307 results found
Pennisi I, Moniri A, Miscourides N, et al., 2022, Discrimination of bacterial and viral infection using host-RNA signatures integrated in a lab-on-a-chip technology
<jats:title>ABSTRACT</jats:title><jats:p>The unmet clinical need for accurate point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tests able to discriminate bacterial from viral infection demands a solution that can be used both within healthcare settings and in the field and that can also stem the tide of antimicrobial resistance. Our approach to solve this problem is to combine the use of Host-gene signatures with our Lab-on-a-chip (LoC) technology enabling low-cost LoC expression analysis to detect Infectious Disease.Host-gene expression signatures have been extensively study as a potential tool to be implemented in the diagnosis of infectious disease. On the other hand LoC technologies using Ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) arrays, in conjunction with isothermal chemistries, are offering a promising alternative to conventional lab-based nucleic acid amplification instruments, owing to their portable and affordable nature. Currently, the data analysis of ISFET arrays are restricted to established methods by averaging the output of every sensor to give a single time-series. This simple approach makes unrealistic assumptions, leading to insufficient performance for applications that require accurate quantification such as RNA host transcriptomics. In order to reliably quantify host-gene expression on our LoC platform enabling the classification of bacterial and viral infection on chip, we propose a novel data-driven algorithm for extracting time-to-positive values from ISFET arrays. The algorithm proposed is based on modelling sensor drift with adaptive signal processing and clustering sensors based on their behaviour with unsupervised learning methods. Results show that the approach correctly outputs a time-to-positive for all the reactions, with a high correlation to RT-qLAMP (0.85, R2 = 0.98, p < 0.01), resulting in a classification accuracy of 100 % (CI, 95 - 100). By leveraging more advanced data processing methods for ISFET arrays, this work
Hagedoorn NN, Zachariasse JM, Borensztajn D, et al., 2022, Shock Index in the early assessment of febrile children at the emergency department: a prospective multicentre study, Archives of Disease in Childhood, Vol: 107, Pages: 116-122, ISSN: 0003-9888
OBJECTIVE: (1) To derive reference values for the Shock Index (heart rate/systolic blood pressure) based on a large emergency department (ED) population of febrile children and (2) to determine the diagnostic value of the Shock Index for serious illness in febrile children. DESIGN/SETTING: Observational study in 11 European EDs (2017-2018). PATIENTS: Febrile children with measured blood pressure. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Serious bacterial infection (SBI), invasive bacterial infection (IBI), immediate life-saving interventions (ILSIs) and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. The association between high Shock Index (>95th centile) and each outcome was determined by logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, referral, comorbidity and temperature. Additionally, we calculated sensitivity, specificity and negative/positive likelihood ratios (LRs). RESULTS: Of 5622 children, 461 (8.2%) had SBI, 46 (0.8%) had IBI, 203 (3.6%) were treated with ILSI and 69 (1.2%) were ICU admitted. High Shock Index was associated with SBI (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.6 (95% CI 1.3 to 1.9)), ILSI (aOR 2.5 (95% CI 2.0 to 2.9)), ICU admission (aOR 2.2 (95% CI 1.4 to 2.9)) but not with IBI (aOR: 1.5 (95% CI 0.6 to 2.4)). For the different outcomes, sensitivity for high Shock Index ranged from 0.10 to 0.15, specificity ranged from 0.95 to 0.95, negative LRs ranged from 0.90 to 0.95 and positive LRs ranged from 1.8 to 2.8. CONCLUSIONS: High Shock Index is associated with serious illness in febrile children. However, its rule-out value is insufficient which suggests that the Shock Index is not valuable as a screening tool for all febrile children at the ED.
Takele Y, Mulaw, Adem, et al., 2022, Immunological factors, but not clinical features, predict visceral leishmaniasis relapse in patients co-infected with HIV, Cell Reports Medicine, Vol: 3, ISSN: 2666-3791
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has emerged as a clinically important opportunistic infection in HIV patients, as VL/HIV co-infected patients suffer from frequent VL relapse. Here, we follow cohorts of VL patients with or without HIV in Ethiopia. By the end of the study 78.1% of VL/HIV, but none of the VL patients, experience VL relapse. Despite clinically defined cure, VL/HIV patients maintain higher parasite loads, lower BMI, hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia. We identify three immunological markers associated with VL relapse in VL/HIV patients: i) failure to restore antigen-specific production of IFNg, ii) persistently lower CD4+ T cell counts, and iii) higher expression of PD1 on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. We show that these three markers, that can be measured in primary hospital settings in Ethiopia, combine well in predicting VL relapse. The use of our prediction model has the potential to improve disease management and patient care.
