Imperial College London

Professor Myungshik Kim

Faculty of Natural SciencesDepartment of Physics

Chair in Theoretical Quantum Information Sciences
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 7754m.kim

 
 
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Location

 

1202Electrical EngineeringSouth Kensington Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
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256 results found

Ma Y, Pace MCC, Kim MS, 2022, Unifying the sorensen-molmer gate and the milburn gate with an optomechanical example, Physical Review A: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, Vol: 106, ISSN: 1050-2947

The Sørensen-Mølmer gate and Milburn gate are two geometric phase gates, generating nonlinear self-interaction of a target mode via its interaction with an auxiliary mechanical mode, in the continuous- and pulsed-interaction regimes, respectively. In this paper we aim at unifying the two gates by demonstrating that the Sørensen-Mølmer gate is the continuous limit of the Milburn gate, emphasizing the geometrical interpretation in the mechanical phase space. We explicitly consider imperfect gate parameters, focusing on relative errors in time for the Sørensen-Mølmer gate and in phase angle increment for the Milburn gate. We find that, although the purities of the final states increase for the two gates upon reducing the interaction strength together with traversing the mechanical phase space multiple times, the fidelities behave differently. We point out that the difference exists because the interaction strength depends on the relative error when taking the continuous limit from the pulsed regime, thereby unifying the mathematical framework of the two gates. We demonstrate this unification in the example of an optomechanical system, where mechanical dissipation is also considered. We highlight that the unified framework facilitates our method of deriving the dynamics of the continuous-interaction regime without solving differential equations.

Journal article

Chevalier H, Kwon H, Khosla KE, Pikovski I, Kim MSet al., 2022, Many-body probes for quantum features of spacetime, AVS Quantum Science, Vol: 4, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 2639-0213

Many theories of quantum gravity can be understood as imposing a minimum length scale the signatures of which can potentially be seen in precise table top experiments. In this work, we inspect the capacity for correlated many-body systems to probe non-classicalities of spacetime through modifications of the commutation relations. We find an analytic derivation of the dynamics for a single mode light field interacting with a single mechanical oscillator and with coupled oscillators to first order corrections to the commutation relations. Our solution is valid for any coupling function as we work out the full Magnus expansion. We numerically show that it is possible to have superquadratic scaling of a nonstandard phase term, arising from the modification to the commutation relations, with coupled mechanical oscillators.

Journal article

Thekkadath G, Sempere-Llagostera S, Bell B, Patel R, Kim M, Walmsley Iet al., 2022, Experimental demonstration of Gaussian boson sampling with displacement, PRX Quantum, Vol: 3, ISSN: 2691-3399

Gaussian boson sampling (GBS) is a quantum sampling task in which one has to draw samples from the photon-number distribution of a large-dimensional nonclassical squeezed state of light. In an effort to make this task intractable for a classical computer, experiments building GBS machines have mainly focused on increasing the dimensionality and squeezing strength of the nonclassical light. However, no experiment has yet demonstrated the ability to displace the squeezed state in phase space, which is generally required for practical applications of GBS. In this work, we build a GBS machine that achieves the displacement by injecting a laser beam alongside a two-mode squeezed vacuum state into a 15-mode interferometer. We focus on two new capabilities. Firstly, we use the displacement to reconstruct the multimode Gaussian state at the output of the interferometer. Our reconstruction technique is in situ and requires only three measurement settings regardless of the state dimension. Secondly, we study how the addition of classical laser light in our GBS machine affects the complexity of sampling its output photon statistics. We introduce and validate approximate semiclassical models that reduce the computational cost when a significant fraction of the detected light is classical.

