42 results found
Quinlan M, Hayes KR, 2022, Risk analysis of transgenic insects, Transgenic insects: techniques and applications, Editors: Benedict, Scott, Publisher: CABI Publishing, Wallingford, United Kingdom, Pages: 552-578
QUINLAN MM, MUMFORD JD, MESSORI S, et al., 2022, Issues and gaps in international guidance and national regulatory systems affecting international live insect trade, Revue Scientifique et Technique de l'OIE, Vol: 41, Pages: 198-210, ISSN: 0253-1933
International trade in live insects involves the shipping of many different species, for various purposes, with a varietyof handling requirements regulated by numerous authorities with varying objectives. The diversity of factors at playhas both created and been subject to a complex regulatory landscape. A review of global production, shipping and useexperiences from a range of perspectives has shown gaps and inconsistencies in international guidance and nationalimplementation. Private carriers add another layer of uncertainty that is disproportionate to risks, resulting in variablepractices and charges.Many benefits can come from international trade in insects, including pollinator services, control of pests and of disease vectors, and enhanced international scientific research and innovation. These benefits will be better achievedthrough a more evidence-based and efficient approach to regulating trade. This change in approach will in turn require an improved and widely accepted risk-management landscape for insect trade.
OLIVA CF, CHAND R, PRUDHOMME J, et al., 2022, International live insect trade: a survey of stakeholders, Revue Scientifique et Technique de l'OIE, Vol: 41, Pages: 29-65, ISSN: 0253-1933
There are significant numbers of transboundary shipments of live insects for pollination, pest management, industrialprocesses, research and other uses, but data collection and analysis have proved difficult. The World Organisation forAnimal Health and Collectif TIS (Technique de l’Insecte Stérile), a French think tank, carried out a stakeholder surveyto understand the nature of the live insect trade and potential challenges to safety and efficiency. Target respondentshad experience in the areas of biocontrol, sterile insect technique, entomological research and regulatory affairs.Although the survey was sent globally, the responses were unintentionally biased towards Europe, where interest ishigh, since this region is developing a comprehensive framework to promote the use of beneficial insects to replacepesticides.The survey also explored respondents’ knowledge of several international agreements on the movement and riskmanagement of beneficial or invasive insects. Knowledge of the various regulations was generally poor, and respondents highlighted a perceived lack of clarity regarding live insect shipments in the existing international regulationsand guidelines. Almost two-thirds of participants reported reluctance by carriers to accept live insects for shipment,and three-quarters described occasional to systematic delays that resulted in a reduction of quality or viability. Somerespondents reported that they instead hand-carry live insects, mostly in small quantities.Participants described being directly involved in trade covering 70 species of live insects and ticks transportedamong 37 countries, with volumes ranging from fewer than ten insects to over a million per shipment. Of these, 30%were potential vectors of pathogens to humans or animals, 42% were potential plant pest species (including someused for biocontrol), and 17% were classical biocontrol agents.The results of this survey begin to define the current scope, scale and issues for t
MUMFORD JD, QUINLAN MM, 2022, Introduction, Revue Scientifique et Technique de l'OIE, Vol: 41, Pages: 15-28, ISSN: 0253-1933
QUINLAN MM, MUMFORD JD, BENEDICT MQ, et al., 2022, Can there be a common, risk-based framework for decisions around live insect trade?, Revue Scientifique et Technique de l'OIE, Vol: 41, Pages: 219-227, ISSN: 0253-1933
A network of scientists involved in shipment of live insects has met and generated a series of articles on issues relatedto live insect transport. The network is diverse, covering large-scale commercial interests, government operated areawide control programmes, biomedical research and many smaller applications, in research, education and privateuses. Many insect species have a record of safe transport, pose minimal risks and are shipped frequently betweencountries. The routine shipments of the most frequently used insect model organism for biomedical research,Drosophila melanogaster, is an example. Successful large-scale shipments from commercial biocontrol and pollinatorsuppliers also demonstrate precedents for low-risk shipment categories, delivered in large volumes to high qualitystandards. Decision makers need access to more information (publications or official papers) that details actual risksfrom the insects themselves or their possible contaminants, and should propose proportionate levels of management.There may be harm to source environments when insects are collected directly from the wild, and there may be harmhttps://doi.org/10.20506/rst.41.1.3319Scientific and Technical Review 41 (1) 2022 220to receiving environments. Several risk frameworks include insects and various international coordinating bodies,with experience of guidance on relevant risks, exist. All stakeholders would benefit from an integrated overview ofguidance for insect shipping, with reference to types of risk and categories of magnitude, without trying for a singleapproach requiring universal agreement. Proposals for managing uncertainty and lack of data for smaller or infrequent shipments, for example, must not disrupt trade in large volumes of live insects, which are already supportingstrategic objectives in several sectors.