Borensztajn D, Hagedoorn NN, Carrol E, et al., 2022, Characteristics and management of adolescents attending the ED with fever: a prospective multicentre study, BMJ OPEN, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2044-6055
Tan CD, Hagedoorn NN, Dewez JE, et al., 2022, Rapid Viral Testing and Antibiotic Prescription in Febrile Children With Respiratory Symptoms Visiting Emergency Departments in Europe, PEDIATRIC INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL, Vol: 41, Pages: 39-44, ISSN: 0891-3668
<jats:title>ABSTRACT</jats:title><jats:p>Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and HIV co-infection (VL/HIV) has emerged as a significant public health problem in Ethiopia, with up to 30% of VL patients co-infected with HIV. These patients suffer from recurrent VL relapses and increased mortality. Our aim was to assess whether VL/HIV co-infected patients with a previous history of VL relapses (recurrent VL/HIV) have a poorer prognosis as compared to HIV patients presenting with their first episode of VL (primary VL/HIV). Our results show that recurrent VL/HIV patients have a higher parasite load, higher mortality and that their relapse-free survival is significantly shorter. The poorer prognosis of recurrent VL/HIV patients is accompanied by lower weight gain and lower recovery of all blood cell lineages, as well as lower production of IFNγ, lower CD4<jats:sup>+</jats:sup> T cell counts and higher expression levels of PD1 on T cells. Furthermore, our results show that prior history of VL relapse is an important risk factor for future relapse. Both CD4<jats:sup>+</jats:sup> T cell count and parasite load were also associated with a higher risk of VL relapse, but neither of these was independently associated with relapse risk after adjustment for previous VL relapse history.</jats:p><jats:p>We propose that in addition to the current treatments, novel interventions should be considered at the time of VL diagnosis in VL/HIV patients; and suggest that improved anti-leishmanial and antiretroviral treatments, as well as immune therapy, through PD1/PDL-1 blockade and/or through IFNγ administration, could result in more efficient parasite killing and thereby reduce the relapse rate and improve survival.</jats:p>
Hoggart C, Shimizu C, Galassini R, et al., 2021, Identification of novel locus associated with coronary artery aneurysms and validation of loci for susceptibility to Kawasaki disease, European Journal of Human Genetics, Vol: 29, Pages: 1734-1744, ISSN: 1018-4813
Kawasaki disease (KD) is a paediatric vasculitis associated with coronary artery aneurysms (CAA). Genetic variants influencing susceptibility to KD have been previously identified, but no risk alleles have been validated that influence CAA formation. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for CAA in KD patients of European descent with 200 cases and 276 controls. A second GWAS for susceptibility pooled KD cases with healthy paediatric controls from vaccine trials in the UK (n = 1609). Logistic regression mixed models were used for both GWASs. The susceptibility GWAS was meta-analysed with 400 KD cases and 6101 controls from a previous European GWAS, these results were further meta-analysed with Japanese GWASs at two putative loci. The CAA GWAS identified an intergenic region of chromosome 20q13 with multiple SNVs showing genome-wide significance. The risk allele of the most associated SNV (rs6017006) was present in 13% of cases and 4% of controls; in East Asian 1000 Genomes data, the allele was absent or rare. Susceptibility GWAS with meta-analysis with previously published European data identified two previously associated loci (ITPKC and FCGR2A). Further meta-analysis with Japanese GWAS summary data from the CASP3 and FAM167A genomic regions validated these loci in Europeans showing consistent effects of the top SNVs in both populations. We identified a novel locus for CAA in KD patients of European descent. The results suggest that different genes determine susceptibility to KD and development of CAA and future work should focus on the function of the intergenic region on chromosome 20q13.
Takele Y, Adem E, Franssen SU, et al., 2021, Impaired <i>in vitro</i> Interferon-γ production in patients with visceral leishmaniasis is improved by inhibition of PD1/PDL-1 ligation
<jats:title>ABSTRACT</jats:title><jats:p>Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected tropical disease that causes substantial morbidity and mortality and is a growing health problem in Ethiopia, where this study took place. Most individuals infected with <jats:italic>Leishmania donovani</jats:italic> parasites will stay asymptomatic, but some develop VL that, if left untreated, is almost always fatal. This stage of the disease is associated with a profound immunosuppression, characterised by impaired production of Interferonγ (IFNγ), a cytokine that plays a key role in the control of <jats:italic>Leishmania</jats:italic> parasites, and high expression levels of an inhibitory receptor, programmed cell death 1 (PD1) on CD4<jats:sup>+</jats:sup> T cells. Here, we tested the contribution of the interaction between the immune checkpoint PD1 and its ligand PDL-1 on the impaired production of IFNγ in VL patients. Our results show that in the blood of VL patients, not only CD4<jats:sup>+</jats:sup>, but also CD8<jats:sup>+</jats:sup> T cells express high levels of PD1 at the time of VL diagnosis. Next, we identified PDL-1 expression on different monocyte subsets and neutrophils and show that PDL-1 levels were significantly increased in VL patients. PD1/PDL-1 inhibition resulted in significantly increased production of IFNγ, suggesting that therapy using immune checkpoint inhibitors might improve disease control in these patients.</jats:p>
Li HK, Kaforou M, Rodriguez-Manzano J, et al., 2021, Discovery and validation of a 3-gene signature to distinguish COVID-19 and other viral infections in emergency infectious disease presentations; a case-control then observational cohort study, The Lancet Microbe, Vol: 2, Pages: 594-603, ISSN: 2666-5247
