Imperial College London

ProfessorMatthewJackson

Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Earth Science & Engineering

Chair in Geological Fluid Dynamics
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 6538m.d.jackson

 
 
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Location

 

1.34Royal School of MinesSouth Kensington Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

223 results found

Jackson WA, Hampson GJ, Jacquemyn C, Jackson MD, Petrovskyy D, Geiger S, Machado Silva JD, Judice S, Rahman F, Costa Sousa Met al., 2022, A screening assessment of the impact of sedimentological heterogeneity on CO2 migration and stratigraphic-baffling potential: Johansen and Cook formations, Northern Lights project, offshore Norway, International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Vol: 120, Pages: 103762-103762, ISSN: 1750-5836

We use a method combining experimental design, sketch-based reservoir modelling, and single-phase flow diagnostics to rapidly screen the impact of sedimentological heterogeneities that constitute baffles and barriers to CO2 migration in the Johansen and Cook formations at the Northern Lights CO2 storage site. The types and spatial organisation of sedimentological heterogeneities in the wave-dominated deltaic sandstones of the Johansen-Cook storage unit are constrained using core data from the 31/5-7 (Eos) well, previous interpretations of seismic data and regional well-log correlations, and outcrop and subsurface analogues. Delta planform geometry, clinoform dip, and facies-association interfingering extent along clinoforms control: (1) the distribution and connectivity of high-permeability medial and proximal delta-front sandstones, (2) effective horizontal and vertical permeability characteristics of the storage unit, and (3) pore volumes injected at breakthrough time (which approximates the efficiency of stratigraphic baffling). In addition, the lateral continuity of carbonate-cemented concretionary layers along transgressive surfaces impacts effective vertical permeability, and bioturbation intensity impacts effective horizontal and vertical permeability. The combined effects of these and other heterogeneities are also influential. Our results suggest that the baffling effect on CO2 migration and retention of sedimentological heterogeneity is an important precursor for later capillary, dissolution and mineral trapping.

Journal article

Bahlali ML, Salinas P, Jackson MD, 2022, Efficient Numerical Simulation of Density-Driven Flows: Application to the 2-and 3-D Elder Problem, WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH, Vol: 58, ISSN: 0043-1397

Journal article

Alarouj M, Jackson MD, 2022, EXPERIMENTAL MEASURMENT OF THE EXCLUSION-DIFFUSION POTENTIAL IN SANDSTONE AND SHALY SAND SAMPLES AT FULL AND PARTIAL WATER SATURATION, Geophysics, Vol: 87, Pages: 1-45, ISSN: 0016-8033

The exclusion-diffusion potential (EDP) arises in response to concentration gradients and is one of the key components of the self-potential (SP) observed in subsurface environments. However, few data are available to characterize the EDP in reservoir rocks saturated with complex natural brines and at partial brine saturation. We report experimental measurements of the EDP across fully and partially brine-saturated sandstone samples and fully brine saturated shaly sand samples, using natural saline brine (2.2 Mol/L), seawater (0.5 Mol/L), and natural crude oil. When fully saturated, the EDP across the samples is diffusion-dominated, with the shaly samples exhibiting a small contribution from charge exclusion. The contribution of charge exclusion to the measured EDP increases as permeability decreases. At the residual oil saturation, the measured EDP is diffusion-dominated, consistent with our findings at full saturation. However, the EDP is more exclusive at the irreducible water saturation, and the polarity of the excluded ions depends on the polarity of the charged oil-brine interface. A charge exclusion is more significant at lower irreducible water saturation. Our results support recent studies suggesting that the oil-brine interface can be positively charged in contact with natural brines. The EDP trends reported have not been observed previously and have broad implications for geophysical monitoring of subsurface flow and transport, such as transport of nonaqueous phase contaminants in aquifers and water flow during hydrocarbon production.