Journal article

Song W, Lim Y, Jeong K, Ji Y-S, Lee J, Kim J, Kim MS, Bang Jet al., 2022, Quantum solvability of noisy linear problems by divide-and-conquer strategy, Quantum Science and Technology, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2058-9565

Noisy linear problems have been studied in various science and engineering disciplines. A class of 'hard' noisy linear problems can be formulated as follows: Given a matrix $\hat{A}$ and a vector b constructed using a finite set of samples, a hidden vector or structure involved in b is obtained by solving a noise-corrupted linear equation $\hat{A}\mathbf{x}\approx \mathbf{b}+\boldsymbol{\eta }$, where η is a noise vector that cannot be identified. For solving such a noisy linear problem, we consider a quantum algorithm based on a divide-and-conquer strategy, wherein a large core process is divided into smaller subprocesses. The algorithm appropriately reduces both the computational complexities and size of a quantum sample. More specifically, if a quantum computer can access a particular reduced form of the quantum samples, polynomial quantum-sample and time complexities are achieved in the main computation. The size of a quantum sample and its executing system can be reduced, e.g., from exponential to sub-exponential with respect to the problem length, which is better than other results we are aware. We analyse the noise model conditions for such a quantum advantage, and show when the divide-and-conquer strategy can be beneficial for quantum noisy linear problems.

Journal article

Tang H, Banchi L, Wang T-Y, Shang X-W, Tan X, Zhou W-H, Feng Z, Pal A, Li H, Hu C-Q, Kim MS, Jin X-Met al., 2022, Generating Haar-uniform randomness using stochastic quantum walks on a photonic chip, Physical Review Letters, Vol: 128, ISSN: 0031-9007

As random operations for quantum systems are intensively used in various quantum information tasks, a trustworthy measure of the randomness in quantum operations is highly demanded. The Haar measure of randomness is a useful tool with wide applications, such as boson sampling. Recently, a theoretical protocol was proposed to combine quantum control theory and driven stochastic quantum walks to generate Haar-uniform random operations. This opens up a promising route to converting classical randomness to quantum randomness. Here, we implement a two-dimensional stochastic quantum walk on the integrated photonic chip and demonstrate that the average of all distribution profiles converges to the even distribution when the evolution length increases, suggesting the 1-pad Haar-uniform randomness. We further show that our two-dimensional array outperforms the one-dimensional array of the same number of waveguide for the speed of convergence. Our Letter demonstrates a scalable and robust way to generate Haar-uniform randomness that can provide useful building blocks to boost future quantum information techniques.

Journal article

Kwon H, Mukherjee R, Kim MS, 2022, Reversing Lindblad dynamics via continuous Petz recovery map, Physical Review Letters, Vol: 128, Pages: 1-7, ISSN: 0031-9007

An important issue in developing quantum technology is that quantum states are so sensitive to noise. We propose a protocol that introduces reverse dynamics, in order to precisely control quantum systems against noise described by the Lindblad master equation. The reverse dynamics can be obtained by constructing the Petz recovery map in continuous time. By providing the exact form of the Hamiltonian and jump operators for the reverse dynamics, we explore the potential of utilizing the near-optimal recovery of the Petz map in controlling noisy quantum dynamics. While time-dependent dissipation engineering enables us to fully recover a single quantum trajectory, we also design a time-independent recovery protocol to protect encoded quantum information against decoherence. Our protocol can efficiently suppress only the noise part of dynamics thereby providing an effective unitary evolution of the quantum system.

Journal article

Ma Y, Guff T, Morley GW, Pikovski I, Kim MSet al., 2022, Limits on inference of gravitational entanglement, Physical Review Research, Vol: 4, Pages: 1-7, ISSN: 2643-1564

Combining gravity with quantum mechanics remains one of the biggest challenges of physics. In the past years, experiments with opto-mechanical systems have been proposed that may give indirect clues about the quantum nature of gravity. In a recent variation of such tests [D. Carney et al., Phys.Rev.X Quantum 2, 030330 (2021)], the authors ropose to gravitationally entangle an atom interferometer with a mesoscopic oscillator. The interaction results in periodic drops and revivals of the interferometeric visibility, which under specific assumptions indicate the gravitational generation of entanglement. Here we study semi-classical models of the atom interferometer that can reproduce the same effect. We show that the core signature – periodic collapses and revivals of the visibility – can appear if the atom is subject to a random unitary channel, including the casewhere the oscillator is fully classical and situations even without explicit modelling of the oscillator. We also show that the non-classicality of the oscillator vanishes unless the system is very close to its ground state, and even when the system is in the ground state, the non-classicality is limitedby the coupling strength. Our results thus indicate that deducing ntanglement from the proposed experiment is very challenging, since fulfilling and verifying the non-classicality assumptions is a significant challenge on its own right.

