionnaire. Six months after the completion of baseline measures, participants were contacted via telephone by a researcher masked to their allocation status. The full AUDIT tool was then administered. Alcohol consumption in the last 90 days was also assessed using the Form 90. A process evaluation assessed the acceptability of the intervention. RESULTS: Over a 7-month period, 229 participants were recruited (95.4% recruitment rate) and at the 6 months follow-up, 176 participants were assessed (76.9% retention rate). At the follow-up, participants in the intervention arm were significantly more likely to report a longer abstinence period (3.2 vs. 2.3 weeks respectively, P = 0.04) and non-significant differences in AUDIT (44.9% vs. 59.8% AUDIT positive respectively, P = 0.053) and AUDIT C difference between baseline and follow-up (-0.67 units vs. -0.29 units respectively, P = 0.058). Results from the process evaluation indicated that the intervention and study procedures were acceptable to dentists and patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study has demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of dentists screening for alcohol misuse and providing brief advice.

Journal article

Aimola L, Gordon-Brown J, Etherington A, Zalewska K, Cooper S, Crawford MJet al., 2019, Patient-reported experience and quality of care for people with schizophrenia, BMC Psychiatry, Vol: 19, Pages: 17-17, ISSN: 1471-244X

BACKGROUND: Evidence is mounting that patient-reported experience can provide a valuable indicator of the quality of healthcare services. However, little is known about the relationship between the experiences of people with severe mental illness and the quality of care they receive. We conducted a study to examine the relationship between patient-reported experience and the quality of care provided to people with schizophrenia. METHODS: We calculated a composite global rating of quality of care for people with schizophrenia using data from an audit of 64 mental health providers. We then examined associations between these ratings and mean patient satisfaction and patient-rated outcome using data from a survey of 5608 schizophrenic patients treated in these services. RESULTS: Global rating of quality of care was positively correlated with patient-rated outcome (r = 0.33; p = 0.01) but not with patient satisfaction (r = 0.21, p = 0.10). Patient-rated outcome was also positively correlated with patient involvement (r = 0.26, p = 0.04) and the quality of prescribing practice (r = 0.31, p = 0.02). High patient satisfaction scores were significantly associated with the extent of use of care plans within each organisation (r = 0.27, p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Among people with schizophrenia, patient-rated outcome provides a better guide to the quality of care than patient-rated satisfaction. Greater use of patient-reported outcome measures should be made when assessing the quality of care provided to people with psychosis.

Journal article

Munjiza J, Britvic D, Crawford M, 2019, Lasting personality pathology following exposure to severe trauma in adulthood: Retrospective cohort study, BMC Psychiatry, Vol: 19, ISSN: 1471-244X

BackgroundEarly exposure to trauma is a known risk factor for personality disorder (PD), but evidence for late-onset personality pathology following trauma in adults is much less clear. We set out to investigate whether exposure to war trauma can lead to lasting personality pathology in adults and to compare the mental health and social functioning of people with late–onset personality problems with those with PD.MethodsWe recruited patients who scored positively on the International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE) in southern Croatia 15 years after the Croatian war of independence and used a semi-structured interview to establish when the person’s personality-related problems arose. All participants also completed Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, and measures of mental health and social functioning.ResultsAmong 182 participants with probable personality disorder, 65 (35.7%) reported that these problems started after exposure to war-trauma as adults. The most prevalent personality problems among those with late-onset pathology were borderline, avoidant, schizotypal, schizoid and paranoid. Participants with late-onset personality pathology were more likely to have schizotypal (75.4% vs. 47.3%) and schizoid traits (73.8% vs. 41.1%) compared to those with PD. Participants with late-onset personality pathology were three times more likely to have complex personality pathology across all three DSM-IV clusters compared to those with PD (OR = 2.96, 95% CI 1.54 to 5.67) after adjusted for gender and marital status. The prevalence of depression and social dysfunction were as high among those with late-onset personality pathology as among those with personality disorder.ConclusionRetrospective accounts of people with significant personality pathology indicate that some develop these problems following exposure to severe trauma in adulthood. Personality-related problems which start in adulthood may be as severe as those that have an earlie

Journal article

Aimola L, Jasim S, Tripathi N, Bassett P, Quirk A, Worrall A, Tucker S, Holder S, Crawford MJet al., 2018, Impact of a peer-review network on the quality of inpatient low secure mental health services: cluster randomised control trial, BMC Health Services Research, Vol: 18, ISSN: 1472-6963

