122 results found
Bermudez-Martin P, Becker JAJ, Caramello N, et al., 2021, The microbial metabolite p-Cresol induces autistic-like behaviors in mice by remodeling the gut microbiota, Microbiome, Vol: 9, Pages: 1-23, ISSN: 2049-2618
BackgroundAutism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with dysregulation of the microbiota-gut-brain axis, changes in microbiota composition as well as in the fecal, serum, and urine levels of microbial metabolites. Yet a causal relationship between dysregulation of the microbiota-gut-brain axis and ASD remains to be demonstrated. Here, we hypothesized that the microbial metabolite p-Cresol, which is more abundant in ASD patients compared to neurotypical individuals, could induce ASD-like behavior in mice.ResultsMice exposed to p-Cresol for 4 weeks in drinking water presented social behavior deficits, stereotypies, and perseverative behaviors, but no changes in anxiety, locomotion, or cognition. Abnormal social behavior induced by p-Cresol was associated with decreased activity of central dopamine neurons involved in the social reward circuit. Further, p-Cresol induced changes in microbiota composition and social behavior deficits could be transferred from p-Cresol-treated mice to control mice by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). We also showed that mice transplanted with the microbiota of p-Cresol-treated mice exhibited increased fecal p-Cresol excretion, compared to mice transplanted with the microbiota of control mice. In addition, we identified possible p-Cresol bacterial producers. Lastly, the microbiota of control mice rescued social interactions, dopamine neurons excitability, and fecal p-Cresol levels when transplanted to p-Cresol-treated mice.ConclusionsThe microbial metabolite p-Cresol induces selectively ASD core behavioral symptoms in mice. Social behavior deficits induced by p-Cresol are dependant on changes in microbiota composition. Our study paves the way for therapeutic interventions targeting the microbiota and p-Cresol production to treat patients with ASD.
Brial F, Chilloux J, Nielsen T, et al., 2021, Human and preclinical studies of the host-gut microbiome co-metabolite hippurate as a marker and mediator of metabolic health., Gut, ISSN: 0017-5749
OBJECTIVE: Gut microbial products are involved in regulation of host metabolism. In human and experimental studies, we explored the potential role of hippurate, a hepatic phase 2 conjugation product of microbial benzoate, as a marker and mediator of metabolic health. DESIGN: In 271 middle-aged non-diabetic Danish individuals, who were stratified on habitual dietary intake, we applied 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of urine samples and shotgun-sequencing-based metagenomics of the gut microbiome to explore links between the urine level of hippurate, measures of the gut microbiome, dietary fat and markers of metabolic health. In mechanistic experiments with chronic subcutaneous infusion of hippurate to high-fat-diet-fed obese mice, we tested for causality between hippurate and metabolic phenotypes. RESULTS: In the human study, we showed that urine hippurate positively associates with microbial gene richness and functional modules for microbial benzoate biosynthetic pathways, one of which is less prevalent in the Bacteroides 2 enterotype compared with Ruminococcaceae or Prevotella enterotypes. Through dietary stratification, we identify a subset of study participants consuming a diet rich in saturated fat in which urine hippurate concentration, independently of gene richness, accounts for links with metabolic health. In the high-fat-fed mice experiments, we demonstrate causality through chronic infusion of hippurate (20 nmol/day) resulting in improved glucose tolerance and enhanced insulin secretion. CONCLUSION: Our human and experimental studies show that a high urine hippurate concentration is a general marker of metabolic health, and in the context of obesity induced by high-fat diets, hippurate contributes to metabolic improvements, highlighting its potential as a mediator of metabolic health.
