138 results found
Sarink D, Schock H, Johnson T, et al., 2017, Circulating RANKL and RANKL/OPG and Breast Cancer Risk by ER and PR Subtype: Results from the EPIC Cohort, CANCER PREVENTION RESEARCH, Vol: 10, Pages: 525-534, ISSN: 1940-6207
Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (RANK)-RANK ligand (RANKL) signaling promotes mammary tumor development in experimental models. Circulating concentrations of soluble RANKL (sRANKL) may influence breast cancer risk via activation of RANK signaling; this may be modulated by osteoprotegerin (OPG), the decoy receptor for RANKL. sRANKL and breast cancer risk by hormone receptor subtype has not previously been investigated. A case–control study was nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. This study included 1,976 incident invasive breast cancer cases [estrogen receptor positive (ER+), n = 1,598], matched 1:1 to controls. Women were pre- or postmenopausal at blood collection. Serum sRANKL was quantified using an ELISA, serum OPG using an electrochemiluminescent assay. Risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Associations between sRANKL and breast cancer risk differed by tumor hormone receptor status (Phet = 0.05). Higher concentrations of sRANKL were positively associated with risk of ER+ breast cancer [5th vs. 1st quintile RR 1.28 (95% CI, 1.01–1.63); Ptrend = 0.20], but not ER− disease. For both ER+ and estrogen and progesterone receptor positive (ER+PR+) breast cancer, results considering the sRANKL/OPG ratio were similar to those for sRANKL; we observed a suggestive inverse association between the ratio and ER−PR− disease [5th vs. 1st quintile RR = 0.60 (0.31–1.14); Ptrend = 0.03]. This study provides the first large-scale prospective data on circulating sRANKL and breast cancer. We observed limited evidence for an association between sRANKL and breast cancer risk.
Gunter MJ, Murphy N, Cross A, et al., 2017, Coffee drinking and mortality in 10 European countries: a multinational cohort Study, Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol: 167, Pages: 236-247, ISSN: 1539-3704
Background:The relationship between coffee consumption and mortality in diverse European populations with variable coffee preparation methods is unclear.Objective:To examine whether coffee consumption is associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality.Design:Prospective cohort study.Setting:10 European countries.Participants:521 330 persons enrolled in EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition).Measurements:Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. The association of coffee consumption with serum biomarkers of liver function, inflammation, and metabolic health was evaluated in the EPIC Biomarkers subcohort (n = 14 800).Results:During a mean follow-up of 16.4 years, 41 693 deaths occurred. Compared with nonconsumers, participants in the highest quartile of coffee consumption had statistically significantly lower all-cause mortality (men: HR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.82 to 0.95]; P for trend < 0.001; women: HR, 0.93 [CI, 0.87 to 0.98]; P for trend = 0.009). Inverse associations were also observed for digestive disease mortality for men (HR, 0.41 [CI, 0.32 to 0.54]; P for trend < 0.001) and women (HR, 0.60 [CI, 0.46 to 0.78]; P for trend < 0.001). Among women, there was a statistically significant inverse association of coffee drinking with circulatory disease mortality (HR, 0.78 [CI, 0.68 to 0.90]; P for trend < 0.001) and cerebrovascular disease mortality (HR, 0.70 [CI, 0.55 to 0.90]; P for trend = 0.002) and a positive association with ovarian cancer mortality (HR, 1.31 [CI, 1.07 to 1.61]; P for trend = 0.015). In the EPIC Biomarkers subcohort, higher coffee consumption was associated with lower serum alkaline phosphatase; alanine aminotransferase; aspartate aminotransferase; γ-glutamyltransferase; and, in women, C-reactive protein, lipoprotein(a), and glycated hemoglobin levels.Limitations:Reverse causality may have biased the findings; however, results did not differ afte
Merritt MA, Tzoulaki J, van den Brandt PA, et al., 2016, Nutrient-wide association study of 57 foods/nutrients and epithelial ovarian cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study and the Netherlands Cohort Study, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol: 103, Pages: 161-167, ISSN: 1938-3207
Background: Studies of the role of dietary factors in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) development have been limited, and no specific dietary factors have been consistently associated with EOC risk.Objective: We used a nutrient-wide association study approach to systematically test the association between dietary factors and invasive EOC risk while accounting for multiple hypothesis testing by using the false discovery rate and evaluated the findings in an independent cohort.Design: We assessed dietary intake amounts of 28 foods/food groups and 29 nutrients estimated by using dietary questionnaires in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study (n = 1095 cases). We selected 4 foods/nutrients that were statistically significantly associated with EOC risk when comparing the extreme quartiles of intake