Imperial College London

DrMarkOxborrow

Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Materials

Reader in Functional Microwave Materials & Devices
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 1410m.oxborrow

 
 
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Location

 

2.04Royal School of MinesSouth Kensington Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
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57 results found

Wu H, Mirkhanov S, Ng W, Oxborrow Met al., 2021, Bench-top cooling of a microwave mode using an optically pumped spin refrigerator, Physical Review Letters, ISSN: 0031-9007

We experimentally demonstrate the temporary removal of thermal photons from a microwavemode at 1.45 GHz through its interaction with the spin-polarized triplet states of photo-excitedpentacene molecules doped within a p-terphenyl crystal at room temperature. The crystal functions electromagnetically as a narrow-band cryogenic load, removing photons from the otherwiseroom-temperature mode via stimulated absorption. The noise temperature of the microwave modedropped to 50+18−32 K (as directly inferred by noise-power measurements) while the metal walls of thecavity enclosing the mode remained at room temperature. Simulations based on the same system’sbehavior as a maser (which could be characterized more accurately) indicate the possibility of themode’s temperature sinking to ∼10 K (corresponding to ∼140 microwave photons).These observations, when combined with engineering improvements to deepen the cooling, identify the systemas a narrow-band yet extremely convenient platform —free of cryogenics, vacuum chambers andstrong magnets— for realizing low-noise detectors, quantum memory and quantum-enhanced machines (such as heat engines) based on strong spin-photon coupling and entanglement at microwavefrequencies.

Journal article

Wu H, Xie X, Ng W, Mehanna S, Li Y, Attwood M, Oxborrow Met al., 2020, Room-temperature quasi-continuous-wave pentacene maser pumped by an invasive Ce:YAG luminescent concentrator, Physical Review Applied, Vol: 14, Pages: 064017 – 1-064017 – 10, ISSN: 2331-7019

We present in this work a quasi-continuous-wave (cw) pentacene maser operating at 1.45 GHz in the Earth’s magnetic field at room temperature with a duration of approximately 4 ms and an output power of up to −25 dBm. The maser is optically pumped by a cerium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) (Ce:YAG) luminescent concentrator (LC), the wedge-shaped output of which is embedded inside a 0.1% pentacene-doped para-terphenyl (Pc:Ptp) crystal. The pumped crystal is located inside a ring of strontium titanate (STO) that supports a TE01δ mode of high magnetic Purcell factor. Combined with simulations, our results indicate that cw operation of pentacene masers at room temperature is perfectly feasible so long as excessive heating of the crystal is avoided.

Journal article

Keyser AKV, Burnett JJ, Kubatkin SE, Danilov AV, Oxborrow M, de Graaf SE, Lindstroem Tet al., 2020, Pulsed electron spin resonance of an organic microcrystal by dispersive readout, JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE, Vol: 321, ISSN: 1090-7807

Journal article

Wu H, Mirkhanov S, Ng W, Chen K-C, Xiong Y, Oxborrow Met al., 2020, Invasive optical pumping for room-temperature masers, time-resolved EPR, triplet-DNP, and quantum engines exploiting strong coupling, Optics Express, Vol: 28, Pages: 29691-29702, ISSN: 1094-4087

We explore an approach for optically pumping a body of optically dense magnetic material. This challenge arises in time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance (TREPR), triplet-based dynamic nuclear polarisation (DNP), and cavity QED. Crystals of pentacene-doped p-terphenyl were grown around variously shaped ends of optical waveguides, through which pump light could be injected deeply into the crystal. When incorporated into a maser as the gain medium, we found that, compared to conventional side-pumping, 11 times less pump beam intensity was needed to reach the masing threshold and 54 times more pulse energy could be absorbed by the gain medium without damage, resulting in a record peak output power of -5 dBm.