Hoyles L, Mayneris-Perxachs J, Cardellini M, et al., 2021, Iron status influences non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obesity through the gut microbiome, Microbiome, Vol: 9, Pages: 1-18, ISSN: 2049-2618
Background: The gut microbiome and iron status are known to play a role in the pathophysiology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), although their complex interaction remains unclear.Results: Here, we applied an integrative systems medicine approach (faecal metagenomics, plasma and urine metabolomics, hepatic transcriptomics) in 2 well-characterised human cohorts of subjects with obesity (discovery n = 49 and validation n = 628) and an independent cohort formed by both individuals with and without obesity (n = 130), combined with in vitro and animal models. Serum ferritin levels, as a markers of liver iron stores, were positively associated with liver fat accumulation in parallel with lower gut microbial gene richness, composition and functionality. Specifically, ferritin had strong negative associations with the Pasteurellaceae, Leuconostocaceae and Micrococcaea families. It also had consistent negative associations with several Veillonella, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species, but positive associations with Bacteroides and Prevotella spp. Notably, the ferritin-associated bacterial families had a strong correlation with iron-related liver genes. In addition, several bacterial functions related to iron metabolism (transport, chelation, heme and siderophore biosynthesis) and NAFLD (fatty acid and glutathione biosynthesis) were also associated with the host serum ferritin levels. This iron-related microbiome signature was linked to a transcriptomic and metabolomic signature associated to the degree of liver fat accumulation through hepatic glucose metabolism. In particular, we found a consistent association among serum ferritin, Pasteurellaceae and Micrococcacea families, bacterial functions involved in histidine transport, the host circulating histidine levels and the liver expression of GYS2 and SEC24B. Serum ferritin was also related to bacterial glycine transporters, the host glycine serum levels and the liver expression of glycine transporters. The
Letertre MPM, Myridakis A, Whiley L, et al., 2021, A targeted ultra performance liquid chromatography - Tandem mass spectrometric assay for tyrosine and metabolites in urine and plasma: Application to the effects of antibiotics on mice, JOURNAL OF CHROMATOGRAPHY B-ANALYTICAL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE BIOMEDICAL AND LIFE SCIENCES, Vol: 1164, ISSN: 1570-0232
Giovanni SD, serger E, Chadwick J, et al., 2020, The intermittent fasting-dependent gut microbial metabolite indole-3 propionate promotes nerve regeneration and recovery after injury
<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title> <jats:p>The regenerative potential of mammalian peripheral nervous system (PNS) neurons after injury is critically limited by their slow axonal regenerative rate<jats:sup>1</jats:sup>. Since a delayed target re-innervation leads to irreversible loss of function of target organs<jats:sup>2</jats:sup>, accelerated axonal regeneration is required to enhance functional outcomes following injury. Regenerative ability is influenced by both injury-dependent and injury-independent mechanisms<jats:sup>3</jats:sup>. Among the latter, environmental factors such as exercise and environmental enrichment have been shown to affect signalling pathways that promote axonal regeneration<jats:sup>4</jats:sup>. Several of these pathways, including modifications in gene transcription and protein synthesis, mitochondrial metabolism and release of neurotrophins, can be activated by intermittent fasting (IF)<jats:sup>5,6</jats:sup>. IF has in turn been shown to increase synaptic plasticity<jats:sup>7,8</jats:sup> and neurogenesis<jats:sup>9</jats:sup>, partially sharing molecular mechanisms with axonal regeneration. However, whether IF influences the axonal regenerative ability remains to be investigated. Here we show that IF promotes axonal regeneration after sciatic nerve crush in the mouse via an unexpected mechanism that relies upon the gram + gut microbiome and an increase of the gut bacteria-derived metabolite indole-3-propionic acid (IPA) in the serum. IPA production by <jats:italic>Clostridium sporogenes</jats:italic> is required for efficient axonal regeneration, and delivery of IPA after sciatic injury significantly enhances axonal regeneration, accelerating recovery of sensory function. Mechanistically, RNA sequencing analysis from sciatic dorsal root ganglia suggested a role for neutrophil chemotaxis in the IPA-d
Molinaro A, Bel Lassen P, Henricsson M, et al., 2020, Imidazole propionate is increased in diabetes and associated with dietary patterns and altered microbial ecology, NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2041-1723
Nalpas N, Hoyles L, Anselm V, et al., 2020, An integrated workflow for enhanced taxonomic and functional coverage of the mouse faecal metaproteome, Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
The intestinal microbiota plays a key role in shaping host homeostasis by regulating metabolism, immune responses and behaviour. Its dysregulation has been associated with metabolic, immune and neuropsychiatric disorders and is accompanied by changes in bacterial metabolic regulation. Although proteomics is well suited for analysis of individual microbes, metaproteomics of faecal samples is challenging due to the physical structure of the sample, presence of contaminating host proteins and coexistence of hundreds of species. Furthermore, there is a lack of consensus regarding preparation of faecal samples, as well as downstream bioinformatic analyses following metaproteomic data acquisition. Here we assess sample preparation and data analysis strategies applied to mouse faeces in a typical LC-MS/MS metaproteomic experiment. We show that low speed centrifugation (LSC) of faecal samples leads to high protein identification rates and a balanced taxonomic representation. During database search, protein sequence databases derived from matched mouse faecal metagenomes provided up to four times more MS/MS identifications compared to other database construction strategies, while a two-step database search strategy led to accumulation of false positive protein identifications. Comparison of matching metaproteome and metagenome data revealed a positive correlation between protein and gene abundances, as well as significant overlap and correlation in taxonomic representation. Notably, nearly all functional categories of detected protein groups were differentially abundant in the metaproteome compared to what would be expected from the metagenome, highlighting the need to perform metaproteomics when studying complex microbiome samples.