in the EPIC study (false discovery rate = 0.43) and evaluated these factors in the NLCS (Netherlands Cohort Study; n = 383 cases). Cox regression models were used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs.Results: None of the 4 dietary factors that were associated with EOC risk in the EPIC study (cholesterol, polyunsaturated and saturated fat, and bananas) were statistically significantly associated with EOC risk in the NLCS; however, in meta-analysis of the EPIC study and the NLCS, we observed a higher risk of EOC with a high than with a low intake of saturated fat (quartile 4 compared with quartile 1; overall HR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.41).Conclusion: In the meta-analysis of both studies, there was a higher risk of EOC with a high than with a low intake of saturated fat.
Yang HP, Meeker A, Guido R, et al., 2015, PTEN expression in benign human endometrial tissue and cancer in relation to endometrial cancer risk factors, CANCER CAUSES & CONTROL, Vol: 26, Pages: 1729-1736, ISSN: 0957-5243
Aleksandrova K, Bamia C, Drogan D, et al., 2015, The association of coffee intake with liver cancer risk is mediated by biomarkers of inflammation and hepatocellular injury: data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol: 102, Pages: 1498-1508, ISSN: 1938-3207
Background: Higher coffee intake has been purportedly related to a lower risk of liver cancer. However, it remains unclear whether this association may be accounted for by specific biological mechanisms.Objective: We aimed to evaluate the potential mediating roles of inflammatory, metabolic, liver injury, and iron metabolism biomarkers on the association between coffee intake and the primary form of liver cancer—hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).Design: We conducted a prospective nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition among 125 incident HCC cases matched to 250 controls using an incidence-density sampling procedure. The association of coffee intake with HCC risk was evaluated by using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression that accounted for smoking, alcohol consumption, hepatitis infection, and other established liver cancer risk factors. The mediating effects of 21 biomarkers were evaluated on the basis of percentage changes and associated 95% CIs in the estimated regression coefficients of models with and without adjustment for biomarkers individually and in combination.Results: The multivariable-adjusted RR of having ≥4 cups (600 mL) coffee/d compared with <2 cups (300 mL)/d was 0.25 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.62; P-trend = 0.006). A statistically significant attenuation of the association between coffee intake and HCC risk and thereby suspected mediation was confirmed for the inflammatory biomarker IL-6 and for the biomarkers of hepatocellular injury glutamate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and total bilirubin, which—in combination—attenuated the regression coefficients by 72% (95% CI: 7%, 239%). Of the investigated biomarkers, IL-6, AST, and GGT produced the highest change in the regression coefficients: 40%, 56%, and 60%, respectively.Conclusion: These data suggest that the inverse association of
Obon-Santacana M, Lujan-Barroso L, Travis RC, et al., 2015, Acrylamide and Glycidamide Hemoglobin Adducts and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: A Nested Case-Control Study in Nonsmoking Postmenopausal Women from the EPIC Cohort, Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention, Vol: 25, Pages: 127-134, ISSN: 1538-7755
Background: Acrylamide was classified as “probably carcinogenic to humans (group 2A)” by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the fourth cause of cancer mortality in women. Five epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between EOC risk and dietary acrylamide intake assessed using food frequency questionnaires, and one nested case–control study evaluated hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide (HbAA) and its metabolite glycidamide (HbGA) and EOC risk; the results of these studies were inconsistent.Methods: A nested case–control study in nonsmoking postmenopausal women (334 cases, 417 controls) was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between HbAA, HbGA, HbAA+HbGA, and HbGA/HbAA and EOC and invasive serous EOC risk.Results: No overall associations were observed between biomarkers of acrylamide exposure analyzed in quintiles and EOC risk; however, positive associations were observed between some middle quintiles of HbGA and HbAA+HbGA. Elevated but nonstatistically significant ORs for serous EOC were observed for HbGA and HbAA+HbGA (ORQ5vsQ1, 1.91; 95% CI, 0.96–3.81 and ORQ5vsQ1, 1.90; 95% CI, 0.94–3.83, respectively); however, no linear dose–response trends were observed.Conclusion: This EPIC nested case–control study failed to observe a clear association between biomarkers of acrylamide exposure and the risk of EOC or invasive serous EOC.Impact: It is unlikely that dietary acrylamide exposure increases ovarian cancer risk; however, additional studies with larger sample size should be performed to exclude any possible association with EOC risk.