Journal article

Dejean V, Konowalczyk M, Gravell J, Golesworthy MJ, Gunn C, Pompe N, Vander Elst OF, Tan K-J, Oxborrow M, Aarts DGAL, Mackenzie SR, Timmel CRet al., 2020, Detection of magnetic field effects by confocal microscopy, Chemical Science, Vol: 11, Pages: 7772-7781, ISSN: 2041-6520

Certain pairs of paramagnetic species generated under conservation of total spin angular momentum are known to undergo magnetosensitive processes. Two prominent examples of systems exhibiting these so-called magnetic field effects (MFEs) are photogenerated radical pairs created from either singlet or triplet molecular precursors, and pairs of triplet states generated by singlet fission. Here, we showcase confocal microscopy as a powerful technique for the investigation of such phenomena. We first characterise the instrument by studying the field-sensitive chemistry of two systems in solution: radical pairs formed in a cryptochrome protein and the flavin mononucleotide/hen egg-white lysozyme model system. We then extend these studies to single crystals. Firstly, we report temporally and spatially resolved MFEs in flavin-doped lysozyme single crystals. Anisotropic magnetic field effects are then reported in tetracene single crystals. Finally, we discuss the future applications of confocal microscopy for the study of magnetosensitive processes with a particular focus on the cryptochrome-based chemical compass believed to lie at the heart of animal magnetoreception.

Journal article

Wu H, Ng W, Mirkhanov S, Amirzhan A, Nitnara S, Oxborrow Met al., 2019, Unraveling the room-temperature spin dynamics of photoexcited pentacene in its lowest triplet state at zero field, The Journal of Physical Chemistry C: Energy Conversion and Storage, Optical and Electronic Devices, Interfaces, Nanomaterials, and Hard Matter, Vol: 123, Pages: 24275-24279, ISSN: 1932-7447

Photoexcited pentacene, upon arriving via intersystem crossing into its lowest triplet state, has been extensively studied due to the large and relatively long-lived spin polarization that it exhibits. However, the spin dynamics of these triplets has not hitherto been accurately determined, with glaring inconsistencies between published values. Using zero-field transient electron paramagnetic resonance (ZF-trEPR), we here report the determination of a complete set of depopulation and spin–lattice relaxation rates for the lowest triplet state of pentacene doped at 0.1% into a p-terphenyl host crystal at room temperature in zero applied magnetic field. The rates of spin–lattice relaxation between the triplet’s sublevels are found to be highly anisotropic (i.e., transition-specific) and not negligible compared to the rates of depopulation from the same three sublevels back to pentacene’s ground state. The spin dynamics, as well as the ZF-trEPR technique reported here, can aid the rational, quantitative engineering of applications such as room-temperature masers and triplet dynamic nuclear polarization.

Journal article

Sathian J, Oxborrow M, 2017, A Light Source

There is provided a light source arranged to output light at a first wavelength. The light source comprises a luminescent concentrator having a slab-shaped geometry. The luminescent concentrator comprises: an input port arranged to receive light and define a first area; an output port arranged to transmit light and define a second area which is smaller than the first area; and surfaces arranged to direct light inside the luminescent concentrator to the output port. The luminescent concentrator further comprises lumophores arranged to receive light at a second wavelength and emit light at the first wavelength; and a pump light supply coupled to the input port and arranged to illuminate the input port with light at the second wavelength.

Patent

Sathian J, Breeze J, Richards B, Alford N, Oxborrow Met al., 2017, Solid-state source of intense yellow light based on a Ce:YAG luminescent concentrator, Optics Express, Vol: 25, Pages: 13714-13727, ISSN: 1094-4087

A luminescent concentrator functioning as a bright source of yellow light is reported. It comprises a waveguide made of cerium-doped YAG crystal, in the form of a long-thin rectangular strip, surrounded by flowing air and optically pumped from both sides with blue light from arrays of high-efficiency InGaN LEDs. Phosphor-converted yellow light, generated within the strip, is guided to a glass taper that is butt-coupled to one of the strip’s end faces. Up to 20 W of optical power, centered on 575 nm with a linewidth of 76 nm, can be continuously radiated into air from the taper’s 1.67 mm × 1.67 mm square output aperture. The intensity of the outputted light is significantly greater than what any yellow (AlGaInP) LED can directly produce (either singly or arrayed), with only a modest increase in linewidth. Furthermore, the wall-plug efficiency of the source exceeds that of any yellow laser. The concept allows for further substantial increases in intensity, total output power and wall-plug efficiency through scaling-up and engineering refinements.