BackgroundPeer-review networks aim to help services to improve the quality of care they provide, however, there is very little evidence about their impact. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial of a peer-review quality network for low-secure mental health services to examine the impact of network membership on the process and outcomes of care over a 12 month period.MethodsThirty-eight low secure units were randomly allocated to either the active intervention (participation in the network n = 18) or the control arm (delayed participation in the network n = 20). A total of 75 wards were assessed at baseline and 8 wards dropped out the study before the data collection at 12 month follow up. The primary outcome measure was the quality of the physical environment and facilities of the services. The secondary outcomes included: safety of the ward, patient mental wellbeing and satisfaction with care, staff burnout, training and supervision. We hypothesised that, relative to control wards, the quality of the physical environment and facilities would be higher on wards in the active arm of the trial 12 months after randomization.ResultsThe difference in the primary outcome between the groups was not statistically significant (4.1; 95% CI [− 0.2, 8.3] p = 0.06). The median number of untoward incidents rose in control services and remained the same at the member of the network (Difference between members and non-members = 0.55; 95% IC [0.29, 1.07] p = 0.08). At follow up, a higher proportion of staff in the active arm of the trial indicated that they felt safe on the ward relative to those in the control services (p = 0.04), despite reporting more physical assaults (p = 0.04). Staff working in services in the active arm of the trial reported higher levels of burnout relative to those in the control group. No difference was seen in pat

Journal article

Crawford MJ, Sanatinia R, Tan W, 2018, No effect of lamotrigine in subgroups of patients with Borderline Personality Disorder: Response to Smith, American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol: 175, Pages: 1265-1266, ISSN: 0002-953X

Journal article

Barnicot K, Crawford M, 2018, Posttraumatic stress disorder in patients with borderline personality disorder: Treatment outcomes and mediators, Journal of Traumatic Stress, Vol: 31, Pages: 899-908, ISSN: 0894-9867

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly comorbid with personality disorder (PD). We evaluated whether comorbid PTSD has a negative effect on patients’ ability to benefit from evidence‐based psychological treatments for PD and tested potential mediators of any effect. The effect of PTSD on self‐harm and borderline PD symptoms was evaluated in 90 patients with borderline PD who were receiving dialectical behavior therapy or mentalization‐based therapy. Self‐report and interview measures were administered every 3 months over a 12‐month period. Three‐quarters of participants met criteria for PTSD. In the 12 months after beginning treatment, participants with PTSD did not engage in self‐harm more often or present with more severe borderline PD symptoms. However, a higher level of PTSD symptom severity at baseline was associated with more frequent self‐harm during follow‐up, incidence rate ratio = 1.03, 95% CI [1.01, 1.06], p = .005. Participants whose PTSD did not improve or worsened were more likely to still self‐harm, odds ratio (OR) = 0.91, 95 % CI [0.85, 0.97], p = .004, and report more severe borderline PD symptoms, b = 0.53, 95% CI [0.34, 0.73], p < .001, at the end of 12 months. The negative effects of PTSD symptoms remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders and were partially mediated by high ongoing levels of emotional dysregulation, indirect effect b = 0.32, 95% CI [0.19, 0.50]. These findings identify subgroups at risk of poorer outcomes from evidence‐based psychological treatments for PD and support the idea that treating PTSD may improve outcomes.

Journal article

Crawford MJ, Thana L, Parker J, Turner O, Xing KP, McCurran M, Moran P, Weaver T, Barrett B, Claringbold A, Bassett P, Sanatinia Ret al., 2018, Psychological Support for Personality (PSP) versus treatment as usual: study protocol for a feasibility randomized controlled trial of a low intensity intervention for people with personality disorder, Trials, Vol: 19, ISSN: 1745-6215

BackgroundPrevious research has demonstrated the clinical effectiveness of long-term psychological treatment for people with some types of personality disorder. However, the high intensity and cost of these interventions limit their availability. Lower-intensity interventions are increasingly being offered to people with personality disorder, but their clinical and cost effectiveness have not been properly tested in experimental studies. We therefore set out to develop a low intensity intervention for people with personality disorder and to test the feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial to compare the clinical effectiveness of this intervention with that of treatment as usual (TAU).MethodsA two-arm, parallel-group, single-blind, randomized controlled trial of Psychological Support for Personality (PSP) versus TAU for people aged over 18 years, who are using secondary care mental health services and have personality disorder. We will exclude people with co-existing organic or psychotic mental disorders (dementia, bipolar affective disorder, delusional disorder, schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or schizotypal disorder), those with cognitive or language difficulties that would preclude them from providing informed consent or compromise participation in study procedures, and those who are already receiving psychological treatment for personality disorder. Participants will be randomized via a remote system in a ratio of PSP to TAU of 1:1. Randomization will be stratified according to the referring team and gender of the participant.A single follow-up assessment will be conducted by masked researchers 24 weeks after randomization to assess mental health (using the Warwick and Edinburgh Well-Being Schedule), social functioning (using the Work and Social Adjustment Scale), health-related quality of life (EQ-5D-5 L), incidence of suicidal behavior, satisfaction with care (Client Satisfaction Questionnaire), and resource use and costs using a modifi