Background: Emergency admissions for infection often lack initial diagnostic certainty. COVID-19 has highlighted a need for novel diagnostic approaches to indicate likelihood of viral infection in a pandemic setting. We sought to derive and validate a blood transcriptional signature to detect viral infections including COVID-19 among adults with suspected infection presenting to the Emergency Department (ED).Methods: Blood RNA sequencing was performed on a discovery cohort of adults attending the ED with suspected infection who had subsequently-confirmed viral, bacterial, or no infection diagnoses. Differentially expressed host genes were subjected to feature selection to derive the most parsimonious discriminating signature. RT-qPCR validation of the signature was then performed in a prospective cohort of ED patients presenting with undifferentiated fever, and a second case-control cohort of ED patients with COVID-19 or bacterial infection. Signature performance was assessed by calculating area under receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUC-ROCs), sensitivities, and specificities.Findings: A 3-gene transcript signature was derived from the discovery cohort of 56 bacterial and 27 viral infection cases. In the validation cohort of 200 cases, the signature differentiated bacterial from viral infections with an AUC-ROC of 0.976 (95% CI: 0.919-1.000), sensitivity 97.3% and specificity of 100%. The AUC-ROC for C-reactive protein (CRP) and leucocyte count (WCC) was 0.833 (95% CI: 0.694-0.944) and 0.938 (95% CI: 0.840-0.986) respectively. The signature achieved higher net benefit in decision curve analysis than either CRP or WCC for discriminating viral infections from all other cases. In the second validation analysis the signature discriminated 35 bacterial infections from 34 SARS-CoV-2 positive COVID-19 infections with AUC-ROC of 0.953 (95% CI: 0.893-0.992), sensitivity 88.6% and specificity of 94.1%.Interpretation: This novel 3-gene signature discriminates viral i
Boeddha NP, Driessen GJ, Hagedoorn NN, et al., 2021, Detectable A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase With Thrombospondin Motifs-1 in Serum Is Associated With Adverse Outcome in Pediatric Sepsis., Crit Care Explor, Vol: 3
IMPORTANCE: A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin Motifs-1 is hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of invasive infection, but studies in sepsis are lacking. OBJECTIVES: To study A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin Motifs-1 protein level in pediatric sepsis and to study the association with outcome. DESIGN: Data from two prospective cohort studies. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Cohort 1 is from a single-center study involving children admitted to PICU with meningococcal sepsis (samples obtained at three time points). Cohort 2 includes patients from a multicenter study involving children admitted to the hospital with invasive bacterial infections of differing etiologies (samples obtained within 48 hr after hospital admission). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Primary outcome measure was mortality. Secondary outcome measures were PICU-free days at day 28 and hospital length of stay. RESULTS: In cohort 1 (n = 59), nonsurvivors more frequently had A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin Motifs-1 levels above the detection limit than survivors at admission to PICU (8/11 [73%] and 6/23 [26%], respectively; p = 0.02) and at t = 24 hours (2/3 [67%] and 3/37 [8%], respectively; p = 0.04). In cohort 2 (n = 240), A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin Motifs-1 levels in patients within 48 hours after hospital admission were more frequently above the detection limit than in healthy controls (110/240 [46%] and 14/64 [22%], respectively; p = 0.001). Nonsurvivors more often had detectable A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin Motifs-1 levels than survivors (16/21 [76%] and 94/219 [43%], respectively; p = 0.003), which was mostly attributable to patients with Neisseria meningitidis. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In children with bacterial infection, detection of A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin Motifs-1 within 48 hours after hospital admission is associated with deat
McArdle AJ, Cunnington AJ, Levin M, 2021, Therapy for Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children REPLY, NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, Vol: 385, ISSN: 0028-4793
Borenzstajn D, Hagedoorn N, Carrol ED, et al., 2021, A NICE combination for predicting hospitalisation at the Emergency Department: a European multicentre observational study of febrile children, The Lancet Regional Health - Europe, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2666-7762
BackgroundProlonged Emergency Department (ED) stay causes crowding and negatively impacts quality of care. We developed and validated a prediction model for early identification of febrile children with a high risk of hospitalisation in order to improve ED flow.MethodsThe MOFICHE study prospectively collected data on febrile children (0–18 years) presenting to 12 European EDs. A prediction models was constructed using multivariable logistic regression and included patient characteristics available at triage. We determined the discriminative values of the model by calculating the area under the receiver operating curve (AUC).FindingsOf 38,424 paediatric encounters, 9,735 children were admitted to the ward and 157 to the PICU. The prediction model, combining patient characteristics and NICE alarming, yielded an AUC of 0.84 (95%CI 0.83-0.84).The model performed well for a rule-in threshold of 75% (specificity 99.0% (95%CI 98.9-99.1%, positive likelihood ratio 15.1 (95%CI 13.4-17.1), positive predictive value 0.84 (95%CI 0.82-0.86)) and a rule-out threshold of 7.5% (sensitivity 95.4% (95%CI 95.0-95.8), negative likelihood ratio 0.15 (95%CI 0.14-0.16), negative predictive value 0..95 (95%CI 0.95-9.96)). Validation in a separate dataset showed an excellent AUC of 0.91 (95%CI 0.90- 0.93). The model performed well for identifying children needing PICU admission (AUC 0.95, 95%CI 0.93-0.97). A digital calculator was developed to facilitate clinical use.InterpretationPatient characteristics and NICE alarming signs available at triage can be used to identify febrile children at high risk for hospitalisation and can be used to improve ED flow.FundingEuropean Union, NIHR, NHS.