MUMFORD JD, QUINLAN MM, 2022, Opportunities and recommendations for improved international shipment of live insects, Revue Scientifique et Technique de l'OIE, Vol: 41, Pages: 228-250, ISSN: 0253-1933
While the information on live insect shipments provided in this thematic issue of the Scientific and Technical Reviewcould not be exhaustive, it clearly represents a broad variety of trade, of substantial value, involving many stakeholdersthroughout the world. The contributions to this issue demonstrate that most of the trade in insects is carried out safelyand efficiently. The concerns related to shipping insects described within this issue fall broadly into four categories:risks to human, animal and environmental health; delays and loss of quality; refusal of carriage; and high and variablecosts. Some opportunities for improvements to insect shipping for diverse stakeholders are shown across these fourareas of concern, with specific recommendations and a general call for further collaboration among stakeholders.
Guissou C, Quinlan MM, Sanou R, et al., 2022, Preparing an insectary in Burkina Faso to support research in genetic technologies for malaria control, Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, Vol: 22, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 1530-3667
The Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé (IRSS) of Burkina Faso, West Africa, was the first African institution to import transgenic mosquitoes for research purposes. A shift from the culture of mosquito research to regulated biotechnology research and considerable management capacity is needed to set up and run the first insectary for transgenic insects in a country that applied and adapted the existing biosafety framework, first developed for genetically modified (GM) crops, to this new area of research. The additional demands arise from the separate regulatory framework for biotechnology, referencing the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, and the novelty of the research strain, making public understanding and acceptance early in the research pathway important. The IRSS team carried out extensive preparations following recommendations for containment of GM arthropods and invested efforts in local community engagement and training with scientific colleagues throughout the region. Record keeping beyond routine practice was established to maintain evidence related to regulatory requirements and risk assumptions. The National Biosafety Agency of Burkina Faso, Agence Nationale de Biosécurité (ANB), granted the permits for import of the self-limiting transgenic mosquito strain, which took place in November 2016, and for conducting studies in the IRSS facility in Bobo-Dioulasso. Compliance with permit terms and conditions of the permits and study protocols continued until the conclusion of studies, when the transgenic colonies were terminated. All this required close coordination between management and the insectary teams, as well as others. This article outlines the experiences of the IRSS to support others undertaking such studies. The IRSS is contributing to the ongoing development of genetic technologies for malaria control, as a partner of Target Malaria. The ultimate objective of the innovation is to reduce malaria transmission by using
Quinlan MM, Leach A, Mumford J, 2020, Classification of objectives in Systems Approaches to manage horticultural biosecurity risks for market access, Crop Protection, Pages: 105286-105286, ISSN: 0261-2194
Systems Approach is a method for management of pest risk used in international trade. It consists of a combination of independent phytosanitary measures which either reduce the risk directly or provide additional information to reduce the uncertainty and support decision making. Control points within a system allow pest managers to effectively respond to real time information and adjust the application of measures, if the performance of the system up to that point is not adequate. The ability to adjust a system during trade or after learning more about the pest or trade is one of the key advantages of Systems Approach. Our research group found that identification of specific objectives for each measure in a system enhances understanding of the overall risk and supports design or evaluation of risk management plans. While some terminology, tools and frameworks vary globally, this paper seeks further harmonization in order to better implement Systems Approach and achieve safe trade.