Mayneris-Perxachs J, Puig J, Burcelin R, et al., 2020, The APOA1bp-SREBF-NOTCH axis is associated with reduced atherosclerosis risk in morbidly obese patients, CLINICAL NUTRITION, Vol: 39, Pages: 3408-3418, ISSN: 0261-5614
Vieira-Silva S, Falony G, Belda E, et al., 2020, Statin therapy is associated with lower prevalence of gut microbiota dysbiosis, NATURE, Vol: 581, Pages: 310-+, ISSN: 0028-0836
Bermudez-Martin P, Becker JAJ, Caramello N, et al., 2020, The microbial metabolite p-Cresol induces autistic-like behaviors in mice by remodeling the gut microbiota, Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
<jats:title>ABSTRACT</jats:title><jats:sec><jats:title>Background</jats:title><jats:p>Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are associated with dysregulation of the microbiota-gut-brain axis resulting in changes in microbiota composition as well as fecal, serum and urine levels of microbial metabolites. Yet, a causal relationship between dysregulation of the microbiota-gut-brain axis and ASD remains to be demonstrated. Here, we hypothesized that the microbial metabolite <jats:italic>p</jats:italic>-Cresol, which is more abundant in ASD patients compared to neurotypical individuals, could induce ASD-like behavior in mice.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Results</jats:title><jats:p>Mice exposed to <jats:italic>p</jats:italic>-Cresol for 4 weeks in drinking water presented social behavior deficits, stereotypies, and perseverative behaviors, but no changes in anxiety, locomotion, or cognition. Abnormal social behavior induced by <jats:italic>p</jats:italic>-Cresol was associated with decreased activity of central dopamine neurons involved in the social reward circuit. Further, <jats:italic>p</jats:italic>-Cresol induced changes in microbiota composition and social behavior deficits could be transferred from <jats:italic>p</jats:italic>-Cresol-treated mice to control mice by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). We also showed that mice transplanted with the microbiota of <jats:italic>p</jats:italic>-Cresol-treated mice exhibited increased fecal <jats:italic>p-</jats:italic>Cresol levels compared to mice transplanted with the microbiota of control mice and identified possible <jats:italic>p</jats:italic>-Cresol bacterial producers. Lastly, the microbiota of control mice rescued social interactions, dopamine neurons excitability and fecal <jats:italic>p</jats:italic>-Cresol levels when tran
Pean N, Le Lay A, Brial F, et al., 2020, Dominant gut Prevotella copri in gastrectomised non-obese diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats improves glucose homeostasis through enhanced FXR signalling, Diabetologia, Vol: 63, Pages: 1223-1235, ISSN: 0012-186X
Aims/hypothesisDrug and surgical-based therapies in type 2 diabetes are associated with altered gut microbiota architecture. Here we investigated the role of the gut microbiome in improved glucose homeostasis following bariatric surgery.MethodsWe carried out gut microbiome analyses in gastrectomised (by vertical sleeve gastrectomy [VSG]) rats of the Goto–Kakizaki (GK) non-obese model of spontaneously occurring type 2 diabetes, followed by physiological studies in the GK rat.ResultsVSG in the GK rat led to permanent improvement of glucose tolerance associated with minor changes in the gut microbiome, mostly characterised by significant enrichment of caecal Prevotella copri. Gut microbiota enrichment with P. copri in GK rats through permissive antibiotic treatment, inoculation of gut microbiota isolated from gastrectomised GK rats, and direct inoculation of P. copri, resulted in significant improvement of glucose tolerance, independent of changes in body weight. Plasma bile acids were increased in GK rats following inoculation with P. copri and P. copri-enriched microbiota from VSG-treated rats; the inoculated GK rats then showed increased liver glycogen and upregulated expression of Fxr (also known as Nr1h4), Srebf1c, Chrebp (also known as Mlxipl) and Il10 and downregulated expression of Cyp7a1.ConclusionsOur data underline the impact of intestinal P. copri on improved glucose homeostasis through enhanced bile acid metabolism and farnesoid X receptor (FXR) signalling, which may represent a promising opportunity for novel type 2 diabetes therapeutics.