Bešević J, Gunter MJ, Fortner RT, et al., 2015, Reproductive factors and epithelial ovarian cancer survival in the EPIC cohort study., British Journal of Cancer, Vol: 113, Pages: 1622-1631, ISSN: 1532-1827
BACKGROUND: Reproductive factors influence the risk of developing epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), but little is known about their association with survival. We tested whether prediagnostic reproductive factors influenced EOC-specific survival among 1025 invasive EOC cases identified in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, which included 521 330 total participants (approximately 370 000 women) aged 25-70 years at recruitment from 1992 to 2000. METHODS: Information on reproductive characteristics was collected at recruitment. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and multivariable models were adjusted for age and year of diagnosis, body mass index, tumour stage, smoking status and stratified by study centre. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 3.6 years (±3.2 s.d.) following EOC diagnosis, 511 (49.9%) of the 1025 women died from EOC. We observed a suggestive survival advantage in menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) users (ever vs never use, HR=0.80, 95% CI=0.62-1.03) and a significant survival benefit in long-term MHT users (⩾5 years use vs never use, HR=0.70, 95% CI=0.50-0.99, Ptrend=0.04). We observed similar results for MHT use when restricting to serous cases. Other reproductive factors, including parity, breastfeeding, oral contraceptive use and age at menarche or menopause, were not associated with EOC-specific mortality risk. CONCLUSIONS: Further studies are warranted to investigate the possible improvement in EOC survival in MHT users.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 10 November 2015; doi:10.1038/bjc.2015.377 www.bjcancer.com.
Ose J, Fortner RT, Schock H, et al., 2015, Insulin-like growth factor I and risk of epithelial invasive ovarian cancer by tumour characteristics: results from the EPIC cohort, British Journal of Cancer, Vol: 112, Pages: 162-166, ISSN: 1532-1827
Background: Prospective studies on insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk are inconclusive.Data suggest risk associations vary by tumour characteristics.Methods: We conducted a nested case–control study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)to evaluate IGF-I concentrations and EOC risk by tumour characteristics (n ¼ 565 cases). Multivariable conditional logisticregression models were used to estimate associations.Results: We observed no association between IGF-I and EOC overall or by tumour characteristics.Conclusions: In the largest prospective study to date was no association between IGF-I and EOC risk. Pre-diagnostic serumIGF-I concentrations may not influence EOC risk.