Journal article

House A, Guthrie E, Walker A, Hewsion J, Trigwell P, Brennan C, Crawford M, Murray CC, Fossey M, Hulme C, Martin A, Quirk A, Tubeuf Set al., 2018, A programme theory for liaison mental health services in England, BMC Health Services Research, Vol: 18, ISSN: 1472-6963

BackgroundMechanisms by which liaison mental health services (LMHS) may bring about improved patient and organisational outcomes are poorly understood. A small number of logic models have been developed, but they fail to capture the complexity of clinical practice.MethodWe synthesised data from a variety of sources including a large national survey, 73 in-depth interviews with acute and liaison staff working in hospitals with different types of liaison mental health services, and relevant local, national and international literature. We generated logic models for two common performance indicators used to assess organisational outcomes for LMHS: response times in the emergency department and hospital length of stay for people with mental health problems.ResultsWe identified 8 areas of complexity that influence performance, and 6 trade-offs which drove the models in different directions depending upon the balance of the trade-off. The logic models we developed could only be captured by consideration of more than one pass through the system, the complexity in which they operated, and the trade-offs that occurred.ConclusionsOur findings are important for commissioners of liaison services. Reliance on simple target setting may result in services that are unbalanced and not patient-centred. Targets need to be reviewed on a regular basis, together with other data that reflect the wider impact of the service, and any external changes in the system that affect the performance of LMHS, which are beyond their control.

Journal article

Crawford MJ, Sanatinia R, Barrett B, Cunningham G, Dale O, Gunguli P, Lawrence-Smith G, Leeson V, Lmeonsky F, Lykomitrou G, Montgomery A, Morriss R, Munjiza J, Paton C, Skorodzien I, Singh V, Tan W, Tyrer P, Reilly JG, LABILE study teamet al., 2018, The clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness of lamotrigine for people with borderline personality disorder: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol: 175, Pages: 756-764, ISSN: 0002-953X

Objectives:To examine whether lamotrigine is a clinically effective and cost-effective treatment for people with borderline personality disorder. Method:Multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial. Between July 2013 to November 2016, we recruited 276 people aged 18 or over, who met diagnostic criteria for borderline personality disorder. We excluded those with co-existing bipolar affective disorder or psychosis, those already taking a mood stabiliser, and women at risk of pregnancy. We randomly allocated participants on a 1:1 ratio to up to 400mg of lamotrigine per day or an inert placebo using a remote web-based randomization service. The primary outcome was total score on the Zanarini Rating scale for Borderline Personality Disorder (ZAN-BPD) at 52 weeks. Secondary outcomes included depressive symptoms, deliberate self-harm, social functioning, health-related quality of life, resource use and costs, side effects of treatment and adverse events. Results:195 (70.6%) participants were followed up at 52 weeks, at which point 49 (36%) of those prescribed lamotrigine and 58 (42%) of those prescribed placebo were taking it. Mean total ZAN-BPD score was 11.3 (SD = 6.6) among those randomized to lamotrigine and 11.5 (SD = 7.7) among those randomized to placebo (adjusted difference in means = 0.1, 95% C.I = -1.8 to 2.0, p=0.91). There was no evidence of any differences in secondary outcomes. Costs of direct care for those prescribed lamotrigine were similar to those prescribed placebo. Conclusions:Treating people with borderline personality disorder with lamotrigine is not a clinically effective or cost-effective use of resources.

