Imperial College London

DrMatthewGrech-Sollars

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Surgery & Cancer

Honorary Senior Lecturer
 
 
 
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m.grech-sollars

 
 
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ICTEM buildingHammersmith Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

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22 results found

Plaha P, Camp S, Cook J, McCulloch P, Voets N, Ma R, Taphoorn MJB, Dirven L, Grech-Sollars M, Watts C, Bulbeck H, Jenkinson MD, Williams M, Lim A, Dixon L, Price SJ, Ashkan K, Apostolopoulos V, Barber VS, Taylor A, FUTURE-GB collaborators, Nandi Det al., 2022, FUTURE-GB: functional and ultrasound-guided resection of glioblastoma - a two-stage randomised control trial., BMJ Open, Vol: 12

INTRODUCTION: Surgery remains the mainstay for treatment of primary glioblastoma, followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Current standard of care during surgery involves the intraoperative use of image-guidance and 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA). There are multiple other surgical adjuncts available to the neuro-oncology surgeon. However, access to, and usage of these varies widely in UK practice, with limited evidence of their use. The aim of this trial is to investigate whether the addition of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and intraoperative ultrasound (iUS) to the standard of care surgery (intraoperative neuronavigation and 5-ALA) impacts on deterioration free survival (DFS). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a two-stage, randomised control trial (RCT) consisting of an initial non-randomised cohort study based on the principles of the IDEAL (Idea, Development, Exploration, Assessment and Long-term follow-up) stage-IIb format, followed by a statistically powered randomised trial comparing the addition of DTI and iUS to the standard of care surgery. A total of 357 patients will be recruited for the RCT. The primary outcome is DFS, defined as the time to either 10-point deterioration in health-related quality of life scores from baseline, without subsequent reversal, progressive disease or death. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The trial was registered in the Integrated Research Application System (Ref: 264482) and approved by a UK research and ethics committee (Ref: 20/LO/0840). Results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. Further dissemination to participants, patient groups and the wider medical community will use a range of approaches to maximise impact. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN38834571.

Journal article

Inglese M, Patel N, Linton-Reid K, Loreto F, Win Z, Perry R, Carswell C, Grech-Sollars M, Crum WR, Lu H, Malhotra PA, Aboagye Eet al., 2022, A predictive model using the mesoscopic architecture of the living brain to detect Alzheimer’s disease, Communications Medicine, Vol: 2, ISSN: 2730-664X

Background:Alzheimer’s disease, the most common cause of dementia, causes a progressive and irreversible deterioration of cognition that can sometimes be difficult to diagnose, leading to suboptimal patient care.Methods:We developed a predictive model that computes multi-regional statistical morpho-functional mesoscopic traits from T1-weighted MRI scans, with or without cognitive scores. For each patient, a biomarker called “Alzheimer’s Predictive Vector” (ApV) was derived using a two-stage least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO).Results:The ApV reliably discriminates between people with (ADrp) and without (nADrp) Alzheimer’s related pathologies (98% and 81% accuracy between ADrp - including the early form, mild cognitive impairment - and nADrp in internal and external hold-out test sets, respectively), without any a priori assumptions or need for neuroradiology reads. The new test is superior to standard hippocampal atrophy (26% accuracy) and cerebrospinal fluid beta amyloid measure (62% accuracy). A multiparametric analysis compared DTI-MRI derived fractional anisotropy, whose readout of neuronal loss agrees with ADrp phenotype, and SNPrs2075650 is significantly altered in patients with ADrp-like phenotype.Conclusions:This new data analytic method demonstrates potential for increasing accuracy of Alzheimer diagnosis.

Journal article

Inglese M, Patel N, Linton-Reid K, Loreto F, Win Z, Perry RJ, Carswell C, Grech-Sollars M, Crum WR, Lu H, Malhotra PA, Alzheimers Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, Aboagye EOet al., 2022, A predictive model using the mesoscopic architecture of the living brain to detect Alzheimer's disease., Commun Med (Lond), Vol: 2

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease, the most common cause of dementia, causes a progressive and irreversible deterioration of cognition that can sometimes be difficult to diagnose, leading to suboptimal patient care. METHODS: We developed a predictive model that computes multi-regional statistical morpho-functional mesoscopic traits from T1-weighted MRI scans, with or without cognitive scores. For each patient, a biomarker called "Alzheimer's Predictive Vector" (ApV) was derived using a two-stage least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO). RESULTS: The ApV reliably discriminates between people with (ADrp) and without (nADrp) Alzheimer's related pathologies (98% and 81% accuracy between ADrp - including the early form, mild cognitive impairment - and nADrp in internal and external hold-out test sets, respectively), without any a priori assumptions or need for neuroradiology reads. The new test is superior to standard hippocampal atrophy (26% accuracy) and cerebrospinal fluid beta amyloid measure (62% accuracy). A multiparametric analysis compared DTI-MRI derived fractional anisotropy, whose readout of neuronal loss agrees with ADrp phenotype, and SNPrs2075650 is significantly altered in patients with ADrp-like phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: This new data analytic method demonstrates potential for increasing accuracy of Alzheimer diagnosis.