Key TJ, Appleby PN, Travis RC, et al., 2015, Carotenoids, retinol, tocopherols, and prostate cancer risk: pooled analysis of 15 studies, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION, Vol: 102, Pages: 1142-1157, ISSN: 0002-9165
Merritt MA, Riboli E, Murphy N, et al., 2015, Reproductive factors and risk of mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition; a cohort study, BMC Medicine, Vol: 13, ISSN: 1741-7015
Background: Reproductive events are associated with important physiologic changes yet little is known abouthow reproductive factors influence long term health in women. Our objective was to assess the relation ofreproductive characteristics with all-cause and cause-specific mortality risk.Methods: The analysis was performed in the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition prospectivecohort study that enrolled >500,000 women and men (1992-2000) who were residing in a giventown/geographic area in 10 European countries. The current analysis included 322,972 eligible women aged 25-70 years with 99% complete follow-up for vital status. We assessed reproductive characteristics reported at thestudy baseline including parity, age at the first birth, breastfeeding, infertility, oral contraceptive use, age atmenarche and menopause, total ovulatory years and history of oophorectomy/hysterectomy. Hazard ratios(HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for mortality were determined using Cox proportional hazardsregression models adjusted for menopausal status, body mass index, physical activity, education level andsmoking status/intensity and duration.Results: During a mean follow-up of 12.9 years, 14,383 deaths occurred. The HR (95% CI) for risk of all-causemortality was lower in parous versus nulliparous women, 0.80 (0.76-0.84), in women who had ever versusnever breastfed, 0.92 (0.87-0.97), in ever versus never users of oral contraceptives (among non-smokers), 0.90(0.86-0.95), and in women reporting a later age at menarche (≥15 years versus <12), 0.90 (0.85-0.96), P fortrend=0.038.Conclusions: Childbirth, breastfeeding, oral contraceptive use, and a later age at menarche were associated withbetter health outcomes. These findings may contribute to the development of improved strategies to promotebetter long term health in women.
Schmidt JA, Rinaldi S, Ferrari P, et al., 2015, Metabolic profiles of male meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans from the EPIC-Oxford cohort, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol: 102, Pages: 1518-1526, ISSN: 1938-3207
Background: Human metabolism is influenced by dietary factors and lifestyle, environmental, and genetic factors; thus, men who exclude some or all animal products from their diet might have different metabolic profiles than meat eaters.Objective: We aimed to investigate differences in concentrations of 118 circulating metabolites, including acylcarnitines, amino acids, biogenic amines, glycerophospholipids, hexose, and sphingolipids related to lipid, protein, and carbohydrate metabolism between male meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans from the Oxford arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.Design: In this cross-sectional study, concentrations of metabolites were measured by mass spectrometry in plasma from 379 men categorized according to their diet group. Differences in mean metabolite concentrations across diet groups were tested by using ANOVA, and a false discovery rate–controlling procedure was used to account for multiple testing. Principal component analysis was used to investigate patterns in metabolic profiles.Results: Concentrations of 79% of metabolites differed significantly by diet group. In the vast majority of these cases, vegans had the lowest concentration, whereas meat eaters most often had the highest concentrations of the acylcarnitines, glycerophospholipids, and sphingolipids, and fish eaters or vegetarians most often had the highest concentrations of the amino acids and a biogenic amine. A clear separation between patterns in the metabolic profiles of the 4 diet groups was seen, with vegans being noticeably different from the other groups because of lower concentrations of some glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids.Conclusions: Metabolic profiles in plasma could effectively differentiate between men from different habitual diet groups, especially vegan men compared with men who consume animal products. The difference in metabolic profiles was mainly explained by the lower concentrations of gl
Murphy N, Strickler HD, Stanczyk FZ, et al., 2015, A Prospective Evaluation of Endogenous Sex Hormone Levels and Colorectal Cancer Risk in Postmenopausal Women, Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol: 107, ISSN: 0027-8874
Background: Postmenopausal hormone therapy use has been associated with lower colorectal cancer risk in observational studies. However, the role of endogenous sex hormones in colorectal cancer development in postmenopausal women is uncertain.Methods: The relation of colorectal cancer risk with circulating levels of estradiol, estrone, free (bioactive) estradiol, progesterone and sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) was determined in a nested case-control study of 1203 postmenopausal women (401 case patients and 802 age and race/ethnicity–matched control patients) enrolled in the Women’s Health Initiative Clinical Trial (WHI-CT) who were not assigned to the estrogen-alone or combined estrogen plus progestin intervention groups. We used multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression models that included established colorectal cancer risk factors. All statistical tests were two-sided.Results: Comparing extreme quartiles, estrone (odds ratio [OR]q4-q1 = 0.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.28 to 0.68, P trend = .001), free estradiol (ORq4-q1 = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.27 to 0.69, P trend ≤ .0001), and total estradiol (ORq4-q1 = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.38 to 0.90, P trend = .08) were inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. SHBG levels were positively associated with colorectal cancer development (OR[q4-q1] = 2.30, 95% CI = 1.51 to 3.51, P trend ≤ .0001); this association strengthened after further adjustment for estradiol and estrone (ORq4-q1 = 2.50, 95% CI = 1.59 to 3.92, P trend < .0001). Progesterone was not associated with colorectal cancer risk.Conclusion: Endogenous estrogen levels were inversely, and SHBG levels positively, associated with colorectal cancer risk, even after control for several colorectal cancer risk factors. These results suggest that endogenous estrogens may confer protection against colorectal tumorigenesis among postmenopausal women.