Nijman R, Oostenbrink R, Moll HA, et al., 2021, A novel framework for phenotyping children with suspected or confirmed infection for future biomarker studies, Frontiers in Pediatrics, Vol: 9, Pages: 1-18, ISSN: 2296-2360
Background: The limited diagnostic accuracy of biomarkers in children at risk of a serious bacterial infection (SBI) might be due to the imperfect reference standard of SBI. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of a new classification algorithm for biomarker discovery in children at risk of SBI.Methods: We used data from five previously published, prospective observational biomarker discovery studies, which included patients aged 0– <16 years: the Alder Hey emergency department (n = 1,120), Alder Hey pediatric intensive care unit (n = 355), Erasmus emergency department (n = 1,993), Maasstad emergency department (n = 714) and St. Mary's hospital (n = 200) cohorts. Biomarkers including procalcitonin (PCT) (4 cohorts), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin-2 (NGAL) (3 cohorts) and resistin (2 cohorts) were compared for their ability to classify patients according to current standards (dichotomous classification of SBI vs. non-SBI), vs. a proposed PERFORM classification algorithm that assign patients to one of eleven categories. These categories were based on clinical phenotype, test outcomes and C-reactive protein level and accounted for the uncertainty of final diagnosis in many febrile children. The success of the biomarkers was measured by the Area under the receiver operating Curves (AUCs) when they were used individually or in combination.Results: Using the new PERFORM classification system, patients with clinically confident bacterial diagnosis (“definite bacterial” category) had significantly higher levels of PCT, NGAL and resistin compared with those with a clinically confident viral diagnosis (“definite viral” category). Patients with diagnostic uncertainty had biomarker concentrations that varied across the spectrum. AUCs were higher for classification of “definite bacterial” vs. “definite viral” following the PERFORM algorithm than using the “SBI” vs. “non-SBI” c
McArdle AJ, Vito O, Patel H, et al., 2021, Treatment of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, New England Journal of Medicine, Vol: 385, Pages: 11-22, ISSN: 0028-4793
BACKGROUNDEvidence is urgently needed to support treatment decisions for children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.METHODSWe performed an international observational cohort study of clinical and outcome data regarding suspected MIS-C that had been uploaded by physicians onto a Web-based database. We used inverse-probability weighting and generalized linear models to evaluate intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) as a reference, as compared with IVIG plus glucocorticoids and glucocorticoids alone. There were two primary outcomes: the first was a composite of inotropic support or mechanical ventilation by day 2 or later or death; the second was a reduction in disease severity on an ordinal scale by day 2. Secondary outcomes included treatment escalation and the time until a reduction in organ failure and inflammation.RESULTSData were available regarding the course of treatment for 614 children from 32 countries from June 2020 through February 2021; 490 met the World Health Organization criteria for MIS-C. Of the 614 children with suspected MIS-C, 246 received primary treatment with IVIG alone, 208 with IVIG plus glucocorticoids, and 99 with glucocorticoids alone; 22 children received other treatment combinations, including biologic agents, and 39 received no immunomodulatory therapy. Receipt of inotropic or ventilatory support or death occurred in 56 patients who received IVIG plus glucocorticoids (adjusted odds ratio for the comparison with IVIG alone, 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.33 to 1.82) and in 17 patients who received glucocorticoids alone (adjusted odds ratio, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.22 to 1.33). The adjusted odds ratios for a reduction in disease severity were similar in the two groups, as compared with IVIG alone (0.90 for IVIG plus glucocorticoids and 0.93 for glucocorticoids alone). The time until a reduction in disease severity was similar in the three groups.CONCLUSIONSWe found n
Hagedoorn N, Borensztajn D, Nijman R, et al., 2021, Development and validation of a prediction model for invasive bacterial infections in febrile children at European Emergency Departments: MOFICHE a prospective observational study, Archives of Disease in Childhood, Vol: 106, Pages: 641-647, ISSN: 0003-9888
Objectives To develop and cross-validate a multivariable clinical prediction model to identify invasive bacterial infections (IBI) and to identify patient groups who might benefit from new biomarkers.Design Prospective observational study.Setting 12 emergency departments (EDs) in 8 European countries.Patients Febrile children aged 0–18 years.Main outcome measures IBI, defined as bacteraemia, meningitis and bone/joint infection. We derived and cross-validated a model for IBI using variables from the Feverkidstool (clinical symptoms, C reactive protein), neurological signs, non-blanching rash and comorbidity. We assessed discrimination (area under the receiver operating curve) and diagnostic performance at different risk thresholds for IBI: sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive likelihood ratios (LRs).Results Of 16 268 patients, 135 (0.8%) had an IBI. The discriminative ability of the model was 0.84 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.88) and 0.78 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.82) in pooled cross-validations. The model performed well for the rule-out threshold of 0.1% (sensitivity 0.97 (95% CI 0.93 to 0.99), negative LR 0.1 (95% CI 0.0 to 0.2) and for the rule-in threshold of 2.0% (specificity 0.94 (95% CI 0.94 to 0.95), positive LR 8.4 (95% CI 6.9 to 10.0)). The intermediate thresholds of 0.1%–2.0% performed poorly (ranges: sensitivity 0.59–0.93, negative LR 0.14–0.57, specificity 0.52–0.88, positive LR 1.9–4.8) and comprised 9784 patients (60%).Conclusions The rule-out threshold of this model has potential to reduce antibiotic treatment while the rule-in threshold could be used to target treatment in febrile children at the ED. In more than half of patients at intermediate risk, sensitive biomarkers could improve identification of IBI and potentially reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions.