Journal article

Walker A, Barrett JR, Lee W, West RM, Guthrie E, Trigwell P, Quirk A, Crawford MJ, House Aet al., 2018, Organisation and delivery of liaison psychiatry services in general hospitals in England: results of a national survey, BMJ Open, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2044-6055

OBJECTIVES: To describe the current provision of hospital-based liaison psychiatry services in England, and to determine different models of liaison service that are currently operating in England. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study comprising an electronic survey followed by targeted telephone interviews. SETTING: All 179 acute hospitals with an emergency department in England. PARTICIPANTS: 168 hospitals that had a liaison psychiatry service completed an electronic survey. Telephone interviews were conducted for 57 hospitals that reported specialist liaison services additional to provision for acute care. MEASURES: Data included the location, service structures and staffing, working practices, relations with other mental health service providers, policies such as response times and funding. Model 2-based clustering was used to characterise the services. Telephone interviews identified the range of additional liaison psychiatry services provided. RESULTS: Most hospitals (141, 79%) reported a 7-day service responding to acute referrals from the emergency department and wards. However, under half of hospitals had 24 hours access to the service (78, 44%). One-third of hospitals (57, 32%) provided non-acute liaison work including outpatient clinics and links to specialist hospital services. 156 hospitals (87%) had a multidisciplinary service including a psychiatrist and mental health nurses. We derived a four-cluster model of liaison psychiatry using variables resulting from the electronic survey; the salient features of clusters were staffing numbers, especially nursing; provision of rapid response 24 hours 7-day acute services; offering outpatient and other non-acute work, and containing age-specific teams for older adults. CONCLUSIONS: This is the most comprehensive study to date of liaison psychiatry in England and demonstrates the wide availability of such services nationally. Although all services provide an acute assessment function, there is no

Journal article

Deb S, Leeson V, Aimola L, Bodani M, Li L, Weaver T, Sharp D, Crawford Met al., 2018, Aggression following traumatic brain injury: effectiveness of Risperidone (AFTER): study protocol for a feasibility randomised controlled trial, Trials, Vol: 19, ISSN: 1745-6215

BackgroundTraumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health concern and many people develop long-lasting physical and neuropsychiatric consequences following a TBI. Despite the emphasis on physical rehabilitation, it is the emotional and behavioural consequences that have greater impact on people with TBI and their families. One such problem behaviour is aggression which can be directed towards others, towards property or towards the self. Aggression is reported to be common after TBI (37–71%) and causes major stress for patients and their families. Both drug and non-drug interventions are used to manage this challenging behaviour, but the evidence-base for these interventions is poor and no drugs are currently licensed for the treatment of aggression following TBI. The most commonly used drugs for this purpose are antipsychotics, particularly second-generation drugs such as risperidone. Despite this widespread use, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of antipsychotic drugs, including risperidone, have not been conducted. We have, therefore, set out to test the feasibility of conducting an RCT of this drug for people who have aggressive behaviour following TBI.Methods/designWe will examine the feasibility of conducting a placebo-controlled, double-blind RCT of risperidone for the management of aggression in adults with TBI and also assess participants’ views about their experience of taking part in the study.We will randomise 50 TBI patients from secondary care services in four centres in London and Kent to up to 4 mg of risperidone orally or an inert placebo and follow them up 12 weeks later. Participants will be randomised to active or control treatment in a 1:1 ratio via an external and remote web-based randomisation service. Participants will be assessed at baseline and 12-week follow-up using a battery of assessment scales to measure changes in aggressive behaviour (MOAS, IRQ) as well as global functioning (GOS-E, CGI), quality of life (EQ-5D-5L

Journal article

Muñoz M, Ausín B, Santos-Olmo AB, Härter M, Volkert J, Schulz H, Sehner S, Dehoust MC, Suling A, Wegscheider K, Canuto A, Crawford MJ, Grassi L, Da Ronch C, Hershkovitz Y, Quirk A, Rotenstein O, Shalev AY, Strehle J, Weber K, Wittchen H-U, Andreas Set al., 2018, Alcohol use, abuse and dependence in an older European population: Results from the MentDis_ICF65+ study, PLoS ONE, Vol: 13, ISSN: 1932-6203

BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders (AUD) in older people have been the subject of increasing interest in Europe and worldwide. However, thus far, no reliable data exist regarding the prevalence of AUD in people over the age of 65 years in Europe. OBJECTIVE: To assess the current (past month), 12-month and lifetime prevalence of alcohol use, abuse and dependence in people aged 65-84 years. STUDY DESIGN: The MentDis_ICF65+ study was a representative stepwise cross-sectional survey that was conducted in six European and associated cities (Hamburg, Germany; Ferrara, Italy; London/Canterbury, England; Madrid, Spain; Geneva, Switzerland and Jerusalem, Israel). METHOD: In total, 3,142 community-dwelling people aged between 65 and 84 years who lived in participating cities were assessed with an age-sensitive diagnostic interview (CIDI65+). RESULTS: The prevalence of lifetime alcohol use was 81% for the overall sample. The observed AUD (DSM-IV-TR) prevalence was as follows: current, 1.1%; 12-month, 5.3% and lifetime, 8.8%. Alcohol consumption and AUD were more prevalent in males, and a significant interaction between gender and city was observed; greater gender differences in the prevalence of these disorders were observed in Hamburg, London/Canterbury and Geneva in comparison to the other cities. The prevalence of lifetime alcohol consumption and 12-month AUD tended to be lower in older persons. CONCLUSION: The results highlight the appropriateness of using age-adjusted diagnostic tools (CIDI65+) to identify alcohol use and AUD in older people. Different alcohol use patterns were observed in males and females. The results seem to indicate the presence of different alcohol use patterns between northern and southern European countries. Specialized services are proposed, including brief and/or more intensive interventions framed intensive and more simple interventions framed in stepped care strategies, to improve the social and health resources available for older people across