Brial F, Alzaid F, Sonomura K, et al., 2020, The natural metabolite 4-cresol improves glucose homeostasis and enhances beta-cell function, Cell Reports, Vol: 30, Pages: 2306-2320, ISSN: 2211-1247
Exposure to natural metabolites contributes to the risk of cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs). Through metabolome profiling, we identify the inverse correlation between serum concentrations of 4-cresol and type 2 diabetes. The chronic administration of non-toxic doses of 4-cresol in complementary preclinical models of CMD reduces adiposity, glucose intolerance, and liver triglycerides, enhances insulin secretion in vivo, stimulates islet density and size, and pancreatic β-cell proliferation, and increases vascularization, suggesting activated islet enlargement. In vivo insulin sensitivity is not affected by 4-cresol. The incubation of mouse isolated islets with 4-cresol results in enhanced insulin secretion, insulin content, and β-cell proliferation of a magnitude similar to that induced by GLP-1. In both CMD models and isolated islets, 4-cresol is associated with the downregulated expression of the kinase DYRK1A, which may mediate its biological effects. Our findings identify 4-cresol as an effective regulator of β-cell function, which opens up perspectives for therapeutic applications in syndromes of insulin deficiency.
Brial F, Chilloux J, Nielsen T, et al., 2019, Microbiome determinants and physiological effects of the benzoate-hippurate microbial-host co-metabolic pathway, Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Objective Gut microbial products are involved in type 2 diabetes, obesity and insulin resistance. In particular, hippurate, a hepatic phase 2 conjugation product of microbial benzoate metabolism, has been associated with a healthy phenotype. This study aims to identify metagenomic determinants and test protective effects of hippurate.Design We profiled the urine metabolome by 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to derive associations with metagenomic sequences in 271 middle-aged Danish individuals to identify dietary patterns in which urine hippurate levels were associated with health benefits. We follow up with benzoate and hippurate infusion in mice to demonstrate causality on clinical phenotypes.Results In-depth analysis identifies that the urine hippurate concentration is associated with microbial gene richness, microbial functional redundancy as well as functional modules for microbial benzoate biosynthetic pathways across several enterotypes. Through dietary stratification, we identify a subset of study participants consuming a diet rich in saturated fat in which urine hippurate, independently of gene richness, accounts for links with metabolic health that we previously associated with gene richness. We then demonstrate causality in vivo through chronic subcutaneous infusions of hippurate or benzoate (20 nmol/day) resulting in improved glycemic control in mice fed a high-fat diet. Hippurate improved insulin secretion through increased β-cell mass and reduced liver inflammation and fibrosis, whereas benzoate treatment resulted in liver inflammation.Conclusion Our translational study shows that the benzoate-hippurate pathway brings a range of metabolic improvements in the context of high-fat diets, highlighting the potential of hippurate as a mediator of metabolic health.
Rodriguez-Martinez A, Ayala R, Posma JM, et al., 2019, pJRES Binning Algorithm (JBA): a new method to facilitate the recovery of metabolic information from pJRES 1H NMR spectra, Bioinformatics, Vol: 35, Pages: 1916-1922, ISSN: 1367-4803
Motivation: Data processing is a key bottleneck for 1H NMR-based metabolic profiling of complex biological mixtures, such as biofluids. These spectra typically contain several thousands of signals, corresponding to possibly few hundreds of metabolites. A number of binning-based methods have been proposed to reduce the dimensionality of 1D 1H NMR datasets, including statistical recoupling of variables (SRV). Here, we introduce a new binning method, named JBA ("pJRES Binning Algorithm"), which aims to extend the applicability of SRV to pJRES spectra. Results: The performance of JBA is comprehensively evaluated using 617 plasma 1H NMR spectra from the FGENTCARD cohort. The results presented here show that JBA exhibits higher sensitivity than SRV to detect peaks from low-abundance metabolites. In addition, JBA allows a more efficient removal of spectral variables corresponding to pure electronic noise, and this has a positive impact on multivariate model building. Availability: The algorithm is implemented using the MWASTools R/Bioconductor package. Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Abdul Rahim MBH, Chilloux J, Martinez-Gili L, et al., 2019, Diet-induced metabolic changes of the human gut microbiome: importance of short-chain fatty acids, methylamines and indoles, Acta Diabetologica, Vol: 56, Pages: 493-500, ISSN: 0940-5429
The human gut is a home for more than 100 trillion bacteria, far more than all other microbial populations resident on the body's surface. The human gut microbiome is considered as a microbial organ symbiotically operating within the host. It is a collection of different cell lineages that are capable of communicating with each other and the host and has an ability to undergo self-replication for its repair and maintenance. As the gut microbiota is involved in many host processes including growth and development, an imbalance in its ecological composition may lead to disease and dysfunction in the human. Gut microbial degradation of nutrients produces bioactive metabolites that bind target receptors, activating signalling cascades, and modulating host metabolism. This review covers current findings on the nutritional and pharmacological roles of selective gut microbial metabolites, short-chain fatty acids, methylamines and indoles, as well as discussing nutritional interventions to modulate the microbiome.