Journal article

Hamzehloo A, Bahlali ML, Salinas P, Jacquemyn C, Pain CC, Butler AP, Jackson MDet al., 2022, Modelling saline intrusion using dynamic mesh optimization with parallel processing, ADVANCES IN WATER RESOURCES, Vol: 164, ISSN: 0309-1708

Journal article

Regnier G, Salinas P, Jacquemyn C, Jackson MDet al., 2022, Numerical simulation of aquifer thermal energy storage using surface-based geologic modelling and dynamic mesh optimisation, HYDROGEOLOGY JOURNAL, Vol: 30, Pages: 1179-1198, ISSN: 1431-2174

Journal article

Alarouj M, Jackson MD, 2022, Numerical modeling of self-potential in heterogeneous reservoirs, GEOPHYSICS, Vol: 87, Pages: E103-E120, ISSN: 0016-8033

Journal article

Collini H, Jackson MD, 2022, Relationship between zeta potential and wettability in porous media: insights from a simple bundle of capillary tubes model, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol: 608, Pages: 605-621, ISSN: 0021-9797

Hypothesis & MotivationExperimental data suggest a relationship between the macroscopic zeta potential measured on intact rock samples and the sample wettability. However, there is no pore-scale model to quantify this relationship.MethodsWe consider the simplest representation of a rock pore space: a bundle of capillary tubes of varying size. Equations describing mass and charge transfer through a single capillary are derived and the macroscopic zeta potential and wettability determined by integrating over capillaries. Model predictions are tested against measured data yielding a good match.FindingsMixed- and oil-wet models return a macro-scale zeta potential that is a combination of the micro-scale zeta potential of mineral-brine and oil-brine interfaces and the relationship between macro-scale zeta potential and water saturation exhibits hysteresis. The model predicts a similar relationship between zeta potential and wettability to that observed in experimental data but does not provide a perfect match. Fitting the model to experimental data allows the oil-brine zeta potential to be estimated at conditions where it cannot be measured directly. Results suggest that positive values of the oil-brine zeta potential may be more common than previously thought with implications for surface complexation models and the design of controlled salinity waterflooding of oil reservoirs.

Journal article

Sparks RSJ, Blundy JD, Cashman K, Jackson M, Rust A, Wilson CJNet al., 2022, Large silicic magma bodies and very large magnitude explosive eruptions, BULLETIN OF VOLCANOLOGY, Vol: 84, ISSN: 0258-8900

Journal article

Jacquemyn C, Hampson GJ, Jackson MD, Petrovskyy D, Geiger S, Machado Silva JD, Judice S, Rahman F, Sousa MCet al., 2021, Rapid Reservoir Modelling: Sketch-Based Geological Modelling with Fast Flow Diagnostics, Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition & Conference, Publisher: Society of Petroleum Engineers

Rapid Reservoir Modelling (RRM) is a software tool that combines geological operators and a flow diagnostics module with sketch-based interface and modelling technology. The geological operators account for all interactions of stratigraphic surfaces and ensure that the resulting 3D models are stratigraphically valid. The geological operators allow users to sketch in any order, from oldest to youngest, from large to small, or free of any prescribed order, depending on data-driven or concept-driven uncertainty in interpretation. Flow diagnostics assessment of the sketched models enforces the link between geological interpretation and flow behaviour without using time-consuming and computationally expensive workflows. Output of RRM models includes static measures of facies architecture, flow diagnostics and model elements that can be exported to industry-standard software. A deep-water case is presented to show how assessing the impact of different scenarios at a prototyping stage allows users to make informed decisions about subsequent modelling efforts and approaches. Furthermore, RRM provides a valuable method for training or to develop geological interpretation skills, in front of an outcrop or directly on subsurface data.

Conference paper

Alarouj M, Collini H, Jackson MD, 2021, Positive Zeta Potential in Sandstones Saturated With Natural Saline Brine, GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, Vol: 48, ISSN: 0094-8276

Journal article

Kampitsis AE, Kostorz WJ, Muggeridge AH, Jackson MDet al., 2021, The life span and dynamics of immiscible viscous fingering in rectilinear displacements (vol 33, 096608, 2021), PHYSICS OF FLUIDS, Vol: 33, ISSN: 1070-6631

Journal article

Silva VLS, Salinas P, Jackson MD, Pain CCet al., 2021, Machine learning acceleration for nonlinear solvers applied to multiphase porous media flow, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, Vol: 384, Pages: 1-17, ISSN: 0045-7825

A machine learning approach to accelerate convergence of the nonlinear solver in multiphase flow problems is presented here. The approach dynamically controls an acceleration method based on numerical relaxation. It is demonstrated in a Picard iterative solver but is applicable to other types of nonlinear solvers. The aim of the machine learning acceleration is to reduce the computational cost of the nonlinear solver by adjusting to the complexity/physics of the system. Using dimensionless parameters to train and control the machine learning enables the use of a simple two-dimensional layered reservoir for training, while also exploring a wide range of the parameter space. Hence, the training process is simplified and it does not need to be rerun when the machine learning acceleration is applied to other reservoir models. We show that the method can significantly reduce the number of nonlinear iterations without compromising the simulation results, including models that are considerably more complex than the training case.