Journal article

Das-Munshi J, Bhugra D, Crawford M, 2018, Ethnic minority inequalities in access to treatments for schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders. Findings from a nationally representative cross-sectional study, BMC Medicine, Vol: 16, ISSN: 1741-7015

BackgroundEthnic minority service users with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders may experience inequalities in care. There have been no recent studies assessing access to evidence-based treatments for psychosis amongst the main ethnic minority groups in the UK.MethodsData from nationally representative surveys from England and Wales, of 10512 people with a clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders, were used for analyses. Multi-level multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to assess ethnic minority inequalities in access to pharmacological treatments, psychological interventions, shared decision making and care planning, taking into account a range of potential confounders. ResultsCompared with White service users, Black service users were more likely prescribed depot/ injectable antipsychotics (odds ratio:1.56 (95% confidence interval:1.33-1.84). Black service users with treatment-resistance were less likely to be prescribed clozapine (odds ratio: 0.56 (95% confidence interval: 0.39-0.79)). All ethnic minority service users, except those of mixed ethnicity, were less likely to be offered cognitive behavioural therapy, compared to White service users. Black service users were less likely to have been offered family therapy and Asian service users were less likely to have received copies of care plans (odds ratio:0.50 (95% confidence interval:0.33-0.76)), compared to White service users. There were no clinician-reported differences in shared decision making, across each of the ethnic minority groups.ConclusionsRelative to White service users, ethnic minority service users with psychosis were generally less likely to be offered a range of evidence-based treatments for psychosis, which included pharmacological and psychological interventions as well as involvement in care-planning.

Journal article

Crawford MJ, Sanatinia R, Barrett B, Cunningham G, Dale O, Ganguli P, Lawrence-Smith G, Leeson VC, Lemonsky F, Lykomitrou-Matthews G, Montgomery A, Morriss R, Munjiza J, Paton C, Skorodzien I, Singh V, Tan W, Tyrer P, Reilly JGet al., 2018, Lamotrigine for people with borderline personality disorder: a RCT, HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT, Vol: 22, Pages: 1-+, ISSN: 1366-5278

Background:No drug treatments are currently licensed for the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Despite this, people with this condition are frequently prescribed psychotropic medications and often with considerable polypharmacy. Preliminary studies have indicated that mood stabilisers may be of benefit to people with BPD.Objective:To examine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of lamotrigine for people with BPD.Design:A two-arm, double-blind, placebo-controlled individually randomised trial of lamotrigine versus placebo. Participants were randomised via an independent and remote web-based service using permuted blocks and stratified by study centre, the severity of personality disorder and the extent of hypomanic symptoms.Setting:Secondary care NHS mental health services in six centres in England.Participants:Potential participants had to be aged ≥ 18 years, meet diagnostic criteria for BPD and provide written informed consent. We excluded people with coexisting psychosis or bipolar affective disorder, those already taking a mood stabiliser, those who spoke insufficient English to complete the baseline assessment and women who were pregnant or contemplating becoming pregnant.Interventions:Up to 200 mg of lamotrigine per day or an inert placebo. Women taking combined oral contraceptives were prescribed up to 400 mg of trial medication per day.Main outcome measures:Outcomes were assessed at 12, 24 and 52 weeks after randomisation. The primary outcome was the total score on the Zanarini Rating Scale for Borderline Personality Disorder (ZAN-BPD) at 52 weeks. The secondary outcomes were depressive symptoms, deliberate self-harm, social functioning, health-related quality of life, resource use and costs, side effects of treatment and adverse events. Higher scores on all measures indicate poorer outcomes.Results:Between July 2013 and October 2015 we randomised 276 participants, of whom 195 (70.6%) were followed up 52