Journal article

Dixon L, Lim A, Grech-Sollars M, Nandi D, Camp Set al., 2022, Intraoperative ultrasound in brain tumor surgery: A review and implementation guide, Neurosurgical Review, Vol: 45, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 0344-5607

Accurate and reliable intraoperative neuronavigation is crucial for achieving maximal safe resection of brain tumors. Intraoperative MRI (iMRI) has received significant attention as the next step in improving navigation. However, the immense cost and logistical challenge of iMRI precludes implementation in most centers worldwide. In comparison, intraoperative ultrasound (ioUS) is an affordable tool, easily incorporated into existing theatre infrastructure, and operative workflow. Historically, ultrasound has been perceived as difficult to learn and standardize, with poor, artifact-prone image quality. However, ioUS has dramatically evolved over the last decade, with vast improvements in image quality and well-integrated navigation tools. Advanced techniques, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), have also matured and moved from the research field into actual clinical use. In this review, we provide a comprehensive and pragmatic guide to ioUS. A suggested protocol to facilitate learning ioUS and improve standardization is provided, and an outline of common artifacts and methods to minimize them given. The review also includes an update of advanced techniques and how they can be incorporated into clinical practice.

Journal article

Statton BK, Smith J, Finnegan ME, Koerzdoerfer G, Quest RA, Grech-Sollars Met al., 2022, Temperature dependence, accuracy, and repeatability of T-1 and T-2 relaxation times for the ISMRM/NIST system phantom measured using MR fingerprinting, Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Vol: 87, Pages: 1446-1460, ISSN: 0740-3194

PurposeBefore MR fingerprinting (MRF) can be adopted clinically, the derived quantitative values must be proven accurate and repeatable over a range of T1 and T2 values and temperatures. Correct assessment of accuracy and precision as well as comparison between measurements can only be performed when temperature is either controlled or corrected for. The purpose of this study was to investigate the temperature dependence of T1 and T2 MRF values and evaluate the accuracy and repeatability of temperature-corrected relaxation values derived from a B1-corrected MRF–fast imaging with steady-state precession implementation using 2 different dictionary sizes.MethodsThe International Society of MR in Medicine/National Institute of Standards and Technology phantom was scanned using an MRF sequence of 2 different lengths, a variable flip angle T1, and a multi-echo spin echo T2 at 14 temperatures ranging from 15°C to 28°C and investigated with a linear regression model. Temperature-corrected accuracy was evaluated by correlating T1 and T2 times from each MRF dictionary with reference values. Repeatability was assessed using the coefficient of variation, with measurements taken over 30 separate sessions.ResultsThere was a statistically significant fit of the model for MRF-derived T1 and T2 and temperature (p < 0.05) for all the spheres with a T1 > 500 ms. Both MRF methods showed a strong linear correlation with reference values for T1 (R2 = 0.996) and T2 (R2 = 0.982). MRF repeatability for T1 values was ≤1.4% and for T2 values was ≤3.4%.ConclusionMRF demonstrated relaxation times with a temperature dependence similar to that of conventional mapping methods. Temperature-corrected T1 and T2 values from both dictionaries showed adequate accuracy and excellent repeatability in this phantom study.

Journal article

Ding H, Velasco C, Ye H, Lindner T, Grech-Sollars M, OCallaghan J, Hiley C, Chouhan MD, Niendorf T, Koh D-M, Prieto C, Adeleke Set al., 2021, Current applications and future development of magnetic resonance fingerprinting in diagnosis, characterization, and response monitoring in cancer, Cancers, Vol: 13, Pages: 1-20, ISSN: 2072-6694

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has enabled non-invasive cancer diagnosis, monitoring, and management in common clinical settings. However, inadequate quantitative analyses in MRI continue to limit its full potential and these often have an impact on clinicians’ judgments. Magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) has recently been introduced to acquire multiple quantitative parameters simultaneously in a reasonable timeframe. Initial retrospective studies have demonstrated the feasibility of using MRF for various cancer characterizations. Further trials with larger cohorts are still needed to explore the repeatability and reproducibility of the data acquired by MRF. At the moment, technical difficulties such as undesirable processing time or lack of motion robustness are limiting further implementations of MRF in clinical oncology. This review summarises the latest findings and technology developments for the use of MRF in cancer management and suggests possible future implications of MRF in characterizing tumour heterogeneity and response assessment.