Journal article

Salvadori E, Breeze JD, Tan K-J, Sathian J, Richards B, Fung MW, Wolfowicz G, Oxborrow M, Alford NM, Kay CWMet al., 2017, Nanosecond time-resolved characterization of a pentacene-based room-temperature MASER, Scientific Reports, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2045-2322

The performance of a room temperature, zero-field MASER operating at 1.45 GHz has been examined. Nanosecond laser pulses, which are essentially instantaneous on the timescale of the spin dynamics, allow the visible-to-microwave conversion efficiency and temporal response of the MASER to be measured as a function of excitation energy. It is observed that the timing and amplitude of the MASER output pulse are correlated with the laser excitation energy: at higher laser energy, the microwave pulses have larger amplitude and appear after shorter delay than those recorded at lower laser energy. Seeding experiments demonstrate that the output variation may be stabilized by an external source and establish the minimum seeding power required. The dynamics of the MASER emission may be modeled by a pair of first order, non-linear differential equations, derived from the Lotka-Volterra model (Predator-Prey), where by the microwave mode of the resonator is the predator and the spin polarization in the triplet state of pentacene is the prey. Simulations allowed the Einstein coefficient of stimulated emission, the spin-lattice relaxation and the number of triplets contributing to the MASER emission to be estimated. These are essential parameters for the rational improvement of a MASER based on a spin-polarized triplet molecule.

Journal article

Bogatko SA, Haynes PD, Sathian J, Wade J, Kim J-S, Tan K-J, Breeze J, Salvadori E, Horsfield AP, Oxborrow Met al., 2016, Molecular design of a room-temperature maser, The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol: 120, Pages: 8251-8260, ISSN: 1932-7447

Journal article

Breeze J, Tan K-J, Richards B, Sathian J, Oxborrow M, Alford NMet al., 2015, Enhanced magnetic Purcell effect in room-temperature masers, Nature Communications, Vol: 6, Pages: 1-6, ISSN: 2041-1723

Recently, the world’s first room-temperature maser was demonstrated. The maser consisted of a sapphire ring housing a crystal of pentacene-doped p-terphenyl, pumped by a pulsed rhodamine-dye laser. Stimulated emission of microwaves was aided by the high quality factor and small magnetic mode volume of the maser cavity yet the peak optical pumping power was 1.4 kW. Here we report dramatic miniaturization and 2 orders of magnitude reduction in optical pumping power for a room-temperature maser by coupling a strontium titanate resonator with the spin-polarized population inversion provided by triplet states in an optically excited pentacene-doped p-terphenyl crystal. We observe maser emission in a thimble-sized resonator using a xenon flash lamp as an optical pump source with peak optical power of 70 W. This is a significant step towards the goal of continuous maser operation.

Journal article

Mihalkovic M, Richmond-Decker J, Henley CL, Oxborrow Met al., 2014, Ab-initio tiling and atomic structure for decagonal ZnMgY quasicrystal, PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE, Vol: 94, Pages: 1529-1541, ISSN: 1478-6435

Journal article

Oxborrow M, Breeze JD, Alford NM, 2012, Room-temperature solid-state maser, NATURE, Vol: 488, Pages: 353-+, ISSN: 0028-0836

Journal article

Lindstroem T, Burnett J, Oxborrow M, Tzalenchuk AYet al., 2011, Pound-locking for characterization of superconducting microresonators, REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS, Vol: 82, ISSN: 0034-6748

Journal article

Breeze J, Oxborrow M, Alford NM, 2011, Better than Bragg: Optimizing the quality factor of resonators with aperiodic dielectric reflectors, APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, Vol: 99, ISSN: 0003-6951

Journal article

Grop S, Schaefer W, Bourgeois P-Y, Kersale Y, Oxborrow M, Rubiola E, Giordano Vet al., 2011, Unprecedented Long-Term Frequency Stability With a Microwave Resonator Oscillator, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ULTRASONICS FERROELECTRICS AND FREQUENCY CONTROL, Vol: 58, Pages: 1694-1697, ISSN: 0885-3010

Journal article

Jones BD, Oxborrow M, Astratov VN, Hopkinson M, Tahraoui A, Skolnick MS, Fox AMet al., 2011, Splitting and lasing of whispering gallery modes in quantum dot micropillars, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Publisher: IEEE, ISSN: 2160-9020

Conference paper

Jones BD, Oxborrow M, Astratov VN, Hopkinson M, Tahraoui A, Skolnick MS, Fox AMet al., 2010, Splitting and lasing of whispering gallery modes in quantum dot micropillars., Optics Express, Vol: 18, Pages: 22578-22592