Journal article

Thekkadath GS, Bell BA, Patel RB, Kim MS, Walmsley IAet al., 2022, Measuring the joint spectral mode of photon pairs using intensity interferometry, Physical Review Letters, Vol: 128, Pages: 1-6, ISSN: 0031-9007

The ability to manipulate and measure the time-frequency structure of quantum light is useful for information processing and metrology. Measuring this structure is also important when developing quantum light sources with high modal purity that can interfere with other independent sources. Here, we present and experimentally demonstrate a scheme based on intensity interferometry to measure the joint spectral mode of photon pairs produced by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. We observe correlations in the spectral phase of the photons due to chirp in the pump. We show that our scheme can be combined with stimulated emission tomography to quickly measure their mode using bright classical light. Our scheme does not require phase stability, nonlinearities, or spectral shaping and thus is an experimentally simple way of measuring the modal structure of quantum light.

Journal article

Smith AWR, Khosla KE, Self CN, Kim MSet al., 2021, Qubit readout error mitigation with bit-flip averaging, Science Advances, Vol: 7, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 2375-2548

Quantum computers are becoming increasingly accessible, and may soonoutperform classical computers for useful tasks. However, qubit readout errorsremain a significant hurdle to running quantum algorithms on current devices.We present a scheme to more efficiently mitigate these errors on quantumhardware and numerically show that our method consistently gives advantage overprevious mitigation schemes. Our scheme removes biases in the readout errorsallowing a general error model to be built with far fewer calibrationmeasurements. Specifically, for reading out $n$-qubits we show a factor of$2^n$ reduction in the number of calibration measurements without sacrificingthe ability to compensate for correlated errors. Our approach can be combinedwith, and simplify, other mitigation methods allowing tractable mitigation evenfor large numbers of qubits.

Journal article

Ma Y, Kim MS, Stickler BA, 2021, Torque-free manipulation of nanoparticle rotations via embedded spins, Physical Review B: Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, Vol: 104, ISSN: 1098-0121

Spin angular momentum and mechanical rotation both contribute to the total angular momentum of rigid bodies, leading to spin-rotational coupling via the Einstein–de Haas and Barnett effects. Here, we show that the revolutions of symmetric nanorotors can be strongly affected by a small number of intrinsic spins. The resulting dynamics are observable with freely rotating nanodiamonds with embedded nitrogen-vacancy centers and persist for realistically shaped near-symmetric particles, opening the door to torque-free schemes to control their rotations at the quantum level.

Journal article

Haug T, Bharti K, Kim MS, 2021, Capacity and quantum geometry of parametrized quantum circuits, PRX Quantum, Vol: 2, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 2691-3399

To harness the potential of noisy intermediate-scale quantum devices, it is paramount to find the best type of circuits to run hybrid quantum-classical algorithms. Key candidates are parametrized quantum circuits that can be effectively implemented on current devices. Here, we evaluate the capacity and trainability of these circuits using the geometric structure of the parameter space via the effective quantum dimension, which reveals the expressive power of circuits in general as well as of particular initialization strategies. We assess the expressive power of various popular circuit types and find striking differences depending on the type of entangling gates used. Particular circuits are characterized by scaling laws in their expressiveness. We identify a transition in the quantum geometry of the parameter space, which leads to a decay of the quantum natural gradient for deep circuits. For shallow circuits, the quantum natural gradient can be orders of magnitude larger in value compared to the regular gradient; however, both of them can suffer from vanishing gradients. By tuning a fixed set of circuit parameters to randomized ones, we find a region where the circuit is expressive but does not suffer from barren plateaus, hinting at a good way to initialize circuits. We show an algorithm that prunes redundant parameters of a circuit without affecting its effective dimension. Our results enhance the understanding of parametrized quantum circuits and can be immediately applied to improve variational quantum algorithms.