Journal article

Titus Z, Heaney C, Jacquemyn C, Salinas P, Jackson MD, Pain Cet al., 2021, Conditioning surface-based geological models to well data using artificial neural networks, Computational Geosciences: modeling, simulation and data analysis, Vol: 26, Pages: 779-802, ISSN: 1420-0597

Surface-based modelling provides a computationally efficient approach for generating geometrically realistic representations of heterogeneity in reservoir models. However, conditioning Surface-Based Geological Models (SBGMs) to well data can be challenging because it is an ill-posed inverse problem with spatially distributed parameters. To aid fast and efficient conditioning, we use here SBGMs that model geometries using parametric, grid-free surfaces that require few parameters to represent even realistic geological architectures. A neural network is trained to learn the underlying process of generating SBGMs by learning the relationship between the parametrized SBGM inputs and the resulting facies identified at well locations. To condition the SBGM to these observed data, inverse modelling of the SBGM inputs is achieved by replacing the forward model with the pre-trained neural network and optimizing the network inputs using the back-propagation technique applied in training the neural network. An analysis of the uncertainties associated with the conditioned realisations demonstrates the applicability of the approach for evaluating spatial variations in geological heterogeneity away from control data in reservoir modelling. This approach for generating geologically plausible models that are calibrated with observed well data could also be extended to other geological modelling techniques such as object- and process-based modelling.

Journal article

Kampitsis AE, Kostorz WJ, Muggeridge AH, Jackson MDet al., 2021, The life span and dynamics of immiscible viscous fingering in rectilinear displacements, PHYSICS OF FLUIDS, Vol: 33, ISSN: 1070-6631

Journal article

Salinas P, Regnier G, Jacquemyn C, Pain CC, Jackson MDet al., 2021, Dynamic mesh optimisation for geothermal reservoir modelling, Geothermics, Vol: 94, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 0375-6505

Modelling geothermal reservoirs is challenging due to the large domain and wide range of length- and time-scales of interest. Attempting to represent all scales using a fixed computational mesh can be very computationally expensive. Application of dynamic mesh optimisation in other fields of computational fluid dynamics has revolutionised the accuracy and cost of numerical simulations. Here we present a new approach for modelling geothermal reservoirs based on unstructured meshes with dynamic mesh optimisation. The resolution of the mesh varies during a simulation, to minimize an error metric for solution fields of interest such as temperature and pressure. Efficient application of dynamic mesh optimisation in complex subsurface reservoirs requires a new approach to represent geologic heterogeneity and we use parametric spline surfaces to represent key geological features such as faults and lithology boundaries. The resulting 3D surface-based models are mesh free; a mesh is created only when required for numerical computations. Dynamic mesh optimisation preserves the surfaces and hence geologic heterogeneity. The governing equations are discretised using a double control volume finite element method that ensures heat and mass are conserved and provides robust solutions on distorted meshes. We apply the new method to a series of test cases that model sedimentary geothermal reservoirs. We demonstrate that dynamic mesh optimisation yields significant performance gains, reducing run times by up to 8 times whilst capturing flow and heat transport with the same accuracy as fixed meshes.

