Imperial College London


Faculty of MedicineNational Heart & Lung Institute

Honorary Clinical Senior Lecturer



+44 (0)20 3313 1664m.koa-wing05




Cardiac Catheter Laboratory (EP)Hammersmith HospitalHammersmith Campus






BibTex format

author = {Sau, A and Sikkel, MB and Luther, V and Wright, I and Guerrero, F and Koa-Wing, M and Lefroy, D and Linton, N and Qureshi, N and Whinnett, Z and Lim, PB and Kanagaratnam, P and Peters, NS and Davies, DW},
doi = {10.1111/jce.13323},
journal = {Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology},
pages = {1445--1453},
title = {The sawtooth EKG pattern of typical atrial flutter is not related to slow conduction velocity at the cavotricuspid isthmus.},
url = {},
volume = {28},
year = {2017}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - INTRODUCTION: We hypothesized that very high density mapping of typical atrial flutter (AFL) would facilitate a more complete understanding of its circuit. Such very high density mapping was performed with the Rhythmia mapping system using its 64 electrode basket catheter. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data were acquired from 13 patients in AFL. Functional anatomy of the right atrium (RA) was readily identified during mapping including the Crista Terminalis and Eustachian ridge. The leading edge of the activation wavefront was identified without interruption and its conduction velocity (CV) calculated. CV was not different at the cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI) compared to the remainder of the RA (1.02 vs. 1.03 m/s, p = 0.93). The sawtooth pattern of the surface EKG flutter waves were compared to the position of the dominant wavefront. The downslope of the surface EKG flutter waves represented on average, 73% ± 9% of the total flutter cycle length. During the downslope the activation wavefront travelled significantly further than during the upslope (182 ± 21 ms vs. 68 ± 29 ms, p < 0.0001) with no change in conduction velocity between the two phases (0.88 vs. 0.91 m/s, p = 0.79). CONCLUSION: CV at the CTI is not slower than other RA regions during typical AFL. The gradual downslope of the sawtooth EKG is not due to slow conduction at the CTI suggesting that success of ablation at this site relates to anatomical properties rather than presence of a "slow isthmus". This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
AU - Sau,A
AU - Sikkel,MB
AU - Luther,V
AU - Wright,I
AU - Guerrero,F
AU - Koa-Wing,M
AU - Lefroy,D
AU - Linton,N
AU - Qureshi,N
AU - Whinnett,Z
AU - Lim,PB
AU - Kanagaratnam,P
AU - Peters,NS
AU - Davies,DW
DO - 10.1111/jce.13323
EP - 1453
PY - 2017///
SN - 1045-3873
SP - 1445
TI - The sawtooth EKG pattern of typical atrial flutter is not related to slow conduction velocity at the cavotricuspid isthmus.
T2 - Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
UR -
UR -
VL - 28
ER -