We have studied the whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonances of GaAs/AlGaAs microcavity pillars containing InAs quantum dots. High quality factor WGMs are observed from a wide range of pillars with diameters from 1.2 to 50 μm. Multimode lasing with sub-milliwatt thresholds and high beta-factors approaching unity is observed under optical pumping in a 4 μm diameter pillar. Mode splitting is observed in WGMs from pillars with diameters of 5 μm, 20 μm and 50 μm.We develop a model in which the mode splitting in the larger pillars is caused by resonant scattering from the quantum dots themselves. The model explains why splittings are observed in all of the larger pillars and that the splitting decreases with increasing wavelength. Numerical simulations by COMSOL confirm that the model is plausible. This mechanism of splitting should be general for all circular resonant structures containing quantum dots such as microdisks, rings, toroids, and microspheres.

Journal article

Avlund M, Ellegaard C, Oxborrow M, Guhr T, Sondergaard Net al., 2010, Observation of Periodic Orbits on Curved Two-Dimensional Geometries, PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, Vol: 104, ISSN: 0031-9007

Journal article

Grop S, Bourgeois PY, Bazin N, Kersale Y, Rubiola E, Langham C, Oxborrow M, Clapton D, Walker S, De Vicente J, Giordano Vet al., 2010, ELISA: A cryocooled 10 GHz oscillator with 10(-15) frequency stability, REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS, Vol: 81, ISSN: 0034-6748

Journal article

Grop S, Bourgeois PY, Bazin N, Kersale Y, Rubiola E, Langham C, Oxborrow M, Clapton D, Walker S, De Vicente J, Giordano Vet al., 2010, Demonstration of a cryocooled 10 GHz oscillator with 10(-15) frequency stability., 24th European Frequency and Time Forum (EFTF), Publisher: IEEE

Conference paper

Grop S, Bourgeois PY, Bazin N, Rubiola E, Langham C, Oxborrow M, Schaefer W, De Vicente J, Kersale Y, Giordano Vet al., 2010, High Stability Cryocooled 10 GHz Oscillator For The European Space Agency, 2010 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium, Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 665-669, ISSN: 1075-6787

Conference paper

Grop S, Giordano V, Bourgeois PY, Bazin N, Kersale Y, Oxborrow M, Marra G, Langham C, Rubiola E, DeVincente Jet al., 2009, ELISA: an Ultra-Stable Oscillator for ESA Deep Space Antennas, Joint Meeting of the 23rd European Frequency and Time Forum/IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium, Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 376-380, ISSN: 1075-6787

Conference paper

Benmessai K, Bourgeois PY, Bazin N, Kersale Y, Giordano V, Oxborrow M, Creedon DL, Hartnett JG, Tobar MEet al., 2009, NEW RESULTS FOR WHISPERING GALLERY MODE CRYOGENIC SAPPHIRE MASER OSCILLATORS, 7th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, Publisher: WORLD SCIENTIFIC PUBL CO PTE LTD, Pages: 398-402

Conference paper

Schwefel HGL, Yang L, Oxborrow M, Stone AD, Vahala KJ, Carmon Tet al., 2009, Level Crossing in Toroidal On-chip Microcavities, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (CLEO/QELS 2009), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 1333-+

Conference paper

Carmon T, Schwefel HGL, Yang L, Oxborrow M, Stone AD, Vahala KJet al., 2008, Static envelope patterns in composite resonances generated by level crossing in optical toroidal microcavities, PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, Vol: 100, ISSN: 0031-9007

Journal article

Webster SA, Oxborrow M, Pugla S, Millo J, Gill Pet al., 2008, Thermal-noise-limited optical cavity, PHYSICAL REVIEW A, Vol: 77, ISSN: 1050-2947

Journal article

Webster SA, Pugla S, Millo J, Oxborrow M, Gill Pet al., 2008, Thermal-noise-limited optical cavity, Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 58-+

Conference paper

Benmessai K, Bourgeois PY, Kersale Y, Bazin N, Tobar ME, Hartnett JG, Oxborrow M, Giordano Vet al., 2007, Frequency instability measurement system of cryogenic maser oscillator, ELECTRONICS LETTERS, Vol: 43, Pages: 1436-1437, ISSN: 0013-5194

Journal article

Oxborrow M, 2007, Whispering Gallery Oscillator, US 7,292,112

Patent

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