Journal article

Lyu Z, Lei Q, Yang L, Heaney C, Song X, Salinas P, Jackson M, Li G, Pain Cet al., 2021, A novel approach to optimising well trajectory in heterogeneous reservoirs based on the fast-marching method, Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, Vol: 88, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 1875-5100

To achieve efficient recovery of subsurface energy resources, a suitable trajectory needs to be identified for the production well. In this study, a new approach is presented for automated identification of optimum well trajectories in heterogeneous oil/gas reservoirs. The optimisation procedures are as follows. First, a productivity potential map is generated based on the site characterisation data of a reservoir (when available). Second, based on the fast-marching method, well paths are generated from a number of entrance positions to a number of exit points at opposite sides of the reservoir. The well trajectory is also locally constrained by a prescribed maximum curvature to ensure that the well trajectory is drillable. Finally, the optimum well trajectory is selected from all the candidate paths based on the calculation of a benefit-to-cost ratio. If required, a straight directional well path, may also be derived through a linear approximation to the optimised non-linear trajectory by least squares analysis. Model performance has been demonstrated in both 2D and 3D. In the 2D example, the benefit-to-cost ratio of the optimised well is much higher than that of a straight well; in the 3D example, laterals of various curvatures are generated. The applicability of the method is tested by exploring different reservoir heterogeneities and curvature constraints. This approach can be applied to determine the entrance/exit positions and the well path for subsurface energy system development, which is useful for field applications.

Journal article

Jacquemyn C, Pataki MEH, Hampson GJ, Jackson MD, Petrovskyy D, Geiger S, Marques CC, Machado Silva JD, Judice S, Rahman F, Costa Sousa Met al., 2021, Sketch-based interface and modelling of stratigraphy and structure in three dimensions, Journal of the Geological Society, Vol: 178, Pages: 1-17, ISSN: 0016-7649

Geological modelling is widely used to predict resource potential in subsurface reservoirs. However, modelling is often slow, requires use of mathematical methods that are unfamiliar to many geoscientists, and is implemented in expert software. We demonstrate here an alternative approach using sketch-based interface and modelling, which allows rapid creation of complex three-dimensional (3D) models from 2D sketches. Sketches, either on vertical cross-sections or in map-view, are converted to 3D surfaces that outline geological interpretations. We propose a suite of geological operators that handle interactions between the surfaces to form a geologically realistic 3D model. These operators deliver the flexibility to sketch a geological model in any order and provide an intuitive framework for geoscientists to rapidly create 3D models. Two case studies are presented, demonstrating scenarios in which different approaches to model sketching are used depending on the geological setting and available data. These case studies show the strengths of sketching with geological operators. Sketched 3D models can be queried visually or quantitatively to provide insights into heterogeneity distribution, facies connectivity or dynamic model behaviour; this information cannot be obtained by sketching in 2D or on paper.

Journal article

Kostorz WJ, Muggeridge AH, Jackson MD, 2021, Non-intrusive reduced order modeling: Geometrical framework, high-order models, and a priori analysis of applicability, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING, Vol: 122, Pages: 2545-2565, ISSN: 0029-5981

Journal article

Jacquemyn C, Pataki MEH, Jackson MD, Hampson GJ, Machado Silva J, Rahman F, Judice S, Costa Sousa M, Petrovskyy D, Geiger Set al., 2021, SKETCH-BASED RESERVOIR MODELLING: FAST PROTOTYPING OF RESERVOIR MODELS TO EXPLORE INTERPRETATION-BASED UNCERTAINTY, Pages: 1317-1321

Sketch-based interface and modelling (SBIM) is a new approach that uses intuitive sketches to build 3D models. Rapid Reservoir Modelling (RRM) is an implementation of SBIM for subsurface modelling, that allows the user to sketch concepts or to trace interpretations over existing data in order to produce 3D reservoir models in a very short timeframe (minutes). These reservoir models can then be interrogated for a series of static parameters, and a flow diagnostics module provides a first estimate of dynamic behaviour. The user can quickly generate a suite of models representing different scenarios or interpretations and compare or rank them using multiple derived parameters. RRM can be used to quickly test what the effect could be of different interpretations or modelling decisions, before a reservoir modelling approach is finalised, or specific detailed models are built. It may help to decide on modelling parameters such as grid size, but also inform the inputs for uncertainty workflows, as uncertainty associated with different concepts can be translated into RRM model outputs. Here we will illustrate how sketches of different geological interpretations of the same dataset are used to construct 3D models using RRM, and show the impact these have on resulting model properties.