Journal article

Truong AH, Sharmanska V, Limback-Stanic C, Grech-Sollars Met al., 2020, Optimisation of deep learning methods for visualisation of tumour heterogeneity and brain tumour grading through digital pathology, Neuro-Oncology Advances, Vol: 2, ISSN: 2632-2498

BackgroundVariations in prognosis and treatment options for gliomas are dependent on tumour grading. When tissue is available for analysis, grade is established based on histological criteria. However, histopathological diagnosis is not always reliable or straight-forward due to tumour heterogeneity, sampling error and subjectivity, and hence there is great inter-observer variability in readings.MethodsWe trained convolutional neural network models to classify digital whole-slide histopathology images from The Cancer Genome Atlas. We tested a number of optimisation parameters.ResultsData augmentation did not improve model training, while smaller batch size helped to prevent overfitting and led to improved model performance. There was no significant difference in performance between a modular 2-class model and a single 3-class model system. The best models trained achieved a mean accuracy of 73% in classifying glioblastoma from other grades, and 53% between WHO grade II and III gliomas. A visualisation method was developed to convey the model output in a clinically relevant manner by overlaying colour-coded predictions over the original whole slide image.ConclusionsOur developed visualisation method reflects the clinical decision-making process by highlighting the intra-tumour heterogeneity and may be used in clinical setting to aid diagnosis. Explainable AI techniques may allow further evaluation of the model and underline areas for improvements such as biases. Due to intra-tumour heterogeneity, data annotation for training was imprecise, and hence performance was lower than expected. The models may be further improved by employing advanced data augmentation strategies and using more precise semi-automatic or manually labelled training data.

Journal article

Grech-Sollars M, Ordidge KL, Vaqas B, Davies C, Vaja V, Honeyfield L, Camp S, Towey D, Mayers H, Peterson D, O'Neill K, Roncaroli F, Barwick TD, Waldman ADet al., 2019, Imaging and tissue biomarkers of choline metabolism in diffuse adult glioma; 18F-fluoromethylcholine PET/CT, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and choline kinase α, Cancers, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-15, ISSN: 2072-6694

The cellular and molecular basis of choline uptake on PET imaging and MRS-visible choline containing compounds is not well understood. Choline kinase alpha (ChoKa) is an enzyme that phosphorylates choline, an essential step in membrane synthesis. We investigate choline metabolism through 18F-fluoromethylcholine (18F-FMC) PET, MRS and tissue ChoKa in human glioma. 14 patients with suspected diffuse glioma underwent multimodal 3T MRI and dynamic 18FFMC PET/CT prior to surgery. Co-registered PET and MRI data were used to target biopsies to regions of high and low choline signal, and immunohistochemistry for ChoKa expression was performed. 18F-FMC/PET differentiated WHO grade IV from grade II and III tumours, whereas MRS differentiated grade III/IV from grade II tumours. Tumoural 18F-FMC/PET uptake was higher than in normal-appearing white matter across all grades and markedly elevated within regions of contrast enhancement. 18F-FMC/PET correlated weakly with MRS Cho ratios. ChoKa expression on IHC was negative or weak in all but one GBM sample, and did not correlate with tumour grade or imaging choline markers. MRS and 18F-FMC/PET provide complimentary information on glioma choline metabolism. Tracer uptake is, however, potentially confounded by blood-brain barrier permeability. ChoKa overexpression does not appear to be a common feature in diffuse glioma.