Sancho-Shimizu V, Brodin P, Cobat A, et al., 2021, SARS-CoV-2–related MIS-C: A key to the viral and genetic causes of Kawasaki disease?, Journal of Experimental Medicine, Vol: 218, Pages: 1-16, ISSN: 0022-1007
Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) emerged in April 2020 in communities with high COVID-19 rates. This new condition is heterogenous but resembles Kawasaki disease (KD), a well-known but poorly understood and clinically heterogenous pediatric inflammatory condition for which weak associations have been found with a myriad of viral illnesses. Epidemiological data clearly indicate that SARS-CoV-2 is the trigger for MIS-C, which typically occurs about 1 mo after infection. These findings support the hypothesis of viral triggers for the various forms of classic KD. We further suggest that rare inborn errors of immunity (IEIs) altering the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 may underlie the pathogenesis of MIS-C in some children. The discovery of monogenic IEIs underlying MIS-C would shed light on its pathogenesis, paving the way for a new genetic approach to classic KD, revisited as a heterogeneous collection of IEIs to viruses.
Jackson H, Menikou S, Hamilton M, et al., 2021, Kawasaki Disease patient stratification and pathway analysis based on host transcriptomic and proteomic profiles, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-24, ISSN: 1422-0067
The aetiology of Kawasaki Disease (KD), an acute inflammatory disorder of childhood, remains unknown despite various triggers of KD having been proposed. Host ‘omic profiles offer insights into the host response to infection and inflammation, with the interrogation of multiple ‘omic levels in parallel providing a more comprehensive picture. We used differential abundance analysis, pathway analysis, clustering and classification techniques to explore whether the host response in KD is more similar to the response to bacterial or viral infection at the transcriptomic and proteomic levels through comparison of ‘omic profiles from children with KD to those with bacterial and viral infections. Pathways activated in patients with KD included those involved in anti-viral and anti-bacterial responses. Unsupervised clustering showed that the majority of KD patients clustered with bacterial patients on both ‘omic levels, whilst application of diagnostic signatures specific for bacterial and viral infections revealed that many transcriptomic KD samples had low probabilities of having bacterial or viral infections, suggesting that KD may be triggered by a different process not typical of either common bacterial or viral infections. Clustering based on the transcriptomic and proteomic responses during KD revealed three clusters of KD patients on both ‘omic levels, suggesting heterogeneity within the inflammatory response during KD. The observed heterogeneity may reflect differences in the host response to a common trigger, or variation dependent on different triggers of the condition.
Schlapbach LJ, Andre MC, Grazioli S, et al., 2021, Best practice recommendations for the diagnosis and management of children with pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS; multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, MIS-C) in Switzerland, Frontiers in Pediatrics, Vol: 9, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 2296-2360
Background: Following the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic a new disease entity emerged, defined as Pediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome temporally associated with COVID-19 (PIMS-TS), or Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). In the absence of trials, evidence for treatment remains scarce.Purpose: To develop best practice recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of children with PIMS-TS in Switzerland. It is acknowledged that the field is changing rapidly, and regular revisions in the coming months are pre-planned as evidence is increasing.Methods: Consensus guidelines for best practice were established by a multidisciplinary group of Swiss pediatric clinicians with expertise in intensive care, immunology/rheumatology, infectious diseases, hematology, and cardiology. Subsequent to literature review, four working groups established draft recommendations which were subsequently adapted in a modified Delphi process. Recommendations had to reach >80% agreement for acceptance.Results: The group achieved agreement on 26 recommendations, which specify diagnostic approaches and interventions across anti-inflammatory, anti-infectious, and support therapies, and follow-up for children with suspected PIMS-TS. A management algorithm was derived to guide treatment depending on the phenotype of presentation, categorized into PIMS-TS with (a) shock, (b) Kawasaki-disease like, and (c) undifferentiated inflammatory presentation.Conclusion: Available literature on PIMS-TS is limited to retrospective or prospective observational studies. Informed by these cohort studies and indirect evidence from other inflammatory conditions in children and adults, as well as guidelines from international health authorities, the Swiss PIMS-TS recommendations represent best practice guidelines based on currently available knowledge to standardize treatment of children with suspected PIMS-TS. Given the absence of high-grade evidence, regular up
Hagedoorn N, Wagenaar J, Nieboer D, et al., 2021, Impact of a clinical decision rule on antibiotic prescription for children with suspected lower respiratory tract infections presenting to European emergency departments: a simulation study based on routine data, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Vol: 76, Pages: 1349-1357, ISSN: 0305-7453