Journal article

Hassiotis A, Poppe M, Strydom A, Vickerstaff V, Hall I, Crabtree J, Omar R, King M, Hunter R, Bosco A, Biswas A, Ratti V, Blickwedel J, Cooper V, Howie W, Crawford Met al., 2018, Positive behaviour support training for staff for treating challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disabilities: a cluster RCT., Health Technology Assessment, Vol: 22, Pages: 1-110, ISSN: 1366-5278

BACKGROUND: Preliminary studies have indicated that training staff in Positive Behaviour Support (PBS) may help to reduce challenging behaviour among people with intellectual disability (ID). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether or not such training is clinically effective in reducing challenging behaviour in routine care. The study also included longer-term follow-up (approximately 36 months). DESIGN: A multicentre, single-blind, two-arm, parallel-cluster randomised controlled trial. The unit of randomisation was the community ID service using an independent web-based randomisation system and random permuted blocks on a 1 : 1 allocation stratified by a staff-to-patient ratio for each cluster. SETTING: Community ID services in England. PARTICIPANTS: Adults (aged > 18 years) across the range of ID with challenging behaviour [≥ 15 Aberrant Behaviour Checklist - Community total score (ABC-CT)]. INTERVENTIONS: Manual-assisted face-to-face PBS training to therapists and treatment as usual (TAU) compared with TAU only in the control arm. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Carer-reported changes in challenging behaviour as measured by the ABC-CTover 12 months. Secondary outcomes included psychopathology, community participation, family and paid carer burden, family carer psychopathology, costs of care and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Data on main outcome, service use and health-related quality of life were collected for the 36-month follow-up. RESULTS: A total of 246 participants were recruited from 23 teams, of whom 109 were in the intervention arm (11 teams) and 137 were in the control arm (12 teams). The difference in ABC-CTbetween the intervention and control arms [mean difference -2.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) -8.79 to 4.51;p = 0.528] was not statistically significant. No treatment effects were found for any of the secondary outcomes. The mean cost per participant in the intervention arm was £1201. Over 12 months, there

Journal article

Hassiotis A, Strydom A, Vickerstaff V, Hall IS, Crabtree J, Omar RZ, King M, Hunter R, Biswas A, Cooper V, Howie W, Crawford Met al., 2018, Clinical outcomes of staff training in positive behaviour support to reduce challenging behaviour in adults with intellectual disability: cluster randomised controlled trial, British Journal of Psychiatry, Vol: 212, Pages: 161-168, ISSN: 0007-1250

BackgroundStaff training in positive behaviour support (PBS) is a widespread treatment approach for challenging behaviour in adults with intellectual disability.AimsTo evaluate whether such training is clinically effective in reducing challenging behaviour during routine care (trial registration: NCT01680276).MethodWe carried out a multicentre, cluster randomised controlled trial involving 23 community intellectual disability services in England, randomly allocated to manual-assisted staff training in PBS (n = 11) or treatment as usual (TAU, n = 12). Data were collected from 246 adult participants.ResultsNo treatment effects were found for the primary outcome (challenging behaviour over 12 months, adjusted mean difference = −2.14, 95% CI: −8.79, 4.51) or secondary outcomes.ConclusionsStaff training in PBS, as applied in this study, did not reduce challenging behaviour. Further research should tackle implementation issues and endeavour to identify other interventions that can reduce challenging behaviour.

Journal article

Crawford MJ, Zoha M, MacDonald A, Kingdon Det al., 2018, Improving the quality of mental health services using patient outcome data: Making the most of HoNOS, BJPsych Bulletin, Vol: 41, Pages: 172-176, ISSN: 2056-4694

Efforts to assess and improve the quality of mental health services are often hampered by a lack of information on patient outcomes. Most mental health services in England have been routinely collecting Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS) data for some time. In this article we illustrate how clinical teams have used HoNOS data to identify areas where performance could be improved. HoNOS data have the potential to give clinical teams the information they need to assess the quality of care they deliver, as well as develop and test initiatives aimed at improving the services they provide.