Journal article

Inglese M, Katherine L O, Lesley H, Tara D B, Eric O A, Adam D W, Matthew G-Set al., 2019, Reliability of dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging data in primary brain tumours: a comparison of Tofts and shutter speed models, Neuroradiology, Vol: 61, Pages: 1375-1386, ISSN: 0028-3940

PurposeTo investigate the robustness of pharmacokinetic modelling of DCE-MRI brain tumourdata and to ascertain reliable perfusion parameters through a model selection processand a stability test.MethodsDCE-MRI data of 14 patients with primary brain tumours were analysed using the Toftsmodel (TM), the extended Tofts model (ETM), the shutter speed model (SSM) and theextended shutter speed model (ESSM). A no-effect model (NEM) was implemented toassess overfitting of data by the other models.For each lesion, the Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) was used to build a 3D modelselection map. The variability of each pharmacokinetic parameter extracted from thismap was assessed with a noise propagation procedure, resulting in voxel-wisedistributions of the coefficient of variation (CV).ResultsThe model selection map over all patients showed NEM had the best fit in 35.5% ofvoxels, followed by ETM (32%), TM (28.2%), SSM (4.3%) and ESSM (<0.1%). Inanalysing the reliability of Ktrans, when considering regions with a CV<20%, ≈25% ofvoxels were found to be stable across all patients. The remaining 75% of voxels wereconsidered unreliable.ConclusionsThe majority of studies quantifying DCE-MRI data in brain tumours only consider asingle model and whole-tumour statistics for the output parameters. Appropriate modelselection, considering tissue biology and its effects on blood brain barrier permeabilityand exchange conditions, together with an analysis on the reliability and stability of thecalculated parameters, is critical in processing robust brain tumour DCE-MRI data.

Journal article

Bangerter NK, Morrell G, Grech-Sollars M, 2019, Magnetic resonance imaging, Bioengineering Innovative Solutions for Cancer, Pages: 163-194, ISBN: 9780128138878

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a generally noninvasive imaging modality that is highly flexible and configurable and can achieve excellent contrast between soft tissues in the body. Since its invention and initial development in the 1970s, the number of MRI techniques available in the laboratory and the clinic has rapidly expanded. Acquisition parameters can now be customized to generate not only two- and three-dimensional images of anatomical structures in the body but also images showing metabolic activity, blood flow velocities, and even the diffusion characteristics of water molecules in tissue. Application of MRI techniques to the study of cancer is widespread, from detection, diagnosis, and characterization of disease, to tumor response to therapy. This chapter provides background on the fundamental concepts and physics that make magnetic resonance imaging possible and then builds on this framework to provide a description of the most common uses of MRI for cancer in both the clinic and the laboratory.

Book chapter

Morrison M, Islam S, Waldman A, Grech-Sollars Met al., 2018, A HISTOGRAM-BASED, BACK-PROJECTION METHOD FOR TREATMENT RESPONSE ASSESSMENT IN GLIOBLASTOMA USING MULTI B-VALUE ADVANCED DIFFUSION MRI, 23rd Annual Scientific Meeting and Education Day of the Society-for-Neuro-Oncology (SNO) / 3rd CNS Anticancer Drug Discovery and Development Conference, Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, Pages: 186-187, ISSN: 1522-8517

Conference paper

Grech-Sollars M, Inglese M, Ordidge K, Davies C, Vaja V, Vaqas B, Camp S, Peterson D, Honeyfield L, Khan S, O'Neill K, Roncaroli F, Aboagye E, Barwick T, Waldman Aet al., 2018, ASSOCIATION BETWEEN METABOLIC PARAMETERS FROM DYNAMIC 18FMC PET, PHARMACOKINETIC DCE-MRI PARAMETERS, MRS CHOLINE TO CREATINE RATIOS AND TISSUE IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY FOR CHOLINE KINASE ALPHA EXPRESSION IN HUMAN BRAIN GLIOMA, 23rd Annual Scientific Meeting and Education Day of the Society-for-Neuro-Oncology (SNO) / 3rd CNS Anticancer Drug Discovery and Development Conference, Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, Pages: 184-184, ISSN: 1522-8517

Conference paper

Grech-Sollars M, Zhou F-L, Waldman AD, Parker GJM, Hubbard Cristinacce PLet al., 2018, Stability and reproducibility of co-electrospun brain-mimicking phantoms for quality assurance of diffusion MRI sequences, NeuroImage, Vol: 181, Pages: 395-402, ISSN: 1053-8119

Grey and white matter mimicking phantoms are important for assessing variations in diffusion MR measures at a single time point and over an extended period of time. This work investigates the stability of brain-mimicking microfibre phantoms and reproducibility of their MR derived diffusion parameters. The microfibres were produced by co-electrospinning and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Grey matter and white matter phantoms were constructed from random and aligned microfibres, respectively. MR data were acquired from these phantoms over a period of 33 months. SEM images revealed that only small changes in fibre microstructure occurred over 30 months. The coefficient of variation in MR measurements across all time-points was between 1.6% and 3.4% for MD across all phantoms and FA in white matter phantoms. This was within the limits expected for intra-scanner variability, thereby confirming phantom stability over 33 months. These specialised diffusion phantoms may be used in a clinical environment for intra and inter-site quality assurance purposes, and for validation of quantitative diffusion biomarkers.