Background: Discriminating viral from bacterial lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in children is challenging thus commonly resulting in antibiotic overuse. The Feverkidstool, a validated clinical decision rule including clinical symptoms and C-reactive protein, safely reduced antibiotic use in children at low/intermediate risk for bacterial LRTIs in a multicentre trial at emergency departments (EDs) in the Netherlands.Objectives: Using routine data from an observational study, we simulated the impact of the Feverkidstool on antibiotic prescriptions compared with observed antibiotic prescriptions in children with suspected LRTIs at 12 EDs in eight European countries.Methods: We selected febrile children aged 1 month to 5 years with respiratory symptoms and excluded upper respiratory tract infections. Using the Feverkidstool, we calculated individual risks for bacterial LRTI retrospectively. We simulated antibiotic prescription rates under different scenarios: (1) applying effect estimates on antibiotic prescription from the trial; and (2) varying both usage (50%–100%) and compliance (70%–100%) with the Feverkidstool’s advice to withhold antibiotics in children at low/intermediate risk for bacterial LRTI (≤10%).Results: Of 4938 children, 4209 (85.2%) were at low/intermediate risk for bacterial LRTI. Applying effect estimates from the trial, the Feverkidstool reduced antibiotic prescription from 33.5% to 24.1% [pooled risk difference: 9.4% (95% CI: 5.7%–13.1%)]. Simulating 50%–100% usage with 90% compliance resulted in risk differences ranging from 8.3% to 15.8%. Our simulations suggest that antibiotic prescriptions would be reduced in EDs with high baseline antibiotic prescription rates or predominantly (>85%) low/intermediate-risk children.Conclusions: Implementation of the Feverkidstool could reduce antibiotic prescriptions in children with suspected LRTIs in European EDs.
Halliday A, Jain P, Hoang L, et al., 2021, New technologies for diagnosing active TB: the VANTDET diagnostic accuracy study, Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation, Vol: 8, Pages: 1-160, ISSN: 2050-4365
<jats:sec id="abs1-1"> <jats:title>Background</jats:title> <jats:p>Tuberculosis (TB) is a devastating disease for which new diagnostic tests are desperately needed.</jats:p> </jats:sec> <jats:sec id="abs1-2"> <jats:title>Objective</jats:title> <jats:p>To validate promising new technologies [namely whole-blood transcriptomics, proteomics, flow cytometry and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)] and existing signatures for the detection of active TB in samples obtained from individuals with suspected active TB.</jats:p> </jats:sec> <jats:sec id="abs1-3"> <jats:title>Design</jats:title> <jats:p>Four substudies, each of which used samples from the biobank collected as part of the interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) in the Diagnostic Evaluation of Active TB study, which was a prospective cohort of patients recruited with suspected TB.</jats:p> </jats:sec> <jats:sec id="abs1-4"> <jats:title>Setting</jats:title> <jats:p>Secondary care.</jats:p> </jats:sec> <jats:sec id="abs1-5"> <jats:title>Participants</jats:title> <jats:p>Adults aged ≥ 16 years presenting as inpatients or outpatients at 12 NHS hospital trusts in London, Slough, Oxford, Leicester and Birmingham, with suspected active TB.</jats:p> </jats:sec> <jats:sec id="abs1-6"> <jats:title>Interventions</jats:title> <jats:p>New tests using genome-wide gene expression microarray
Takele Y, Mulaw T, Adem E, et al., 2021, Immunological factors, but not clinical features, predict visceral leishmaniasis relapse in patients co-infected with HIV
<jats:title>ABSTRACT</jats:title><jats:p>Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has emerged as a clinically important opportunistic infection in HIV patients, as VL/HIV co-infected patients suffer from frequent VL relapse. Here, we followed cohorts of VL patients with or without HIV co-infections in Ethiopia and collected detailed clinical and immunological data during 12 months of follow-up. By the end of the study 78.1% of VL/HIV patients, but none of the VL only patients, had relapsed. Despite clinically defined cure, VL/HIV patients maintained high parasite loads, low BMI, hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia throughout follow-up. During detailed immunological study throughout the follow-up period, we identified three markers associated with VL relapse: i) failure to restore antigen-specific production of IFNγ, ii) persistently low CD4<jats:sup>+</jats:sup> T cell counts, and iii) high expression of PD1 on CD4<jats:sup>+</jats:sup> T cells. We show that these three markers combine well in predicting VL relapse, and that all three measurements are needed for optimal predictive power.</jats:p><jats:p>These three immunological markers can be measured in primary hospital settings in Ethiopia and can predict VL relapse after anti-leishmanial therapy. The use of our prediction model has the potential to improve disease management and patient care.</jats:p>
Gliddon H, Kaforou M, Alikian M, et al., 2021, Identification of reduced host transcriptomic signatures for tuberculosis disease and digital PCR-based validation and quantification, Frontiers in Immunology, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1664-3224
Recently, host whole blood gene expression signatures have been identified for diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). Absolute quantification of the concentrations of signature transcripts in blood have not been reported, but would facilitate diagnostic test development. To identify minimal transcript signatures, we applied a transcript selection procedure to microarray data from African adults comprising 536 patients with TB, other diseases (OD) and latent TB (LTBI), divided into training and test sets. Signatures were further investigated using reverse transcriptase (RT)—digital PCR (dPCR). A four-transcript signature (GBP6, TMCC1, PRDM1, and ARG1) measured using RT-dPCR distinguished TB patients from those with OD (area under the curve (AUC) 93.8% (CI95% 82.2–100%). A three-transcript signature (FCGR1A, ZNF296, and C1QB) differentiated TB from LTBI (AUC 97.3%, CI95%: 93.3–100%), regardless of HIV. These signatures have been validated across platforms and across samples offering strong, quantitative support for their use as diagnostic biomarkers for TB.