Journal article

Vovrosh J, Khosla KE, Greenaway S, Self C, Kim MS, Knolle Jet al., 2021, Simple mitigation of global depolarizing errors in quantum simulations., Physical Review E: Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics, Vol: 104, Pages: 1-8, ISSN: 1539-3755

To get the best possible results from current quantum devices error mitigation is essential. In this work we present a simple but effective error mitigation technique based on the assumption that noise in a deep quantum circuit is well described by global depolarizing error channels. By measuring the errors directly on the device, we use an error model ansatz to infer error-free results from noisy data. We highlight the effectiveness of our mitigation via two examples of recent interest in quantum many-body physics: entanglement measurements and real-time dynamics of confinement in quantum spin chains. Our technique enables us to get quantitative results from the IBM quantum computers showing signatures of confinement, i.e., we are able to extract the meson masses of the confined excitations which were previously out of reach. Additionally, we show the applicability of this mitigation protocol in a wider setting with numerical simulations of more general tasks using a realistic error model. Our protocol is device-independent, simply implementable, and leads to large improvements in results if the global errors are well described by depolarization.

Journal article

Lee S-W, Im D-G, Kim Y-H, Nha H, Kim MSet al., 2021, Quantum teleportation is a reversal of quantum measurement, Physical Review Research, Vol: 3, Pages: 1-16, ISSN: 2643-1564

We introduce a generalized concept of quantum teleportation in the framework of quantum measurement and reversing operation. Our framework makes it possible to find an optimal protocol for quantum teleportation enabling a faithful transfer of unknown quantum states with maximum success probability up to the fundamental limit of the no-cloning theorem. Moreover, an optimized protocol in this generalized approach allows us to overcome noise in quantum channel beyond the reach of existing teleportation protocols without requiring extra qubit resources. Our proposed framework is applicable to multipartite quantum communications and primitive functionalities in scalable quantum architectures.

Journal article

Self CN, Khosla KE, Smith AWR, Sauvage F, Haynes PD, Knolle J, Mintert F, Kim MSet al., 2021, Variational quantum algorithm with information sharing, npj Quantum Information, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2056-6387

We introduce an optimisation method for variational quantum algorithms and experimentally demonstrate a 100-fold improvement in efficiency compared to naive implementations. The effectiveness of our approach is shown by obtaining multi-dimensional energy surfaces for small molecules and a spin model. Our method solves related variational problems in parallel by exploiting the global nature of Bayesian optimisation and sharing information between different optimisers. Parallelisation makes our method ideally suited to the next generation of variational problems with many physical degrees of freedom. This addresses a key challenge in scaling-up quantum algorithms towards demonstrating quantum advantage for problems of real-world interest.

Journal article

Stickler BA, Hornberger K, Kim MS, 2021, Quantum rotations of nanoparticles, NATURE REVIEWS PHYSICS, Vol: 3, Pages: 589-597

Journal article

Smith AWR, Gray J, Kim MS, 2021, Efficient quantum state sample tomography with basis-dependent neural networks, PRX Quantum, Vol: 2, Pages: 1-15, ISSN: 2691-3399

We use a metalearning neural-network approach to analyze data from a measured quantum state. Once our neural network has been trained, it can be used to efficiently sample measurements of the state in measurement bases not contained in the training data. These samples can be used to calculate expectation values and other useful quantities. We refer to this process as “state sample tomography.” We encode the state’s measurement outcome distributions using an efficiently parameterized generative neural network. This allows each stage in the tomography process to be performed efficiently even for large systems. Our scheme is demonstrated on recent IBM Quantum devices, producing a model for a six-qubit state’s measurement outcomes with a predictive accuracy (classical fidelity) greater than 95% for all test cases using only 100 random measurement settings as opposed to the 729 settings required for standard full tomography using local measurements. This reduction in the required number of measurements scales favorably, with training data in 200 measurement settings, yielding a predictive accuracy greater than 92% for a ten-qubit state where 59 049 settings are typically required for full local measurement-based quantum state tomography. A reduction in the number of measurements by a factor, in this case, of almost 600 could allow for estimations of expectation values and state fidelities in practicable times on current quantum devices.