Kong SY, Takeuchi M, Hyogo H, et al., 2015, The association between glyceraldehyde-derived advanced glycation end-products and colorectal cancer risk, Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention, Vol: 24, Pages: 1855-1863, ISSN: 1538-7755
Background: A large proportion of colorectal cancers are thought to be associated with unhealthy dietary and lifestyle exposures, particularly energy excess, obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperglycemia. It has been suggested that these processes stimulate the production of toxic reactive carbonyls from sugars such as glyceraldehyde. Glyceraldehyde contributes to the production of a group of compounds known as glyceraldehyde-derived advanced glycation end-products (glycer-AGEs), which may promote colorectal cancer through their proinflammatory and pro-oxidative properties. The objective of this study nested within a prospective cohort was to explore the association of circulating glycer-AGEs with risk of colorectal cancer.Methods: A total of 1,055 colorectal cancer cases (colon n = 659; rectal n = 396) were matchced (1:1) to control subjects. Circulating glycer-AGEs were measured by a competitive ELISA. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), adjusting for potential confounding factors, including smoking, alcohol, physical activity, body mass index, and diabetes status.Results: Elevated glycer-AGEs levels were not associated with colorectal cancer risk (highest vs. lowest quartile, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.82–1.49). Subgroup analyses showed possible divergence by anatomical subsites (OR for colon cancer, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.57–1.22; OR for rectal cancer, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.14–3.19; Pheterogeneity = 0.14).Conclusions: In this prospective study, circulating glycer-AGEs were not associated with risk of colon cancer, but showed a positive association with the risk of rectal cancer.Impact: Further research is needed to clarify the role of toxic products of carbohydrate metabolism and energy excess in colorectal cancer development.
Schmidt JA, Rinaldi S, Scalbert A, et al., 2015, Plasma concentrations and intakes of amino acids in male meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans: a cross-sectional analysis in the EPIC-Oxford cohort, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol: 70, Pages: 306-312, ISSN: 1476-5640
Background/Objectives: We aimed to investigate the differences in plasma concentrations and in intakes of amino acids between male meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans in the Oxford arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.Subjects/Methods: This cross-sectional analysis included 392 men, aged 30–49 years. Plasma amino acid concentrations were measured with a targeted metabolomic approach using mass spectrometry, and dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Differences between diet groups in mean plasma concentrations and intakes of amino acids were examined using analysis of variance, controlling for potential confounding factors and multiple testing.Results: In plasma, concentrations of 6 out of 21 amino acids varied significantly by diet group, with differences of −13% to +16% between meat-eaters and vegans. Concentrations of methionine, tryptophan and tyrosine were highest in fish-eaters and vegetarians, followed by meat-eaters, and lowest in vegans. A broadly similar pattern was seen for lysine, whereas alanine concentration was highest in fish-eaters and lowest in meat-eaters. For glycine, vegans had the highest concentration and meat-eaters the lowest. Intakes of all 18 dietary amino acids differed by diet group; for the majority of these, intake was highest in meat-eaters followed by fish-eaters, then vegetarians and lowest in vegans (up to 47% lower than in meat-eaters).Conclusions: Men belonging to different habitual diet groups have significantly different plasma concentrations of lysine, methionine, tryptophan, alanine, glycine and tyrosine. However, the differences in plasma concentrations were less marked than and did not necessarily mirror those seen for amino acid intakes.