van Aerde KJ, de Haan L, van Leur M, et al., 2021, Respiratory tract Infection management and antibiotic prescription in children: a unique study comparing three levels of healthcare in the Netherlands., The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, Vol: 40, Pages: e100-e105, ISSN: 0891-3668
BACKGROUND: Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are common in children with febrile illness visiting the general practitioner (GP) or emergency department. We studied the management of children with fever and RTI at 3 different levels of healthcare in The Netherlands, focusing on antibiotic prescription. METHODS: This prospective observational study is part of the Management and Outcome of Febrile children in Europe study. Data were used from face-to-face patient contacts of children with febrile illness in three healthcare settings in Nijmegen, The Netherlands during 2017. These settings were primary (GP), secondary (general hospital) and tertiary care (university hospital). RESULTS: Of 892 cases with RTI without complex comorbidities, overall antibiotic prescription rates were 29% with no differences between the 3 levels of healthcare, leading to an absolute number of 5031 prescriptions per 100,000 children per year in primary care compared with 146 in secondary and tertiary care combined. The prescription rate in otitis media was similar in all levels: 60%. In cases with lower RTI who received nebulizations prescription rates varied between 19% and 55%. CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotic prescription rates for RTIs in children were comparable between the 3 levels of healthcare, thus leading to a majority of antibiotics being prescribed in primary care. Relatively high prescription rates for all foci of RTIs were found, which was not in agreement with the national guidelines. Antibiotic stewardship needs improvement at all 3 levels of healthcare. Guidelines to prescribe small spectrum antibiotics for RTIs need to be better implemented in hospital care settings.
Morris TC, Hoggart CJ, Chegou NN, et al., 2021, Evaluation of host serum protein biomarkers of tuberculosis in sub-Saharan Africa, Frontiers in Immunology, Vol: 12, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 1664-3224
Accurate and affordable point-of-care diagnostics for tuberculosis (TB) are needed. Host serum protein signatures have been derived for use in primary care settings, however validation of these in secondary care settings is lacking. We evaluated serum protein biomarkers discovered in primary care cohorts from Africa reapplied to patients from secondary care. In this nested case-control study, concentrations of 22 proteins were quantified in sera from 292 patients from Malawi and South Africa who presented predominantly to secondary care. Recruitment was based upon intention of local clinicians to test for TB. The case definition for TB was culture positivity for Mycobacterium tuberculosis; and for other diseases (OD) a confirmed alternative diagnosis. Equal numbers of TB and OD patients were selected. Within each group, there were equal numbers with and without HIV and from each site. Patients were split into training and test sets for biosignature discovery. A nine-protein signature to distinguish TB from OD was discovered comprising fibrinogen, alpha-2-macroglobulin, CRP, MMP-9, transthyretin, complement factor H, IFN-gamma, IP-10, and TNF-alpha. This signature had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve in the training set of 90% (95% CI 86–95%), and, after adjusting the cut-off for increased sensitivity, a sensitivity and specificity in the test set of 92% (95% CI 80–98%) and 71% (95% CI 56–84%), respectively. The best single biomarker was complement factor H [area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 70% (95% CI 64–76%)]. Biosignatures consisting of host serum proteins may function as point-of-care screening tests for TB in African hospitals. Complement factor H is identified as a new biomarker for such signatures.