Neves AL, Rodriguez-Martinez A, Ayala R, et al., 2019, A network-based data-mining approach to investigate indole-related microbiota-host co-metabolism, Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:sec><jats:title>Motivation</jats:title><jats:p>Indoles have been shown to play a significant role in cardiometabolic disorders. While some individual bacterial species are known to produce indole-adducts, to our best knowledge no studies have made use of publicly available genome data to identify prokaryotes, specifically those associated with the human gut microbiota, contributing to the indole metabolic network.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Results</jats:title><jats:p>Here, we propose a computational strategy, comprising the integration of KEGG and BLAST, to identify prokaryote-specific metabolic reactions relevant for the production of indoles, as well as to predict new members of the human gut microbiota potentially involved in these reactions. By identifying relevant prokaryotic species for further validation studies<jats:italic>in vitro</jats:italic>, this strategy represents a useful approach for those interrogating the metabolism of other gut-derived microbial metabolites relevant to human health.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Availability</jats:title><jats:p>All R scripts and files (gut microbial dataset, FASTA protein sequences, BLASTP output files) are available from<jats:ext-link xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" ext-link-type="uri" xlink:href="https://github.com/AndreaRMICL/Microbial_networks">https://github.com/AndreaRMICL/Microbial_networks</jats:ext-link>.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Contact</jats:title><jats:p>ARM:<jats:email>firstname.lastname@example.org</jats:email>; LH:<jats:email>email@example.com</jats:email>.</jats:p></jats:sec>
Brial F, Le Lay A, Hedjazi L, et al., 2019, Systems genetics of hepatic metabolome reveals octopamine as a target for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease treatment, Scientific Reports, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2045-2322
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is often associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. To disentangle etiological relationships between these conditions and identify genetically-determined metabolites involved in NAFLD processes, we mapped 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomic and disease-related phenotypes in a mouse F2 cross derived from strains showing resistance (BALB/c) and increased susceptibility (129S6) to these diseases. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes identified diet responsive QTLs in F2 mice fed control or high fat diet (HFD). In HFD fed F2 mice we mapped on chromosome 18 a QTL regulating liver micro- and macrovesicular steatosis and inflammation, independently from glucose intolerance and adiposity, which was linked to chromosome 4. Linkage analysis of liver metabolomic profiling data identified a QTL for octopamine, which co-localised with the QTL for liver histopathology in the cross. Functional relationship between these two QTLs was validated in vivo in mice chronically treated with octopamine, which exhibited reduction in liver histopathology and metabolic benefits, underlining its role as a mechanistic biomarker of fatty liver with potential therapeutic applications.