Journal article

Toros M, Van De Kamp TW, Marshman RJ, Kim MS, Mazumdar A, Bose Set al., 2021, Relative acceleration noise mitigation for nanocrystal matter-wave interferometry: Applications to entangling masses via quantum gravity, Physical Review Special Topics: Physics Education Research, Vol: 3, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 1554-9178

Matter-wave interferometers with large momentum transfers, irrespective of specific implementations, will face a universal dephasing due to relative accelerations between the interferometric mass and the associated apparatus. Here we propose a solution that works even without actively tracking the relative accelerations: putting both the interfering mass and its associated apparatus in a freely falling capsule, so that the strongest inertial noise components vanish due to the equivalence principle. In this setting, we investigate two of the most important remaining noise sources: (a) the noninertial jitter of the experimental setup and (b) the gravity-gradient noise. We show that the former can be reduced below desired values by appropriate pressures and temperatures, while the latter can be fully mitigated in a controlled environment. We finally apply the analysis to a recent proposal for testing the quantum nature of gravity [S. Bose et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 240401 (2017)] through the entanglement of two masses undergoing interferometry. We show that the relevant entanglement witnessing is feasible with achievable levels of relative acceleration noise.

Journal article

Im D-G, Lee C-H, Kim Y, Nha H, Kim MS, Lee S-W, Kim Y-Het al., 2021, Optimal teleportation via noisy quantum channels without additional qubit resources, npj Quantum Information, Vol: 7, Pages: 1-7, ISSN: 2056-6387

Quantum teleportation exemplifies how the transmission of quantum information starkly differs from that of classical information and serves as a key protocol for quantum communication and quantum computing. While an ideal teleportation protocol requires noiseless quantum channels to share a pure maximally entangled state, the reality is that shared entanglement is often severely degraded due to various decoherence mechanisms. Although the quantum noise induced by the decoherence is indeed a major obstacle to realizing a near-term quantum network or processor with a limited number of qubits, the methodologies considered thus far to address this issue are resource-intensive. Here, we demonstrate a protocol that allows optimal quantum teleportation via noisy quantum channels without additional qubit resources. By analyzing teleportation in the framework of generalized quantum measurement, we optimize the teleportation protocol for noisy quantum channels. In particular, we experimentally demonstrate that our protocol enables to teleport an unknown qubit even via a single copy of an entangled state under strong decoherence that would otherwise preclude any quantum operation. Our work provides a useful methodology for practically coping with decoherence with a limited number of qubits and paves the way for realizing noisy intermediate-scale quantum computing and quantum communication.

Journal article

Thekkadath GS, Sempere-Llagostera S, Bell BA, Patel RB, Kim MS, Walmsley IAet al., 2021, Single-shot discrimination of coherent states beyond the standard quantum limit, OPTICS LETTERS, Vol: 46, Pages: 2565-2568, ISSN: 0146-9592

Journal article

Chevalier H, Paige AJ, Kwon H, Kim MSet al., 2021, Violating the Leggett-Garg inequalities with classical light, Physical Review A: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, Vol: 103, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 1050-2947

In an endeavor to better define the distinction between classical macroscopic and quantum microscopic regimes, the Leggett-Garg inequalities were established as a test of macroscopic-realistic theories, which are commonly thought to be a suitable class of descriptions for classical dynamics. The relationship between their violation and nonclassicality is however not obvious. We show that classical states of light, which in the quantum optical sense are any convex sums of coherent states, may not satisfy the Leggett-Garg inequalities. After introducing a simple Mach-Zehnder setup and showing how to obtain a violation with a single photon using negative measurements, we focus on classical states of light, in particular those of low average photon number. We demonstrate how one can still perform negative measurements with an appropriate assignment of variables, and show that the inequalities are violable with coherent states. Finally, we abandon the initial phase reference and demonstrate that the violation is still possible, in particular with thermal states of light, and we investigate the effect of intermediate dephasing.