Journal article

Islam S, Morrison M, Grech-Sollars M, Orton M, Waldman Aet al., 2018, THE USE OF ADVANCED DIFFUSION MRI PARAMETERS IN THE ASSESSMENT OF TREATMENT RESPONSE IN GLIOBLASTOMA USING MULTI-B VALUE ACQUISITION AND A HISTOGRAM-BASED APPROACH, 23rd Annual Scientific Meeting and Education Day of the Society-for-Neuro-Oncology (SNO) / 3rd CNS Anticancer Drug Discovery and Development Conference, Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, Pages: 20-21, ISSN: 1522-8517

Conference paper

Grech-Sollars M, Inglese M, Ordidge K, Davies C, Vaja V, Vaqas B, Camp S, Peterson D, Honeyfield L, O'Neill K, Roncaroli F, Aboagye E, Barwick T, Waldman Aet al., 2018, ASSOCIATION BETWEEN METABOLIC PARAMETERS FROM DYNAMIC 18F-FLUOROMETHYLCHOLINE PET, PHARMACOKINETIC PARAMETERS FROM DCE-MRI, CHOLINE TO CREATINE RATIOS FROM MRS AND TISSUE IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY FOR CHOLINE KINASE ALPHA EXPRESSION IN HUMAN BRAIN GLIOMA, Meeting of the British-Neuro-Oncology-Society (BNOS), Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, Pages: 346-346, ISSN: 1522-8517

Conference paper

Inglese M, Honeyfield L, Aboagye E, Waldman AD, Grech-Sollars Met al., 2018, Comparison of the Tofts and the Shutter Speed Model for DCE-MRI in patients with Brain Glioma, 27th International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine

Conference paper

Grech-Sollars M, Vaqas B, Thompson G, Barwick T, Honeyfield L, O'Neill K, Waldman ADet al., 2017, An MRS- and PET-guided biopsy tool for intraoperative neuronavigational systems., J Neurosurg, Vol: 127, Pages: 812-818

OBJECTIVE Glioma heterogeneity and the limitations of conventional structural MRI for identifying aggressive tumor components can limit the reliability of stereotactic biopsy and, hence, tumor characterization, which is a hurdle for developing and selecting effective treatment strategies. In vivo MR spectroscopy (MRS) and PET enable noninvasive imaging of cellular metabolism relevant to proliferation and can detect regions of more highly active tumor. Here, the authors integrated presurgical PET and MRS with intraoperative neuronavigation to guide surgical biopsy and tumor sampling of brain gliomas with the aim of improving intraoperative tumor-tissue characterization and imaging biomarker validation. METHODS A novel intraoperative neuronavigation tool was developed as part of a study that aimed to sample high-choline tumor components identified by multivoxel MRS and 18F-methylcholine PET-CT. Spatially coregistered PET and MRS data were integrated into structural data sets and loaded onto an intraoperative neuronavigation system. High and low choline uptake/metabolite regions were represented as color-coded hollow spheres for targeted stereotactic biopsy and tumor sampling. RESULTS The neurosurgeons found the 3D spherical targets readily identifiable on the interactive neuronavigation system. In one case, areas of high mitotic activity were identified on the basis of high 18F-methylcholine uptake and elevated choline ratios found with MRS in an otherwise low-grade tumor, which revealed the possible use of this technique for tumor characterization. CONCLUSIONS These PET and MRI data can be combined and represented usefully for the surgeon in neuronavigation systems. This method enables neurosurgeons to sample tumor regions based on physiological and molecular imaging markers. The technique was applied for characterizing choline metabolism using MRS and 18F PET; however, this approach provides proof of principle for using different radionuclide tracers and other MRI m

Journal article

King MD, Grech-Sollars M, 2016, A Bayesian spatial random effects model characterisation of tumour heterogeneity implemented using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation, F1000 Research, Vol: 5, ISSN: 2046-1402