Quinlan MM, Leach A, Jeger M, et al., 2020, Pest Risk Management in Trade: The Opportunity from Using Integrated Combined Measures in a Systems Approach (ISPM 14), Outlooks on Pest Management, Vol: 31, Pages: 106-112, ISSN: 1743-1026
<jats:p>During the International Year of Plant Health, the role of pest risk management in trade is reemphasised. Systems Approach uses a combination of measures to reduce pest risk, making it more robust against failure than a single pre-export phytosanitary measure. The original context for formalising Systems Approach in an International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM 14) is considered next to today's global situation. A summary of advantages and challenges for implementation concludes with recommendations. The use of decision support tools is highlighted as one way to increase confidence in the efficacy of a system that may include very different types of measures with varying kinds of supportive evidence. Ultimately trust and confidence between trade partners is key to finding pest risk management that allows safe trade. At a time of global economic stress, this article encourages those involved in trade to embrace Systems Approach as an effective approach to preventing the spread of plant pests, as coordinated by the International Plant Protection Convention and its over 180 member countries.</jats:p>
Collins CMT, Quinlan MM, 2020, Auditing preparedness for vector control field studies, The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol: 102, Pages: 707-710, ISSN: 0002-9637
The value of baseline entomological data to any future area-wide release campaign relies on the application of consistent methods to produce results comparable across different times and places in a stepwise progression to larger releases. Traditionally, standard operating procedures (SOPs) and operational plans support this consistency and, thus, the validity of emergent data. When release plans include transgenic mosquitoes for vector control or other novel beneficial insects, additional factors come into play such as biosafety permits, stakeholder acceptance, and ethics approval, which require even greater coordination and thoroughness. An audit approach was developed to verify the correct use of SOPs and appropriate performance of tasks during mosquito mark, release, recapture (MRR) studies. Audit questions matched SOPs, permit terms and conditions, and other key criteria, and can be used to support subsequent “spot check” verification by field teams. An external team of auditors, however, was found to be effective for initial checks in this example before the use of a transgenic strain of laboratory mosquitoes. We recommend similar approaches for field studies using release of novel beneficial insects, to ensure useful and valid data as an outcome and to support confidence in the rigor of the step-wise process.
Quinlan M, 2019, Delivery of a novel intervention for vector control: Learning frameworks to support complex decisions
Malaria remains a serious public health challenge, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where initial progress from use of bed nets or indoor spraying is faltering in the face of insecticide resistance and other challenges. Vector control is a critical component for eliminating malaria. Consequently, there is increasing demand for novel approaches to mosquito vector control. This study focuses on moving one innovation – employing released modified mosquitoes to target their own species – from an external discovery laboratory through the early phases of evaluation and delivery into disease affected countries. A stepwise approach (contained studies, confined studies, pilot field studies) is considered best practice, in order to build knowledge on safety and efficacy while also increasing capacity of the decision makers. In reality, a diverse range of decision makers must make judgements about novel interventions in the face of uncertainty and lack of direct experience. To date, considerations regarding partnership with researchers in a disease endemic country and establishing the standards for containment studies are barely mentioned in the literature on genetic strategies, which focuses instead on national frameworks and biological criteria for the field study phase. This thesis raises the question of what constitutes good practices and supportive decision tools in this scenario, using action research, interviews and literature review and testing of some early prototypes. The researcher confirmed the value of simple frameworks to organise information, document evidence and inform future decisions, particularly when identifying appropriate research partners. Benchmarking the point at which to transfer a research organism to a partner can support those addressing the series of complex decisions unique to novel malaria interventions with more confidence and transparency. Learning tools are only effective when balanced with commitment to provide the resources a
Bartumeus F, Costa GB, Eritja R, et al., 2019, Sustainable innovation in vector control requires strong partnerships with communities, PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, Vol: 13, ISSN: 1935-2727
Collins CM, Bonds J, Quinlan M, et al., 2019, Effects of removal or reduced density of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae s.l., on interacting predators and competitors in local ecosystems, Medical and Veterinary Entomology, Vol: 33, Pages: 1-15, ISSN: 0269-283X
New genetic control methods for mosquitoes may reduce vector species without direct effects on other species or the physical environment common with insecticides or drainage. Effects on predators and competitors could, however, be a concern as Anopheles gambiae s.l. is preyed upon in all life stages. We overview the literature and assess the strength of the ecological interactions identified. Most predators identified consume many other insect species and there is no evidence that any species preys exclusively on any anopheline mosquito. There is one predatory species with a specialisation on blood‐fed mosquitoes including An. gambiae s.l.. Evarcha culicivora is a jumping spider, known as the vampire spider, found around Lake Victoria. There is no evidence that these salticids require Anopheles mosquitoes and will readily consume blood‐fed Culex. Interspecific competition studies focus on other mosquitoes of larval habitats. Many of these take place in artificial cosms and give contrasting results to semi‐field studies. This may limit their extrapolation regarding the potential impact of reduced An. gambiae numbers. Previous mosquito control interventions are informative and identify competitive release and niche opportunism; so while the identity and relative abundance of the species present may change, the biomass available to predators may not.