Conference paper

Alarouj M, Ijioma A, Graham MT, MacAllister DJ, Jackson MDet al., 2021, Numerical modelling of self-potential in subsurface reservoirs, Computers & Geosciences, Vol: 146, Pages: 1-19, ISSN: 0098-3004

We report a new, open-source, MATLAB-based 3D code for numerically simulating the self-potential (SP) in subsurface reservoirs. The code works as a post-processor, using outputs from existing reservoir flow and transport simulators at a selected timestep to calculate the SP throughout the reservoir model. The material properties required to calculate the SP are user defined and may be constant or vary in each cell. The code solves the equations governing flow and transport of electrical charge and global charge conservation using a control-volume-finite-difference scheme. Electrical currents associated with the SP may spread beyond the reservoir model domain, and the code allows for the domain to be extended vertically and laterally to account for this. Here, we present the governing equations and the numerical method used and demonstrate application of the code using an example in which we predict the SP signals associated with oil production from a subsurface reservoir supported by water injection.

Journal article

Nikolakopoulos-Skelly G, Giddins MA, Xu R, Ezeogu C, Jackson Met al., 2021, Reservoir simulation studies for planning monitoring schemes for CO<inf>2</inf> storage

In this paper, we describe an approach to designing monitoring schemes for carbon dioxide sequestration in saline aquifers. Changes in key parameters are investigated over timescales of up to a thousand years. The study addresses movement of the CO2 plume, possible locations for observation wells and the period for which a storage location should be monitored. For the initial sensitivity analysis, we use a simple homogeneous reservoir simulation model to understand how reservoir, operational and model parameters affect the amount of mobile CO2 remaining at different times over the storage period. The parameters with the greatest impact are taken forward to uncertainty studies, which are conducted on two reservoir models with more realistic geological characteristics: one with lateral extensive baffles and one with sand channels. For these cases, we investigate the movement of the CO2 plume and its arrival at possible locations for an observation well. Results from the sensitivity analysis indicate that the most influential parameters are horizontal permeability, dipping angle, critical gas saturation, salinity, the period of injection and the capillary pressure curve. The results from the uncertainty studies indicate that for the two heterogeneous models, a reasonable monitoring period is in the range of 60 to 150 years and that the movement of the plume probably stops after approximately 100 years. The arrival time of CO2 at the observation well can be predicted with greater confidence when the well is in close proximity to the injector and in the direction in which CO2 will preferably move. A correlation analysis on the uncertain parameters shows that the main contributor affecting the amount of mobile CO2 is critical gas saturation, followed by dipping angle and the period of injection. While previous studies focus on how different parameters affect immobilization of CO2, this study aims to develop a methodology to plan long-term monitoring of mobile CO2. Predict

Conference paper

Collini H, Jackson M, 2021, Zeta potential of the crude oil-brine interface and implications for controlled salinity waterflooding

It is commonly observed that improved oil recovery (IOR) by controlled salinity waterflooding (CSW) coincides with a change to a more water-wet state. An important parameter controlling the wetting state is the zeta potential of the mineral-brine and oil-brine interfaces, which controls the electrostatic forces acting between. Evidence suggests successful CSW is observed when the injection brine composition is modified so as to increase the electrostatic repulsion acting between the interfaces, leading to detachment of oil from the mineral surfaces and IOR on the core-to field-scale. Measurements of zeta potential at the mineral-brine interface have been reported using the streaming potential method (SPM) at representative reservoir conditions of temperature, salinity and wetting state. It is generally accepted that the mineral-brine zeta potential becomes more negative with a reduction in the injection brine salinity and/or specific ions. However, comparable zeta potential data for the oil-brine interface are scarce. Most report negative values at pH6, increasing in magnitude with increasing brine dilution, however, these are typically made using commercially available electrophoretic methods which operate far from reservoir conditions, using suspensions of crude-oil droplets in dilute (0.1M), single-salt species brines and ambient conditions. Here we report novel and systematic SPM measurements of zeta potential of the oil-brine interface in brines of high ionic strength and containing multivalent ions. A strongly oil-wetting, hydrophobic porous substrate was prepared and coated with the crude-oil of interest. The SPM was used to measure the zeta potential of these substrates when saturated with brines of interest to CSW. We find the zeta potential is negative in simple NaCl brines (up to 2 Mol/L) with the magnitude increasing with decreasing brine salinity, consistent with previous literature. The concentration dependence of a given oil depends on properties such

Conference paper

Collini H, Jackson M, 2021, ZETA POTENTIAL IN INTACT NATURAL CARBONATES AT RESERVOIR CONDITIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR CONTROLLED SALINITY WATERFLOODING, Pages: 2682-2683

This abstract covers measurements of zeta potential in intact carbonates under reservoir conditions and links these measurements to observations of improved oil recovery during controlled salinity water flooding.