Obon-Santacana M, Freisling H, Peeters PH, et al., 2015, Acrylamide and glycidamide hemoglobin adduct levels and endometrial cancer risk: A nested case-control study in nonsmoking postmenopausal women from the EPIC cohort, International Journal of Cancer, Vol: 138, Pages: 1129-1138, ISSN: 1097-0215
Acrylamide, classified in 1994 by IARC as “probably carcinogenic to humans,” was discovered in 2002 in some heat-treated, carbohydrate-rich foods. Four prospective studies have evaluated the association between dietary acrylamide intake and endometrial cancer (EC) risk with inconsistent results. The purpose of this nested case-control study, based on the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, was to evaluate, for the first time, the association between hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide (HbAA) and glycidamide (HbGA) and the risk of developing EC in non-smoking postmenopausal women. Hemoglobin adducts were measured in red blood cells by HPLC/MS/MS. Four exposure variables were evaluated: HbAA, HbGA, their sum (HbAA+HbGA), and their ratio (HbGA/HbAA). The association between hemoglobin adducts and EC was evaluated using unconditional multivariable logistic regression models, and included 383 EC cases (171 were type-I EC), and 385 controls. Exposure variables were analyzed in quintiles based on control distributions. None of the biomarker variables had an effect on overall EC (HRHbAA;Q5vsQ1: 0.84, 95%CI: 0.49–1.48; HRHbGA;Q5vsQ1: 0.94, 95%CI: 0.54–1.63) or type-I EC risk. Additionally, none of the subgroups investigated (BMI < 25 vs. ≥25 kg m−2, alcohol drinkers vs. never drinkers, oral contraceptive users vs. non-users) demonstrated effect measure modification. Hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide or glycidamide were not associated with EC or type-I EC risk in 768 nonsmoking postmenopausal women from the EPIC cohort.
Gunter MJ, Wang T, Cushman M, et al., 2015, Circulating Adipokines and Inflammatory Markers and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Risk, JNCI-JOURNAL OF THE NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE, Vol: 107, ISSN: 0027-8874
Nimptsch K, Aleksandrova K, Boeing H, et al., 2015, Plasma fetuin-A concentration, genetic variation in the AHSG gene and risk of colorectal cancer, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Vol: 137, Pages: 911-920, ISSN: 0020-7136
Brand JS, Onland-Moret NC, Eijkemans MJC, et al., 2015, Diabetes and Onset of Natural Menopause: Results From the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition EDITORIAL COMMENT, OBSTETRICAL & GYNECOLOGICAL SURVEY, Vol: 70, Pages: 507-508, ISSN: 0029-7828
Arem H, Park Y, Felix AS, et al., 2015, Reproductive and hormonal factors and mortality among women with colorectal cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, BRITISH JOURNAL OF CANCER, Vol: 113, Pages: 562-568, ISSN: 0007-0920
Assi N, Fages A, Vineis P, et al., 2015, A statistical framework to model the meeting-in-the-middle principle using metabolomic data: application to hepatocellular carcinoma in the EPIC study, Mutagenesis, Vol: 30, Pages: 743-753, ISSN: 1464-3804