The focus of this study is the development of a statistical modelling procedure for characterisingintra-tumour heterogeneity, motivated by recent clinical literature indicating that a varietyof tumours exhibit a considerable degree of genetic spatial variability. A formal spatial statisticalmodel has been developed and used to characterise the structural heterogeneity of anumber of supratentorial primitive neuroecto-dermal tumours (PNETs), based on diffusionweightedmagnetic resonance imaging. Particular attention is paid to the spatial dependenceof diffusion close to the tumour boundary, in order to determine whether the data providestatistical evidence to support the proposition that water diffusivity in the boundary region ofsome tumours exhibits a deterministic dependence on distance from the boundary, in excessof an underlying random 2D spatial heterogeneity in diffusion. Tumour spatial heterogeneitymeasures were derived from the diffusion parameter estimates obtained using a Bayesianspatial random effects model. The analyses were implemented using Markov chain MonteCarlo (MCMC) simulation. Posterior predictive simulation was used to assess the adequacyof the statistical model. The main observations are that the previously reported relationshipbetween diffusion and boundary proximity remains observable and achieves statistical significanceafter adjusting for an underlying random 2D spatial heterogeneity in the diffusionmodel parameters. A comparison of the magnitude of the boundary-distance effect with theunderlying random 2D boundary heterogeneity suggests that both are important sources ofvariation in the vicinity of the boundary. No consistent pattern emerges from a comparison ofthe boundary and core spatial heterogeneity, with no indication of a consistently greater levelof heterogeneity in one region compared with the other. The results raise the possibility thatDWI might provide a surrogate marker of intra-tumour genetic regional heterogeneity, whichwould

Journal article

Grech-Sollars M, Hales PW, Miyazaki K, Raschke F, Rodriguez D, Wilson M, Gill SK, Banks T, Saunders DE, Clayden JD, Gwilliam MN, Barrick TR, Morgan PS, Davies NP, Rossiter J, Auer DP, Grundy R, Leach MO, Howe FA, Peet AC, Clark CAet al., 2015, Multi-centre reproducibility of diffusion MRI parameters for clinical sequences in the brain., NMR in Biomedicine, Vol: 28, Pages: 468-485, ISSN: 0952-3480

The purpose of this work was to assess the reproducibility of diffusion imaging, and in particular the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), intra-voxel incoherent motion (IVIM) parameters and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters, across multiple centres using clinically available protocols with limited harmonization between sequences. An ice-water phantom and nine healthy volunteers were scanned across fives centres on eight scanners (four Siemens 1.5T, four Philips 3T). The mean ADC, IVIM parameters (diffusion coefficient D and perfusion fraction f) and DTI parameters (mean diffusivity MD and fractional anisotropy FA), were measured in grey matter, white matter and specific brain sub-regions. A mixed effect model was used to measure the intra- and inter-scanner coefficient of variation (CV) for each of the five parameters. ADC, D, MD and FA had a good intra- and inter-scanner reproducibility in both grey and white matter, with a CV ranging between 1% and 7.4%; mean 2.6%. Other brain regions also showed high levels of reproducibility except for small structures such as the choroid plexus. The IVIM parameter f had a higher intra-scanner CV of 8.4% and inter-scanner CV of 24.8%. No major difference in the inter-scanner CV for ADC, D, MD and FA was observed when analysing the 1.5T and 3T scanners separately. ADC, D, MD and FA all showed good intra-scanner reproducibility, with the inter-scanner reproducibility being comparable or faring slightly worse, suggesting that using data from multiple scanners does not have an adverse effect compared with using data from the same scanner. The IVIM parameter f had a poorer inter-scanner CV when scanners of different field strengths were combined, and the parameter was also affected by the scan acquisition resolution. This study shows that the majority of diffusion MRI derived parameters are robust across 1.5T and 3T scanners and suitable for use in multi-centre clinical studies and trials.

Journal article

Grech-Sollars M, Saunders DE, Phipps KP, Kaur R, Paine SML, Jacques TS, Clayden JD, Clark CAet al., 2014, Challenges for the functional diffusion map in pediatric brain tumors, NEURO-ONCOLOGY, Vol: 16, Pages: 449-456, ISSN: 1522-8517

Journal article

Grech-Sollars M, Saunders DE, Phipps KP, Clayden JD, Clark CAet al., 2013, Response to "Reply to 'Survival analysis for apparent diffusion coefficient measures in children with embryonal brain tumors,' by Grech-Sollars et al", NEURO-ONCOLOGY, Vol: 15, Pages: 268-268, ISSN: 1522-8517

Journal article

Grech-Sollars M, Saunders DE, Phipps KP, Clayden JD, Clark CAet al., 2012, Survival analysis for apparent diffusion coefficient measures in children with embryonal brain tumours, NEURO-ONCOLOGY, Vol: 14, Pages: 1285-1293, ISSN: 1522-8517

Journal article

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