Conference paper

Costa Sousa M, Silva J, Silva C, De Carvalho F, Judice S, Rahman F, Jacquemyn C, Pataki M, Hampson G, Jackson M, Petrovskyy D, Geiger Set al., 2020, Smart modelling of geologic stratigraphy concepts using sketches, Smart Tools and Applications in computer Graphics (STAG) 2020, Publisher: The Eurographics Association, Pages: 89-100

Several applications of Earth Science require geologically valid interpretation and visualization of complex physical structures in data-poor subsurface environments. Hand-drawn sketches and illustrations are standard practices used by domain experts for conceptualizing their observations and interpretations. These conceptual geo-sketches provide rich visual references for exploring uncertainties and helping users formulate ideas, suggest possible solutions, and make critical decisions affecting the various stages in geoscience studies and modelling workflows. In this paper, we present a sketch-based interfaces and modelling (SBIM) approach for the rapid conceptual construction of stratigraphic surfaces, which are common to most geologic modelling scales, studies, and workflows. Our SBIM approach mirrors the way domain users produce geo-sketches and uses them to construct 3D geologic models, enforcing algorithmic rules to ensure geologically-sound stratigraphic relationships are generated, and supporting different scales of geology being observed and interpreted. Results are presented for two case studies demonstrating the flexibility and broad applicability of our rule-based SBIM approach for conceptual stratigraphy.

Conference paper

Yekta A, Salinas P, Hajirezaie S, Amooie MA, Pain CC, Jackson MD, Jacquemyn C, Soltanian MRet al., 2020, Reactive transport modeling in heterogeneous porous media with dynamic mesh optimization, Computational Geosciences: modeling, simulation and data analysis, Vol: 25, Pages: 357-372, ISSN: 1420-0597

This paper presents a numerical simulator for solving compositional multiphase flow and reactive transport. The simulator was developed by effectively linking IC-FERST (Imperial College Finite Element Reservoir SimulaTor) with PHREEQCRM. IC-FERST is a next-generation three-dimensional reservoir simulator based on the double control volume finite element method and dynamic unstructured mesh optimization and is developed by the Imperial College London. PHREEQCRM is a state-of-the-art geochemical reaction package and is developed by the United States Geological Survey. We present a step-by-step framework on how the coupling is performed. The coupled code is called IC-FERST-REACT and is capable of simulating complex hydrogeological, biological, chemical, and mechanical processes occurring including processes occur during CO2 geological sequestration, CO2 enhanced oil recovery, and geothermal systems among others. In this paper, we present our preliminary work as well as examples related to CO2 geological sequestration. We performed the model coupling through developing an efficient application programming interface (API). IC-FERST-REACT inherits high-order methods and unstructured meshes with dynamic mesh optimization from IC-FERST. This reduces the computational cost by placing the mesh resolution where and when necessary and it can better capture flow instabilities if they occur. This can have a strong impact on reactive transport simulations which usually suffer from computational cost. From PHREEQCRM the code inherits the ability to efficiently model geochemical reactions. Benchmark examples are used to show the capability of IC-FERST-REACT in solving multiphase flow and reactive transport.

Journal article

Li S, Jackson MD, Agenet N, 2020, Role of the calcite-water interface in wettability alteration during low salinity waterflooding, FUEL, Vol: 276, ISSN: 0016-2361

Journal article

Osman H, Graham GH, Moncorge A, Jacquemyn C, Jackson MDet al., 2020, Is cell-to-cell scale variability necessary in reservoir models?, Mathematical Geosciences, Vol: 53, Pages: 271-296, ISSN: 1573-8868