Journal article

Lie SH, Kwon H, Kim MS, Jeong Het al., 2021, Quantum one-time tables for unconditionally secure qubit- commitment, Quantum, Vol: 5, Pages: 1-17, ISSN: 2521-327X

The commodity-based cryptography is an alternative approach to realize conventionally impossible cryptographic primitives such as unconditionally secure bit-commitment by consuming pre-established correlation between distrustful participants. A unit of such classical correlation is known as the one-time table (OTT). In this paper, we introduce a new example besides quantum key distribution in which quantum correlation is useful for cryptography. We propose a scheme for unconditionally secure qubit-commitment, a quantum cryptographic primitive forbidden by the recently proven no-masking theorem in the standard model, based on the consumption of the quantum generalization of the OTT, the bipartite quantum state we named quantum one-time tables (QOTT). The construction of the QOTT is based on the newly analyzed internal structure of quantum masker and the quantum secret sharing schemes. Our qubit-commitment scheme is shown to be universally composable. We propose to measure the randomness cost of preparing a (Q)OTT in terms of its entropy, and show that the QOTT with superdense coding can increase the security level with half the cost of OTTs for unconditionally secure bit-commitment. The QOTT exemplifies an operational setting where neither maximally classically correlated state nor maximally entangled state, but rather a well-structured partially entangled mixed state is more valuable resource.

Journal article

Martinetz L, Hornberger K, Millen J, Kim MS, Stickler BAet al., 2020, Quantum electromechanics with levitated nanoparticles, npj Quantum Information, Vol: 6, ISSN: 2056-6387

Preparing and observing quantum states of nanoscale particles is a challenging task with great relevance for quantum technologies and tests of fundamental physics. In contrast to atomic systems with discrete transitions, nanoparticles exhibit a practically continuous absorption spectrum and thus their quantum dynamics cannot be easily manipulated. Here, we demonstrate that charged nanoscale dielectrics can be artificially endowed with a discrete level structure by coherently interfacing their rotational and translational motion with a superconducting qubit. We propose a pulsed scheme for the generation and read-out of motional quantum superpositions and entanglement between several levitated nanoparticles, providing an all-electric platform for networked hybrid quantum devices.

Journal article

Paige AJ, Kwon H, Simsek S, Self CN, Gray J, Kim MSet al., 2020, Quantum delocalized interactions, Physical Review Letters, Vol: 125, Pages: 240406 – 1-240406 – 6, ISSN: 0031-9007

Classical mechanics obeys the intuitive logic that a physical event happens at a definite spatial point. Entanglement, however, breaks this logic by enabling interactions without a specific location. In this work we study these delocalized interactions. These are quantum interactions that create less locational information than would be possible classically, as captured by the disturbance induced on some spatial superposition state. We introduce quantum games to capture the effect and demonstrate a direct operational use for quantum concurrence in that it bounds the nonclassical performance gain. We also find a connection with quantum teleportation, and demonstrate the games using an IBM quantum processor.

Journal article

Oh C, Kwon H, Jiang L, Kim MSet al., 2020, Field-gradient measurement using a Stern-Gerlach atomic interferometer with butterfly geometry, Physical Review A: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, Vol: 102, Pages: 053321 – 1-053321 – 8, ISSN: 1050-2947

Atomic interferometers have been studied as a promising device for precise sensing of external fields. Among various configurations, a particular configuration with a butterfly-shaped geometry has been designed to sensitively probe field gradients. We introduce a Stern-Gerlach (SG) butterfly interferometer by incorporating magnetic field in the conventional butterfly-shaped configuration. Atomic trajectories of the interferometer can be flexibly adjusted by controlling magnetic fields to increase the sensitivity of the interferometer, while the conventional butterfly interferometer using Raman transitions can be understood as a special case. We also show that the SG interferometer can keep high contrast against a misalignment in position and momentum caused by the field gradient.

Journal article

Nehra R, Eaton M, Gonzalez-Arciniegas C, Kim MS, Gerrits T, Lita A, Nam SW, Pfister Oet al., 2020, Generalized overlap quantum state tomography, PHYSICAL REVIEW RESEARCH, Vol: 2

Journal article

Kim MS, 2020, A massive test, NATURE PHYSICS, Vol: 17, Pages: 14-15, ISSN: 1745-2473

Journal article

Kwon H, Paige AJ, Kim MS, 2020, Condition on the Rényi entanglement entropy under stochastic local manipulation, Physical Review Letters, Vol: 125, Pages: 100502 – 1-100502 – 7, ISSN: 0031-9007