Journal article

Aalbers S, Fusar-Poli L, Freeman RE, Spreen M, Ket JCF, Vink AC, Maratos A, Crawford M, Chen X-J, Gold Cet al., 2017, Music therapy for depression., Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Vol: 2017, ISSN: 1469-493X

BackgroundDepression is a highly prevalent mood disorder that is characterised by persistent low mood, diminished interest, and loss of pleasure. Music therapy may be helpful in modulating moods and emotions. An update of the 2008 Cochrane review was needed to improve knowledge on effects of music therapy for depression.Objectives1. To assess effects of music therapy for depression in people of any age compared with treatment as usual (TAU) and psychological, pharmacological, and/or other therapies.2. To compare effects of different forms of music therapy for people of any age with a diagnosis of depression.Search methodsWe searched the following databases: the Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Controlled Trials Register (CCMD-CTR; from inception to 6 May 2016); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; to 17 June 2016); Thomson Reuters/Web of Science (to 21 June 2016); Ebsco/PsycInfo, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Embase, and PubMed (to 5 July 2016); the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP), ClinicalTrials.gov, the National Guideline Clearing House, and OpenGrey (to 6 September 2016); and the Digital Access to Research Theses (DART)-Europe E-theses Portal, Open Access Theses and Dissertations, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Database (to 7 September 2016). We checked reference lists of retrieved articles and relevant systematic reviews and contacted trialists and subject experts for additional information when needed. We updated this search in August 2017 and placed potentially relevant studies in the "Awaiting classification" section; we will incorporate these into the next version of this review as appropriate.

Journal article

Volkert J, Härter M, Dehoust MC, Schulz H, Sehner S, Suling A, Wegscheider K, Ausín B, Canuto A, Crawford MJ, Da Ronch C, Grassi L, Hershkovitz Y, Muñoz M, Quirk A, Rotenstein O, Santos-Olmo AB, Shalev AY, Strehle J, Weber K, Wittchen HU, Andreas Set al., 2017, Study approach and field work procedures of the MentDis_ICF65+ project on the prevalence of mental disorders in the older adult European population, BMC Psychiatry, Vol: 17, ISSN: 1471-244X

Background: This study describes the study approach and field procedures of the MentDis_ICF65+ study, which aims to assess the prevalence of mental disorders in older adults. Methods: An age-appropriate version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI65+) was developed and tested with regard to its feasibility and psychometric properties in a pre-test and pilot phase. In the cross-sectional survey an age-stratified, random sample of older adults (65-84 years) living in selected catchment areas of five European countries and Israel was recruited. Results: N = 3142 participants (mean age 73.7 years, 50.7% female) took part in face-to-face interviews. The mean response rate was 20% and varied significantly between centres, age and gender groups. Sociodemographic differences between the study centres appeared for the place of birth, number of grandchildren, close significants, retirement and self-rated financial situation. The comparison of the MentDis_ICF65+ sample with the catchment area and country population of the study centres revealed significant differences, although most of these were numerically small. Conclusions: The study will generate new information on the pre valence of common mental disorders among older adults across Europe using an age-appropriate, standardized diagnostic instrument and a harmonized approach to sampling. Generalizability of the findings and a potentially limited representativeness are discussed.

Journal article

Crawford MJ, Gold C, Odell-Miller H, Thana L, Faber S, Assmus J, Bieleninik L, Geretsegger M, Grant C, Maratos A, Sandford S, Claringbold A, McConachie H, Maskey M, Mossler KA, Ramchandani P, Hassiotis Aet al., 2017, International multicentre randomised controlled trial of improvisational music therapy for children with autism spectrum disorder: TIME-A study, HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT, Vol: 21, Pages: 1-+, ISSN: 1366-5278

Background:Preliminary studies have indicated that music therapy may benefit children with autismspectrum disorders (ASD).Objectives:To examine the effects of improvisational music therapy (IMT) on social affect andresponsiveness of children with ASD.Design:International, multicentre, three-arm, single-masked randomised controlled trial, including aNational Institute for Health Research (NIHR)-funded centre that recruited in London and the east ofEngland. Randomisation was via a remote service using permuted blocks, stratified by study site.Setting:Schools and private, voluntary and state-funded health-care services.Participants:Children aged between 4 and 7 years with a confirmed diagnosis of ASD and a parent orguardian who provided written informed consent. We excluded children with serious sensory disorder andthose who had received music therapy within the past 12 months.Interventions:All parents and children received enhanced standard care (ESC), which involved three60-minute sessions of advice and support in addition to treatment as usual. In addition, they wererandomised to either one (low-frequency) or three (high-frequency) sessions of IMT per week, or to ESCalone, over 5 months in a ratio of 1 : 1 : 2.Main outcome measures:The primary outcome was measured using the social affect score derived fromthe Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) at 5 months: higher scores indicated greater impairment.Secondary outcomes included social affect at 12 months and parent-rated social responsiveness at 5 and12 months (higher scores indicated greater impairment).Results:A total of 364 participants were randomised between 2011 and 2015. A total of 182 children wereallocated to IMT (90 to high-frequency sessions and 92 to low-frequency sessions), and 182 were allocatedto ESC alone. A total of 314 (86.3%) of the total sample were followed up at 5 months [165 (90.7%) inthe intervention group and 149 (81.9%) in the control group]. Among those randomised to IMT, 171(94.0