Reservoir models typically contain hundreds-of-thousands to millions of grid cells in which petrophysical properties such as porosity and permeability vary on a cell-to-cell basis. However, although the petrophysical properties of rocks do vary on a point-to-point basis, this variability is not equivalent to the cell-to-cell variations in models. We investigate the impact of removing cell-to-cell variability on predictions of fluid flow in reservoir models. We remove cell-to-cell variability from models containing hundreds of thousands of unique porosity and permeability values to yield models containing just a few tens of unique porosity and permeability values grouped into a few internally homogeneous domains. The flow behavior of the original model is used as a reference. We find that the impact of cell-to-cell variability on predicted flow is small. Cell-to-cell variability is not necessary to capture flow in reservoir models; rather, it is the spatially correlated variability in petrophysical properties that is important. Reservoir modelling effort should focus on capturing correlated geologic domains in the most realistic and computationally efficient manner.

Journal article

Kostorz WJ, Muggeridge AH, Jackson MD, 2020, An efficient and robust method for parameterized nonintrusive reduced-order modeling, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING, Vol: 121, Pages: 4674-4688, ISSN: 0029-5981

Journal article

Lei Q, Jackson MD, Muggeridge AH, Salinas P, Pain CC, Matar OK, Ă…rland Ket al., 2020, Modelling the reservoir-to-tubing pressure drop imposed by multiple autonomous inflow control devices installed in a single completion joint in a horizontal well, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, Vol: 189, Pages: 1-16, ISSN: 0920-4105

Autonomous inflow control devices (AICDs) are used to introduce an additional pressure drop between the reservoir and the tubing of a production well that depends on the fluid phase flowing into the device: a larger pressure drop is introduced when unwanted phases such as water or gas enter the AICD. The additional pressure drop is typically represented in reservoir simulation models using empirical relationships fitted to experimental data for a single AICD. This approach may not be correct if each completion joint is equipped with multiple AICDs as the flow at different AICDs may be different. We use high-resolution numerical modelling to determine the total additional pressure drop introduced by two AICDs installed in a single completion joint in a horizontal well. The model captures the multiphase flow of oil and water through the inner annulus into each AICD. We explore a number of relevant oil-water inflow scenarios with different flow rates and water cuts. Our results show that if only one AICD is installed, the additional pressure drop is consistent with the experimentalzly-derived empirical formulation. However, if two AICDs are present, there is a significant discrepancy between the additional pressure drop predicted by the simulator and the empirical relationship. This discrepancy occurs because each AICD has a different total and individual phase flow rate, and the final steady-state flow results from a self-organising mechanism emerging from the system. We report the discrepancy as a water cut-dependent correction to the empirical equation, which can be used in reservoir simulation models to better capture the pressure drop across a single completion containing two AICDs. Our findings highlight the importance of understanding how AICDs modify flow into production wells, and have important consequences for improving the representation of advanced wells in reservoir simulation models.

Journal article

Zhang Z, Geiger S, Rood M, Jacquemyn C, Jackson M, Hampson G, De Carvalho FM, Silva CCMM, Silva JDM, Sousa MCet al., 2020, Fast flow computation methods on unstructured tetrahedral meshes for rapid reservoir modelling, Computational Geosciences, Vol: 24, Pages: 641-661, ISSN: 1420-0597

Subsurface reservoir models have a high degree of uncertainty regarding reservoir geometry and structure. A range of conceptual models should therefore be generated to explore how fluids-in-place, reservoir dynamics, and development decisions are affected by such uncertainty. The rapid reservoir modelling (RRM) workflow has been developed to prototype reservoir models across scales and test their dynamic behaviour. RRM complements existing workflows in that conceptual models can be prototyped, explored, compared, and ranked rapidly prior to detailed reservoir modelling. Reservoir geology is sketched in 2D with geological operators and translated in real-time into geologically correct 3D models. Flow diagnostics provide quantitative information for these reservoir model prototypes about their static and dynamic behaviours. A tracing algorithm is reviewed and implemented to compute time-of-flight and tracer concentrations efficiently on unstructured grids. Numerical well testing (NWT) is adopted in RRM to further interrogate the reservoir model. A new edge-based fast marching method is developed and implemented to solve the diffusive time-of-flight for approximating pressure transients efficiently on unstructured tetrahedral meshes. We demonstrate that an implementation of the workflow consisting of integrated sketch-based interface modelling, unstructured mesh generation, flow diagnostics, and numerical well testing is possible.

Journal article

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