Leboucher A, Pisani DF, Martinez-Gili L, et al., 2019, The translational regulator FMRP controls lipid and glucose metabolism in mice and humans, Molecular Metabolism, Vol: 21, Pages: 22-35, ISSN: 2212-8778
ObjectivesThe Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) is a widely expressed RNA-binding protein involved in translation regulation. Since the absence of FMRP leads to Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) and autism, FMRP has been extensively studied in brain. The functions of FMRP in peripheral organs and on metabolic homeostasis remain elusive; therefore, we sought to investigate the systemic consequences of its absence.MethodsUsing metabolomics, in vivo metabolic phenotyping of the Fmr1-KO FXS mouse model and in vitro approaches, we show that the absence of FMRP induced a metabolic shift towards enhanced glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, reduced adiposity, and increased β-adrenergic-driven lipolysis and lipid utilization.ResultsCombining proteomics and cellular assays, we highlight that FMRP loss increased hepatic protein synthesis and impacted pathways notably linked to lipid metabolism. Mapping metabolomic and proteomic phenotypes onto a signaling and metabolic network, we predicted that the coordinated metabolic response to FMRP loss was mediated by dysregulation in the abundances of specific hepatic proteins. We experimentally validated these predictions, demonstrating that the translational regulator FMRP associates with a subset of mRNAs involved in lipid metabolism. Finally, we highlight that FXS patients mirror metabolic variations observed in Fmr1-KO mice with reduced circulating glucose and insulin and increased free fatty acids.ConclusionsLoss of FMRP results in a widespread coordinated systemic response that notably involves upregulation of protein translation in the liver, increased utilization of lipids, and significant changes in metabolic homeostasis. Our study unravels metabolic phenotypes in FXS and further supports the importance of translational regulation in the homeostatic control of systemic metabolism.
Dao MC, Sokolovska N, Brazeilles R, et al., 2019, A data integration multi-omics approach to study calorie restriction-induced changes in insulin sensitivity, Frontiers in Physiology, Vol: 9, ISSN: 1664-042X
Background: The mechanisms responsible for calorie restriction (CR)-induced improvement in insulin sensitivity (IS) have not been fully elucidated. Greater insight can be achieved through deep biological phenotyping of subjects undergoing CR, and integration of big data.Materials and Methods: An integrative approach was applied to investigate associations between change in IS and factors from host, microbiota, and lifestyle after a 6-week CR period in 27 overweight or obese adults (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01314690). Partial least squares regression was used to determine associations of change (week 6 – baseline) between IS markers and lifestyle factors (diet and physical activity), subcutaneous adipose tissue (sAT) gene expression, metabolomics of serum, urine and feces, and gut microbiota composition. ScaleNet, a network learning approach based on spectral consensus strategy (SCS, developed by us) was used for reconstruction of biological networks.Results: A spectrum of variables from lifestyle factors (10 nutrients), gut microbiota (10 metagenomics species), and host multi-omics (metabolic features: 84 from serum, 73 from urine, and 131 from feces; and 257 sAT gene probes) most associated with IS were identified. Biological network reconstruction using SCS, highlighted links between changes in IS, serum branched chain amino acids, sAT genes involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress and ubiquitination, and gut metagenomic species (MGS). Linear regression analysis to model how changes of select variables over the CR period contribute to changes in IS, showed greatest contributions from gut MGS and fiber intake.Conclusion: This work has enhanced previous knowledge on links between host glucose homeostasis, lifestyle factors and the gut microbiota, and has identified potential biomarkers that may be used in future studies to predict and improve individual response to weight-loss interventions. Furthermore, this is the first study showing integration of the wide ra
Zalloua P, Kadar H, Hariri E, et al., 2019, Untargeted mass spectrometry lipidomics identifies correlation between serum sphingomyelins and plasma cholesterol, Lipids in Health and Disease, Vol: 18, ISSN: 1476-511X
BackgroundLipoproteins are major players in the development and progression of atherosclerotic plaques leading to coronary stenosis and myocardial infarction. Epidemiological, genetic and experimental observations have implicated the association of sphingolipids and intermediates of sphingolipid synthesis in atherosclerosis. We aimed to investigate relationships between quantitative changes in serum sphingolipids, the regulation of the metabolism of lipoproteins (LDL, HDL), and endophenotypes of coronary artery disease (CAD).MethodsWe carried out untargeted liquid chromatography – mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) lipidomics of serum samples of subjects belonging to a cross-sectional study and recruited on the basis of absence or presence of angiographically-defined CAD, and extensively characterized for clinical and biochemical phenotypes.ResultsAmong the 2998 spectral features detected in the serum samples, 1328 metabolic features were significantly correlated with at least one of the clinical or biochemical phenotypes measured in the cohort. We found evidence of significant associations between 34 metabolite signals, corresponding to a set of sphingomyelins, and serum HDL cholesterol. Many of these metabolite associations were also observed with serum LDL and total cholesterol levels but not as much with serum triglycerides.ConclusionAmong patients with CAD, sphingolipids in the form of sphingomyelins are directly correlated with serum levels of lipoproteins and total cholesterol. Results from this study support the fundamental role of sphingolipids in modulating lipid serum levels, highlighting the importance to identify novel targets in the sphingolipid metabolic pathway for anti-atherogenic therapies.