Metabolomics is a potentially powerful tool for identification of biomarkers associated with lifestyle exposures and risk of various diseases. This is the rationale of the ‘meeting-in-the-middle’ concept, for which an analytical framework was developed in this study. In a nested case–control study on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC), serum 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra (800 MHz) were acquired for 114 cases and 222 matched controls. Through partial least square (PLS) analysis, 21 lifestyle variables (the ‘predictors’, including information on diet, anthropometry and clinical characteristics) were linked to a set of 285 metabolic variables (the ‘responses’). The three resulting scores were related to HCC risk by means of conditional logistic regressions. The first PLS factor was not associated with HCC risk. The second PLS metabolomic factor was positively associated with tyrosine and glucose, and was related to a significantly increased HCC risk with OR = 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.22, P = 0.02) for a 1SD change in the responses score, and a similar association was found for the corresponding lifestyle component of the factor. The third PLS lifestyle factor was associated with lifetime alcohol consumption, hepatitis and smoking, and had negative loadings on vegetables intake. Its metabolomic counterpart displayed positive loadings on ethanol, glutamate and phenylalanine. These factors were positively and statistically significantly associated with HCC risk, with 1.37 (1.05, 1.79, P = 0.02) and 1.22 (1.04, 1.44, P = 0.01), respectively. Evidence of mediation was found in both the second and third PLS factors, where the metabolomic signals mediated the relation between the lifestyle component and HCC outcome. This study devised a way to bridge lifestyle variables to HCC risk through NMR metabolomics data. This implementation of the ‘meet
Romaguera D, Ward H, Wark PA, et al., 2015, Pre-diagnostic concordance with the WCRF/AICR guidelines and survival in European colorectal cancer patients: a cohort study, BMC Medicine, Vol: 13, ISSN: 1741-7015
Ose J, Schock H, Tjonneland A, et al., 2015, Inflammatory markers and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer by tumor subtypes: the EPIC cohort, Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, Vol: 24, Pages: 951-961, ISSN: 1055-9965
Background: Evidence suggests an etiologic role for inflammation in ovarian carcinogenesis and heterogeneity between tumor subtypes and anthropometric indices. Prospective studies on circulating inflammatory markers and epithelial invasive ovarian cancer (EOC) have predominantly investigated overall risk; data characterizing risk by tumor characteristics (histology, grade, stage, dualistic model of ovarian carcinogenesis) and anthropometric indices are sparse.Methods: We conducted a nested case–control study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort to evaluate C-reactive protein (CRP), IL6, and EOC risk by tumor characteristics. A total of 754 eligible EOC cases were identified; two controls (n = 1,497) were matched per case. We used multivariable conditional logistic regression to assess associations.Results: CRP and IL6 were not associated with overall EOC risk. However, consistent with prior research, CRP >10 versus CRP ≤1 mg/L was associated with higher overall EOC risk [OR, 1.67 (1.03–2.70)]. We did not observe significant associations or heterogeneity in analyses by tumor characteristics. In analyses stratified by waist circumference, inflammatory markers were associated with higher risk among women with higher waist circumference; no association was observed for women with normal waist circumference [e.g., IL6: waist ≤80: ORlog2, 0.97 (0.81–1.16); waist >88: ORlog2, 1.78 (1.28–2.48), Pheterogeneity ≤ 0.01].Conclusions: Our data suggest that high CRP is associated with increased risk of overall EOC, and that IL6 and CRP may be associated with EOC risk among women with higher adiposity.Impact: Our data add to global evidence that ovarian carcinogenesis may be promoted by an inflammatory milieu.