van Beek AE, Pouw RB, Wright VJ, et al., 2021, Loss of Factor H family proteins associates with meningococcal disease severity
<jats:title>ABSTRACT</jats:title><jats:p><jats:italic>Neisseria meningitidis</jats:italic>, the causative agent of meningococcal disease (MD), evades complement-mediated clearance upon infection by ‘hijacking’ the human complement regulator factor H (FH). The FH protein family also comprises the homologous FH-related (FHR) proteins, hypothesized to act as antagonists of FH, and FHR-3 has recently been implicated to play a major role in MD susceptibility. Here, we show that, next to FH and FHR-3, the circulating levels of all FH family proteins are equally decreased during pediatric MD. We did not observe a specific consumption of FH or FHR-3 by <jats:italic>N. meningitidis</jats:italic> during the first days of infection and the levels recovered over time. MD severity associated predominantly with a loss of FH. Strikingly, loss of FH and FHRs associated strongly with renal failure, suggesting insufficient protection of host tissue by the FH protein family. Retaining higher levels of FH family proteins may thus limit tissue injury during MD.</jats:p>
Harwood R, Allin B, Jones CE, et al., 2021, A national consensus management pathway for paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with COVID-19 (PIMS-TS): results of a national Delphi process, LANCET CHILD & ADOLESCENT HEALTH, Vol: 5, Pages: 133-141, ISSN: 2352-4642
Borensztajn D, Hagedoorn N, Rivero Calle I, et al., 2021, Variation in hospital admission in febrile children evaluated at the Emergency Department (ED) in Europe: PERFORM, a multicentre prospective observational study, PLoS One, Vol: 16, ISSN: 1932-6203
ObjectivesHospitalisation is frequently used as a marker of disease severity in observational Emergency Department (ED) studies. The comparison of ED admission rates is complex in potentially being influenced by the characteristics of the region, ED, physician and patient. We aimed to study variation in ED admission rates of febrile children, to assess whether variation could be explained by disease severity and to identify patient groups with large variation, in order to use this to reduce unnecessary health care utilization that is often due to practice variation.DesignMOFICHE (Management and Outcome of Fever in children in Europe, part of the PERFORM study, www.perform2020.org), is a prospective cohort study using routinely collected data on febrile children regarding patient characteristics (age, referral, vital signs and clinical alarming signs), diagnostic tests, therapy, diagnosis and hospital admission.Setting and participantsData were collected on febrile children aged 0–18 years presenting to 12 European EDs (2017–2018).Main outcome measuresWe compared admission rates between EDs by using standardised admission rates after adjusting for patient characteristics and initiated tests at the ED, where standardised rates >1 demonstrate higher admission rates than expected and rates <1 indicate lower rates than expected based on the ED patient population.ResultsWe included 38,120 children. Of those, 9.695 (25.4%) were admitted to a general ward (range EDs 5.1–54.5%). Adjusted standardised admission rates ranged between 0.6 and 1.5. The largest variation was seen in short admission rates (0.1–5.0), PICU admission rates (0.2–2.2), upper respiratory tract infections (0.4–1.7) and fever without focus (0.5–2.7). Variation was small in sepsis/meningitis (0.9–1.1).ConclusionsLarge variation exists in admission rates of febrile children evaluated at European EDs, however, this variation is largely reduced after correc
Pennisi I, Rodriguez Manzano J, Moniri A, et al., 2021, Translation of a host blood RNA Signature distinguishing bacterial from viral infection into a platform suitable for development as a point-of-care test, JAMA Pediatrics, Vol: 175, Pages: 417-419, ISSN: 2168-6203
Bautista-Rodriguez C, Sanchez-de-Toledo J, Clark BC, et al., 2021, Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children: an international survey., Pediatrics, ISSN: 0031-4005
Objective. To describe presentation, hospital course and predictors of bad outcome in MultisystemInflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C).Methods. Retrospective data review of a case series of children meeting published definition forMIS-C discharged/died between March 1st and June 15th, 2020, from 33 participating European,Asian and American hospitals. Data was collected through a web-based survey and includedclinical, laboratory, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic findings and treatmentmanagement.Results. We included 183 patients (109 males [59.6%]; mean age 7.0±4.7 years; black race,56[30.6%]; obesity, 48[26.2%]) with MIS-C. Overall, 114/183(62.3%) had evidence of SARSCoV-2 infection. All presented with fever, 117/183 (63.9%) with gastrointestinal symptoms and79/183 (43.2%) with shock, that was associated with black race, higher inflammation and imagingabnormalities. Twenty-seven patients (14.7%) fulfilled criteria for Kawasaki disease. They wereyounger with no shock, fewer gastrointestinal, cardio-respiratory and neurological symptoms. Theremaining 77 patients (49.3%) had mainly fever and inflammation. Inotropic support, mechanicalventilation and ECMO were indicated in 72 (39.3%), 43 (23.5%) and 4 (2.2%) patients,respectively. A shorter duration of symptoms prior to admission was found to be associated withpoor patient outcome and for ECMO/death, with 72.3% (95% CI 0.56-0.90, p=0.006) increasedrisk per day reduction and with 63.3% (95% CI 0.47-0.82, p<0.0001) increased risk per dayreduction respectively.Conclusion. In this case series, children with MIS-C presented with a wide clinical spectrum,including KD-like, life-threatening shock and milder forms with mainly fever and inflammation.A shorter duration of symptoms prior to admission was associated with worse outcome.
Menikou S, McArdle AJ, Li M-S, et al., 2020, A proteomics-based method for identifying antigens within immune complexes, PLoS One, Vol: 15, ISSN: 1932-6203
A novel approach to recover and identify immune complexes (ICs) was developed using size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and affinity chromatography on immunoglobulin binding columns (HiTrap Protein G). The purification process was monitored by 1D SDS-PAGE, protein staining, Western blotting and, finally, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC MS/MS) was used to identify the recovered antigens. This approach was applied to serum with artificially created immune complexes (ICs) comprising vaccine antigen (influenza) and antibody, which led to recovery and identification of influenza peptides within the recovered ICs. This approach was compared with the established method for IC detection and recovery, polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation, followed by LC MS/MS. Both approaches successfully enabled capture, recovery and characterization of immunoglobulins and influenza antigen(s) in complex with the immunoglobulins. However, PEG precipitation has the advantage of simplicity and is more suited for large scale studies.
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