Mumford JD, Leach AW, Benedict MQ, et al., 2018, Maintaining quality of candidate strains of transgenic mosquitoes for studies in containment facilities in disease endemic countries, Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, Vol: 18, Pages: 31-38, ISSN: 1530-3667
Transgenic mosquitoes are being developed as novel components of area-wide approaches to vector-borne disease control. Best practice is to develop these in phases, beginning with laboratory studies, before moving to field testing and inclusion in control programs, to ensure safety and prevent costly field testing of unsuitable strains. The process of identifying and developing good candidate strains requires maintenance of transgenic colonies over many generations in containment facilities. By working in disease endemic countries with target vector populations, laboratory strains may be developed and selected for properties that will enhance intended control efficacy in the next phase, while avoiding traits that introduce unnecessary risks. Candidate strains aiming toward field use must consistently achieve established performance criteria, throughout the process of scaling up from small study colonies to production of sufficient numbers for field testing and possible open release. Maintenance of a consistent quality can be demonstrated by a set of insect quality and insectary operating indicators, measured over time at predetermined intervals. These indicators: inform comparability of studies using various candidate strains at different times and locations; provide evidence of conformity relevant to compliance with terms of approval for regulated use; and can be used to validate some assumptions related to risk assessments covering the contained phase and for release into the environment.
Quinlan MM, Mutunga JM, Diabate A, et al., 2018, Studies of transgenic mosquitoes in disease-endemic countries: preparation of containment facilities, Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, Vol: 18, Pages: 21-30, ISSN: 1530-3667
Novel approaches to area-wide control of vector species offer promise as additional tools in the fight against vectored diseases. Evaluation of transgenic insect strains aimed at field population control in disease-endemic countries may involve international partnerships and should be done in a stepwise approach, starting with studies in containment facilities. The preparations of both new-build and renovated facilities are described, including working with local and national regulations regarding land use, construction, and biosafety requirements, as well as international guidance to fill any gaps in regulation. The examples given are for containment categorization at Arthropod Containment Level 2 for initial facility design, classification of wastes, and precautions during shipping. Specific lessons were derived from preparations to evaluate transgenic (non-gene drive) mosquitoes in West and East African countries. Documented procedures and the use of a non-transgenic training strain for trial shipments and culturing were used to develop competence and confidence among the African facility staff, and along the chain of custody for transport. This practical description is offered to support other research consortia or institutions preparing containment facilities and operating procedures in conditions where research on transgenic insects is at an early stage.
Benedict MQ, Quinlan MM, 2018, Genetically engineered mosquitoes for pathogen control, Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, Vol: 18, Pages: 1-1, ISSN: 1530-3667
Quinlan MM, Birungi J, Coulibaly MB, et al., 2018, Containment studies of transgenic mosquitoes in disease endemic countries: the broad concept of facilities readiness, Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, Vol: 18, Pages: 14-20, ISSN: 1530-3667
Genetic strategies for large scale pest or vector control using modified insects are not yet operational in Africa, and currently rely on import of the modified strains to begin preliminary, contained studies. Early involvement of research teams from participating countries is crucial to evaluate candidate field interventions. Following the recommended phased approach for novel strategies, evaluation should begin with studies in containment facilities. Experiences to prepare facilities and build international teams for research on transgenic mosquitoes revealed some important organizing themes underlying the concept of “facilities readiness,” or the point at which studies in containment may proceed, in sub-Saharan African settings. First, “compliance” for research with novel or non-native living organisms was defined as the fulfillment of all legislative and regulatory requirements. This is not limited to regulations regarding use of transgenic organisms. Second, the concept of “colony utility” was related to the characteristics of laboratory colonies being produced so that results of studies may be validated across time, sites, and strains or technologies; so that the appropriate candidate strains are moved forward toward field studies. Third, the importance of achieving “defensible science” was recognized, including that study conclusions can be traced back to evidence, covering the concerns of various stakeholders over the long term. This, combined with good stewardship of resources and appropriate funding, covers a diverse set of criteria for declaring when “facilities readiness” has been attained. It is proposed that, despite the additional demands on time and resources, only with the balance of and rigorous achievement of each of these organizing themes can collaborative research into novel strategies in vector or pest control reliably progress past initial containment studies.