Aleksandrova K, Chuang S-C, Boeing H, et al., 2015, A Prospective Study of the Immune System Activation Biomarker Neopterin and Colorectal Cancer Risk, JNCI-JOURNAL OF THE NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE, Vol: 107, ISSN: 0027-8874
Murphy N, Cross AJ, Huang W-Y, et al., 2015, A prospective evaluation of C-peptide levels and colorectal adenoma incidence, CANCER EPIDEMIOLOGY, Vol: 39, Pages: 160-165, ISSN: 1877-7821
Michailidou K, Beesley J, Lindstrom S, et al., 2015, Genome-wide association analysis of more than 120,000 individuals identifies 15 new susceptibility loci for breast cancer, NATURE GENETICS, Vol: 47, Pages: 373-U127, ISSN: 1061-4036
Li K, Huesing A, Fortner RT, et al., 2015, An epidemiologic risk prediction model for ovarian cancer in Europe: the EPIC study, BRITISH JOURNAL OF CANCER, Vol: 112, Pages: 1257-1265, ISSN: 0007-0920
Brand JS, Onland-Moret NC, Eijkemans MJC, et al., 2015, Diabetes and onset of natural menopause: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, Human Reproduction, Vol: 30, Pages: 1491-1498, ISSN: 1460-2350
STUDY QUESTION Do women who have diabetes before menopause have their menopause at an earlier age compared with women without diabetes?SUMMARY ANSWER Although there was no overall association between diabetes and age at menopause, our study suggests that early-onset diabetes may accelerate menopause.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Today, more women of childbearing age are being diagnosed with diabetes, but little is known about the impact of diabetes on reproductive health.STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION We investigated the impact of diabetes on age at natural menopause (ANM) in 258 898 women from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), enrolled between 1992 and 2000.PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Determinant and outcome information was obtained through questionnaires. Time-dependent Cox regression analyses were used to estimate the associations of diabetes and age at diabetes diagnosis with ANM, stratified by center and adjusted for age, smoking, reproductive and diabetes risk factors and with age from birth to menopause or censoring as the underlying time scale.MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Overall, no association between diabetes and ANM was found (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.94; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89–1.01). However, women with diabetes before the age of 20 years had an earlier menopause (10–20 years: HR = 1.43; 95% CI 1.02–2.01, <10 years: HR = 1.59; 95% CI 1.03–2.43) compared with non-diabetic women, whereas women with diabetes at age 50 years and older had a later menopause (HR = 0.81; 95% CI 0.70–0.95). None of the other age groups were associated with ANM.LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION Strengths of the study include the large sample size and the broad set of potential confounders measured. However, results may have been underestimated due to survival bias. We cannot be sure about the sequence of the events in women with a late age at diabetes, as both events then occur in a short pe
Nimptsch K, Aleksandrova K, Boeing H, et al., 2015, Association of CRP genetic variants with blood concentrations of C-reactive protein and colorectal cancer risk, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Vol: 136, Pages: 1181-1192, ISSN: 0020-7136
Zamora-Ros R, Rinaldi S, Biessy C, et al., 2015, Reproductive and menstrual factors and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma: The EPIC study, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Vol: 136, Pages: 1218-1227, ISSN: 0020-7136
Chajes V, Biessy C, Ferrari P, et al., 2015, Plasma Elaidic Acid Level as Biomarker of Industrial Trans Fatty Acids and Risk of Weight Change: Report from the EPIC Study, PLOS One, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1932-6203
BackgroundFew epidemiological studies have examined the association between dietary trans fatty acids and weight gain, and the evidence remains inconsistent. The main objective of the study was to investigate the prospective association between biomarker of industrial trans fatty acids and change in weight within the large study European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.MethodsBaseline plasma fatty acid concentrations were determined in a representative EPIC sample from the 23 participating EPIC centers. A total of 1,945 individuals were followed for a median of 4.9 years to monitor weight change. The association between elaidic acid level and percent change of weight was investigated using a multinomial logistic regression model, adjusted by length of follow-up, age, energy, alcohol, smoking status, physical activity, and region.ResultsIn women, doubling elaidic acid was associated with a decreased risk of weight loss (odds ratio (OR) = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.55-0.88, p = 0.002) and a trend was observed with an increased risk of weight gain during the 5-year follow-up (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 0.97-1.56, p = 0.082) (p-trend<.0001). In men, a trend was observed for doubling elaidic acid level and risk of weight loss (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.66-1.01, p = 0.062) while no significant association was found with risk of weight gain during the 5-year follow-up (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.88-1.33, p = 0.454). No association was found for saturated and cis-monounsaturated fatty acids.ConclusionsThese data suggest that a high intake of industrial trans fatty acids may decrease the risk of weight loss, particularly in women. Prevention of obesity should consider limiting the consumption of highly processed foods, the main source of industrially-produced trans fatty acids.
This data is extracted from the Web of Science and reproduced under a licence from Thomson Reuters. You may not copy or re-distribute this data in whole or in part without the written consent of the Science business of Thomson Reuters.