Brial F, Le Lay A, Dumas M-E, et al., 2018, Implication of gut microbiota metabolites in cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, Vol: 75, Pages: 3977-3990, ISSN: 1420-682X
Evidence from the literature keeps highlighting the impact of mutualistic bacterial communities of the gut microbiota on human health. The gut microbita is a complex ecosystem of symbiotic bacteria which contributes to mammalian host biology by processing, otherwise, indigestible nutrients, supplying essential metabolites, and contributing to modulate its immune system. Advances in sequencing technologies have enabled structural analysis of the human gut microbiota and allowed detection of changes in gut bacterial composition in several common diseases, including cardiometabolic disorders. Biological signals sent by the gut microbiota to the host, including microbial metabolites and pro-inflammatory molecules, mediate microbiome–host genome cross-talk. This rapidly expanding line of research can identify disease-causing and disease-predictive microbial metabolite biomarkers, which can be translated into novel biodiagnostic tests, dietary supplements, and nutritional interventions for personalized therapeutic developments in common diseases. Here, we review results from the most significant studies dealing with the association of products from the gut microbial metabolism with cardiometabolic disorders. We underline the importance of these postbiotic biomarkers in the diagnosis and treatment of human disorders.
Brial F, Alzaid F, Sonomura K, et al., 2018, The Microbial Metabolite 4-Cresol Improves Glucose Homeostasis and Enhances β-Cell Function
<jats:title>SUMMARY</jats:title><jats:p>Gut microbiota changes are associated with increased risk of Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. Through serum metabolome profiling in patients with cardiometabolic disease (CMD) we identified significant inverse correlation between the microbial metabolite 4-cresol and T2D. Chronic administration of non toxic dose of 4-cresol in two complementary preclinical models of CMD reduced adiposity, glucose intolerance and liver triglycerides, and enhanced insulin secretion <jats:italic>in vivo</jats:italic>, which may be explained by markedly increased pancreas weight, augmented islet density and size, and enhanced vascularisation suggesting activated islet neogenesis. Incubation of isolated islets with 4-cresol enhanced insulin secretion, insulin content and cell proliferation. In both CMD models 4-cresol treatment <jats:italic>in vivo</jats:italic> was associated with altered expression of SIRT1 and the kinase DYRK1A, which may contribute to mediate its biological effects. Our findings identify 4-cresol as an effective regulator of β-cell function and T2D endophenotypes, which opens therapeutic perspectives in syndromes of insulin deficiency.</jats:p>
Cardellini M, Ballanti M, Davato F, et al., 2018, 2-hydroxycaproate predicts cardiovascular mortality in patients with atherosclerotic disease, ATHEROSCLEROSIS, Vol: 277, Pages: 179-185, ISSN: 0021-9150
Hoyles L, Fernandez-Real J-M, Federici M, et al., 2018, Publisher Correction: Molecular phenomics and metagenomics of hepatic steatosis in non-diabetic obese women, Nature Medicine, Vol: 24, Pages: 1628-1628, ISSN: 1078-8956
In the version of this article originally published, the received date was missing. It should have been listed as 2 January 2018. The error has been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of this article.
Dumas M-E, Chilloux J, Myridakis A, et al., 2018, Microbiome inhibition of IRAK-4 by trimethylamine mediates metabolic and immune benefits in high fat diet-induced insulin resistance, 54th Annual Meeting of the European-Association-for-the-Study-of-Diabetes (EASD), Publisher: SPRINGER, Pages: S267-S268, ISSN: 0012-186X
Hoyles L, Fernández-Real J-M, Federici M, et al., 2018, Molecular phenomics and metagenomics of hepatic steatosis in non-diabetic obese women., Nat Med, Vol: 24, Pages: 1070-1080
Hepatic steatosis is a multifactorial condition that is often observed in obese patients and is a prelude to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Here, we combine shotgun sequencing of fecal metagenomes with molecular phenomics (hepatic transcriptome and plasma and urine metabolomes) in two well-characterized cohorts of morbidly obese women recruited to the FLORINASH study. We reveal molecular networks linking the gut microbiome and the host phenome to hepatic steatosis. Patients with steatosis have low microbial gene richness and increased genetic potential for the processing of dietary lipids and endotoxin biosynthesis (notably from Proteobacteria), hepatic inflammation and dysregulation of aromatic and branched-chain amino acid metabolism. We demonstrated that fecal microbiota transplants and chronic treatment with phenylacetic acid, a microbial product of aromatic amino acid metabolism, successfully trigger steatosis and branched-chain amino acid metabolism. Molecular phenomic signatures were predictive (area under the curve = 87%) and consistent with the gut microbiome having an effect on the steatosis phenome (>75% shared variation) and, therefore, actionable via microbiome-based therapies.