Journal article

Canuto A, Weber K, Baertschi M, Andreas S, Volkert J, Dehoust MC, Sehner S, Suling A, Wegscheider K, Ausín B, Crawford MJ, Da Ronch C, Grassi L, Hershkovitz Y, Muñoz M, Quirk A, Rotenstein O, Santos-Olmo AB, Shalev A, Strehle J, Wittchen HU, Schulz H, Härter Met al., 2017, Anxiety Disorders in old age: Psychiatric comorbidities, quality of life, and prevalence according to age, gender, and country, American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, Vol: 26, Pages: 174-185, ISSN: 1064-7481

Objectives: Previous estimates of the prevalence of anxiety disorders in late life vary greatly due to the lack of reliable diagnostic tools. This MentDis_ICF65+ study assessed 12-month prevalence rates of anxiety disorders and age- and gender-related differences in comorbidities, as well as impact on quality of life. Design: The study used a cross-sectional multicenter survey. Participants: The study sample comprised 3,142 men and women aged 65 to 84 years, living in five European countries and Israel. Measurements: Anxiety disorders were assessed using computer-assisted face-to-face interviews with an age-appropriate diagnostic interview (CIDI65+). Results: The prevalence of anxiety disorders was 17.2%. Agoraphobia was the most frequent disorder (4.9%), followed by panic disorder (3.8%), animal phobia (3.5%), general anxiety disorder (3.1%), post-traumatic stress disorder (1.4%), social phobia (1.3%), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (0.8%). The prevalence rate of any anxiety disorder dropped by 40% to 47% in adults aged 75–84 years compared with those aged 65–74 years. Women were twice as likely to present with agoraphobia or general anxiety disorder as men. Only panic disorder and phobia were associated with comorbid major depression. The negative relationship with quality of life was limited to agoraphobia and generalized anxiety disorder. Conclusions: The age-appropriate CIDI65+ led to higher prevalence rates of anxiety disorders in the elderly, yet to weaker associations with comorbidities and impaired quality of life compared with previous studies.

Journal article

Tyrer P, Salkovskis P, Tyrer H, Wang D, Crawford M, Dupont S, Cooper S, Green J, Murphy D, Smith G, Bhogal S, Nourmand S, Lazarevic V, Loebenberg G, Evered R, Kings S, McNulty A, Lisseman-Stones Y, McAllister S, Kramo K, Nagar J, Reid S, Sanatinia R, Whittamore K, Walker G, Warwick H, Byford S, Barrett Bet al., 2017, Cognitive behaviour therapy for health anxiety in medical patients (CHAMP): randomised trial with outcomes to five years, Health Technology Assessment, Vol: 21, ISSN: 1366-5278

Background: Health anxiety is an under-recognised but frequent cause of distress that is potentially treatable but there are few studies in secondary care. Objective: To determine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a modified form of cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT-HA) for health anxiety compared with standard care in medical outpatients Design: Randomised controlled trialSetting: Five general hospitals in London, Middlesex and Nottinghamshire Participants:444 patients aged 16-75 seen in cardiology, endocrinology, gastroenterology, neurology and respiratory medicine clinics who scored 20 or more on the Health Anxiety Inventory (HAI), and satisfied diagnostic requirements for hypochondriasis. Those with current psychiatric disorders were excluded but those concurrent medical illnesses were not. Interventions:Cognitive behaviour therapy for health anxiety (CBT-HA): 4-10 one-hour sessions of CBT-HA from a health professional or psychologist trained in the treatment. Standard care was normal practice in primary and secondary care. Main outcome measures: Primary: Researchers masked to allocation assessed patients at baseline, 3m, 6m, 12m, 24m and 5 years. The primary outcome was change in HAI score between baseline and 12 months. Main secondary outcome: Costs of care in the two groups after 24 months and 60 months, change in health anxiety (HAI), generalised anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HADS-A and HADS-D) scores, social functioning using the Social Functioning Questionnaire (SFQ), and quality of life using the Euroqol (EQ-5D), at 6, 12, 24 and 60 months, deaths over 5 years. Results: Of 28,991 patients screened over 21m, 5769 had HAI scores of 20 or above. CBT-HA patients (mean sessions 6) had significantly greater improvement in HAI scores than those in standard care at 3m and this was maintained over the five-year period (overall P<0.0001), with no loss of efficacy between 2 and 5 years. Generalised anxiety

Journal article

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