The Rényi entanglement entropy (REE) is an entanglement quantifier considered as a natural generalization of the entanglement entropy. When it comes to stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC), however, only a limited class of the REEs satisfy the monotonicity condition, while their statistical properties beyond mean values have not been fully investigated. Here, we establish a general condition that the probability distribution of the REE of any order obeys under SLOCC. The condition is obtained by introducing a family of entanglement monotones that contain the higher-order moments of the REEs. The contribution from the higher-order moments imposes a strict limitation on entanglement distillation via SLOCC. We find that the upper bound on success probabilities for entanglement distillation exponentially decreases as the amount of raised entanglement increases, which cannot be captured from the monotonicity of the REE. Based on the strong restriction on entanglement transformation under SLOCC, we design a new method to estimate entanglement in quantum many-body systems from experimentally observable quantities.

Journal article

Ma Y, Khosla K, Stickler B, Kim Met al., 2020, Quantum persistent tennis racket dynamics of nanorotors, Physical Review Letters, Vol: 125, ISSN: 0031-9007

Classical rotations of asymmetric rigid bodies are unstable around the axis of intermediate moment of inertia, causing a flipping of rotor orientation. This effect, known as the tennis racket effect, quickly averages to zero in classical ensembles since the flipping period varies significantly upon approaching the separatrix. Here, we explore the quantum rotations of rapidly spinning thermal asymmetric nanorotors and show that classically forbidden tunnelling gives rise to persistent tennis racket dynamics, in stark contrast to the classical expectation. We characterise this effect, demonstrating that quantum coherent flipping dynamics can persist even in the regime where millions of angular momentum states are occupied. This persistent flipping offers a promising route for observing and exploiting quantum effects in rotational degrees of freedom for molecules and nanoparticles.

Journal article

Clarke J, Sahium P, Khosla K, Pikovski I, Kim M, Vanner Met al., 2020, Generating mechanical and optomechanical entanglement via pulsed interaction and measurement, New Journal of Physics, Vol: 22, Pages: 1-32, ISSN: 1367-2630

Entanglement generation at a macroscopic scale o ers an exciting avenue to de-velop new quantum technologies and study fundamental physics on a tabletop.Cavity quantum optomechanics provides an ideal platform to generate and exploitsuch phenomena owing to the precision of quantum optics combined with recent ex-perimental advances in optomechanical devices. In this work, we propose schemesoperating outside the resolved-sideband regime, to prepare and verify both optical-mechanical and mechanical-mechanical entanglement. Our schemes employ pulsedinteractions with a duration much less than the mechanical period and, togetherwith homodyne measurements, can both generate and characterize these types ofentanglement. To improve the performance of our schemes, a precooling stagecomprising prior pulses can be utilized to increase the amount of entanglementprepared, and local optical squeezers may be used to provide resilience againstopen-system dynamics. The entanglement generated by our schemes is quanti edusing the logarithmic negativity and is analysed with respect to the strength of thepulsed optomechanical interactions for realistic experimental scenarios includingmechanical decoherence and optical loss. Two separate schemes for mechanicalentanglement generation are introduced and compared: one scheme based on anoptical interferometric design, and the other comprising sequential optomechani-cal interactions. The pulsed nature of our protocols provides more direct access tothese quantum correlations in the time domain, with applications including quan-tum metrology and tests of quantum decoherence. By considering a parameter setbased on recent experiments, the feasibility to generate signi cant entanglementwith our schemes, even with large optical losses, is demonstrated.

Journal article

Ma Y, Armata F, Khosla KE, Kim MSet al., 2020, Optical squeezing for an optomechanical system without quantizing the mechanical motion, Physical Review & Research International, Vol: 2, ISSN: 2231-1815

Witnessing quantumness in mesoscopic objects is an important milestone for both quantum technologies and foundational reasons. Cavity optomechanics offers the ideal system to achieve this by combing high-precision optical measurements with mechanical oscillators. However, mechanical quantumness can only be established if the behavior is incompatible with any classical description of an oscillator. After explicitly considering classical and hybrid quantum-classical descriptions of an optomechanical system, we rule out squeezing of the optical field as such a witness by showing it is also predicted without quantizing the mechanical oscillator.

Journal article

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