Imperial College London


Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Materials

Vice-Dean (Research), Faculty of Engineering



+44 (0)20 7594 6755m.p.ryan




B338Royal School of MinesSouth Kensington Campus






BibTex format

author = {Calderon, L and Han, TT and McGilvery, CM and Yang, L and Subramaniam, P and Lee, K-B and Schwander, S and Tetley, TD and Georgopoulos, PG and Ryan, M and Porter, AE and Smith, R and Chung, KF and Lioy, PJ and Zhang, J and Mainelis, G},
doi = {10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.02.016},
pages = {85--96},
title = {Release of airborne particles and Ag and Zn compounds from nanotechnology-enabled consumer sprays: Implications for inhalation exposure},
url = {},
volume = {155},
year = {2017}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - The increasing prevalence and use of nanotechnology-enabled consumer products have increased potential consumer exposures to nanoparticles; however, there is still a lack of data characterizing such consumer exposure. The research reported here investigated near-field airborne exposures due to the use of 13 silver (Ag)-based and 5 zinc (Zn)-based consumer sprays. The products were sprayed into a specially designed glove box, and all products were applied with equal spraying duration and frequency. Size distribution and concentration of the released particles were assessed using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer and an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to investigate the presence of metals in all investigated products. Spray liquids and airborne particles from select products were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). We found that all sprays produced airborne particles ranging in size from nano-sized particles (<100 nm) to coarse particles (>2.5 μm); however, there was a substantial variation in the released particle concentration depending on a product. The total aerosol mass concentration was dominated by the presence of coarse particles, and it ranged from ∼30 μg/m3 to ∼30,000 μg/m3. The TEM verified the presence of nanoparticles and their agglomerates in liquid and airborne states. The products were found to contain not only Ag and Zn compounds - as advertised on the product labeling - but also a variety of other metals including lithium, strontium, barium, lead, manganese and others. The results presented here can be used as input to model population exposures as well as form a basis for human health effects studies due to the use nanotechnology-enabled products.
AU - Calderon,L
AU - Han,TT
AU - McGilvery,CM
AU - Yang,L
AU - Subramaniam,P
AU - Lee,K-B
AU - Schwander,S
AU - Tetley,TD
AU - Georgopoulos,PG
AU - Ryan,M
AU - Porter,AE
AU - Smith,R
AU - Chung,KF
AU - Lioy,PJ
AU - Zhang,J
AU - Mainelis,G
DO - 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.02.016
EP - 96
PY - 2017///
SN - 1352-2310
SP - 85
TI - Release of airborne particles and Ag and Zn compounds from nanotechnology-enabled consumer sprays: Implications for inhalation exposure
UR -
UR -
UR -
VL - 155
ER -