Dumas M, 2018, Gordon Research Conference on Metabolomics and Human Health, Gordon Research Conference on Metabolomics and Human Health
Hoyles L, Jiménez-Pranteda MJ, Chilloux J, et al., 2018, Metabolic retroconversion of trimethylamine N-oxide and the gut microbiota, Microbiome, Vol: 6, ISSN: 2049-2618
Background:The dietary methylamines choline, carnitine, and phosphatidylcholine are used by the gut microbiota to produce a range of metabolites, including trimethylamine (TMA). However, little is known about the use of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) by this consortium of microbes.Results:A feeding study using deuterated TMAO in C57BL6/J mice demonstrated microbial conversion of TMAO to TMA, with uptake of TMA into the bloodstream and its conversion to TMAO. Microbial activity necessary to convert TMAO to TMA was suppressed in antibiotic-treated mice, with deuterated TMAO being taken up directly into the bloodstream. In batch-culture fermentation systems inoculated with human faeces, growth of Enterobacteriaceae was stimulated in the presence of TMAO. Human-derived faecal and caecal bacteria (n = 66 isolates) were screened on solid and liquid media for their ability to use TMAO, with metabolites in spent media analysed by 1H-NMR. As with the in vitro fermentation experiments, TMAO stimulated the growth of Enterobacteriaceae; these bacteria produced most TMA from TMAO. Caecal/small intestinal isolates of Escherichia coli produced more TMA from TMAO than their faecal counterparts. Lactic acid bacteria produced increased amounts of lactate when grown in the presence of TMAO but did not produce large amounts of TMA. Clostridia (sensu stricto), bifidobacteria, and coriobacteria were significantly correlated with TMA production in the mixed fermentation system but did not produce notable quantities of TMA from TMAO in pure culture.Conclusions:Reduction of TMAO by the gut microbiota (predominantly Enterobacteriaceae) to TMA followed by host uptake of TMA into the bloodstream from the intestine and its conversion back to TMAO by host hepatic enzymes is an example of metabolic retroconversion. TMAO influences microbial metabolism depending on isolation source and taxon of gut bacterium. Correlation of metabolomic and abundance data from mixed microbiota fermenta
Rodriguez-Martinez A, Ayala R, Posma J, et al., 2018, Exploring the Genetic Landscape of Metabolic Phenotypes with MetaboSignal, Current protocols in bioinformatics / editoral board, Andreas D. Baxevanis ... [et al.], ISSN: 1934-3396
Moreno-Navarrete JM, Serino M, Blasco-Baque V, et al., 2017, Gut microbiota interacts with markers of adipose tissue Browning, insulin action and plasma acetate in morbid obesity, Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, Vol: 62, ISSN: 1613-4125
SCOPE: To examine the potential relationship among gene expression markers of adipose tissue browning, gut microbiota, and insulin sensitivity in humans. METHODS AND RESULTS: Gut microbiota composition and gene markers of browning are analyzed in subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) adipose tissue from morbidly obese subjects (n = 34). Plasma acetate is measured through 1 H NMR and insulin sensitivity using euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Subjects with insulin resistance show an increase in the relative abundance (RA) of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria while RA of Firmicutes is decreased. In all subjects, Firmicutes RA is negatively correlated with HbA1c and fasting triglycerides, whereas Proteobacteria RA was negatively correlated with insulin sensitivity. Firmicutes RA is positively associated with markers of brown adipocytes (PRDM16, UCP1, and DIO2) in SAT, but not in VAT. Multivariate regression analysis indicates that Firmicutes RA contributes significantly to SAT PRDM16, UCP1, and DIO2 mRNA variance after controlling for age, BMI, HbA1c , or insulin sensitivity. Interestingly, Firmicutes RA, specifically those bacteria belonging to the Ruminococcaceae family, is positively associated with plasma acetate levels, which are also linked to SAT PRDM16 mRNA and insulin sensitivity. CONCLUSION: Gut microbiota composition is linked to adipose tissue browning and insulin action in morbidly obese subjects, possibly through circulating acetate.
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