Holt J, Leach AW, Johnson S, et al., 2017, Bayesian Networks to Compare Pest Control Interventions on Commodities Along Agricultural Production Chains., Risk Analysis, Vol: 38, Pages: 297-310, ISSN: 0272-4332
The production of an agricultural commodity involves a sequence of processes: planting/growing, harvesting, sorting/grading, postharvest treatment, packing, and exporting. A Bayesian network has been developed to represent the level of potential infestation of an agricultural commodity by a specified pest along an agricultural production chain. It reflects the dependency of this infestation on the predicted level of pest challenge, the anticipated susceptibility of the commodity to the pest, the level of impact from pest control measures as designed, and any variation from that due to uncertainty in measure efficacy. The objective of this Bayesian network is to facilitate agreement between national governments of the exporters and importers on a set of phytosanitary measures to meet specific phytosanitary measure requirements to achieve target levels of protection against regulated pests. The model can be used to compare the performance of different combinations of measures under different scenarios of pest challenge, making use of available measure performance data. A case study is presented using a model developed for a fruit fly pest on dragon fruit in Vietnam; the model parameters and results are illustrative and do not imply a particular level of fruit fly infestation of these exports; rather, they provide the most likely, alternative, or worst-case scenarios of the impact of measures. As a means to facilitate agreement for trade, the model provides a framework to support communication between exporters and importers about any differences in perceptions of the risk reduction achieved by pest control measures deployed during the commodity production chain.
Mumford J, Gullino ML, Stack J, et al., 2017, The need for international perspectives to solve global biosecurity challenges, Practical tools for plant and food biosecurity, Editors: Gullino, Stack, Fletcher, Mumford, Publisher: Springer International Publishing, Pages: 363-384, ISBN: 9783319468976
Global biosecurity presents international challenges because the majority of instances of novel organism introductions are due to international movements of goods, food and people and the likelihood of introduced agents crossing political boundaries. The inherent vulnerability of environments to introductions of alien, or non-indigenous, biological agents is due to the greater ecological vulnerability to these exotic entrants in the receiving environment. Agencies and individuals responsible for approving intentional introductions of beneficial organisms recognize this relationship and consider potential impacts in risk assessments prior to release of the organisms. However, some of those responsible for detection and control of novel pathogens and pests, introduced either inadvertently or intentionally, lack extensive training in ecology, environmental biology, and pathology, and may therefore underestimate the risk from such events. The latter is a key factor in the case of food safety. Europe is particularly vulnerable to cross-border movement of introduced agents, and one response to this has been the recent revision of plant health regimes throughout the European Union. Other responses include project-based initiatives, such as PLANTFOODSEC.
Quinlan MM, Alden J, Habbel F, et al., 2016, IRSS The Biosecurity Approach - A review and evaluation of its application by FAO, internationally and in various countries, Rome, Italy
Quinlan MM, 2016, IRSS Implementation Review and Support System (IRSS) Equivalence - A review of the Application of Equivalence Between Phytosanitary Measures Used to Manage Pest Risk in Trade
Quinlan MM, Mengersen K, Mumford J, et al., 2016, Beyond Compliance A Production Chain Framework for Plant Health Risk Management in Trade, Publisher: Chartridge Books Oxford, ISBN: 9781911033103
A Production Chain Framework for Plant Health Risk Management in Trade M. Megan Quinlan, Kerrie Mengersen, John Mumford, Adrian Leach, Johnson Holt, Rebecca Murphy. M. MEGAN QUINLAN, KERRIE MENGERSEN, JOHN ...
Quinlan MM, Alden J, Murphy R, 2016, IRSS Diversion From Intended Use: Consideration of the Extent of the Issue, Rome, Italy, Publisher: International Plant Protection Convention
This paper reviews the issue of the diversion after import of plant products and other regulatedarticles from the intended use, which is the declared purpose for which these items are imported.The two-part question addressed is to what extent this diversion leads to additional pest risk, orthe anticipation of diversion leads to unjustified restrictions to trade. This paper was drafted by M.Megan Quinlan and James Alden and edited by Rebecca Murphy, through Imperial College ConsultantsLtd., and reviewed by the IPPC Implementation Unit. The team would like to acknowledgeand thank all individuals and NPPOs who responded to the IPPC survey, or provided notes regardingDFIU issues. Their active participation was greatly appreciated and was key to the emergingunderstanding of the issue.
Quinlan MM, Smith J, Layton R, et al., 2016, Experiences in engaging the public on biotechnology advances and regulation, Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, Vol: 4, ISSN: 2296-4185
Public input is often sought as part of the biosafety decision-making process. Information and communication about the advances in biotechnology are part of the first step to engagement. This step often relies on the developers and introducers of the particular innovation, for example, an industry-funded website has hosted various authorities to respond to questions from the public. Alternative approaches to providing information have evolved, as demonstrated in sub-Saharan Africa where non-governmental organizations and associations play this role in some countries and subregions. Often times, those in the public who choose to participate in engagement opportunities have opinions about the overall biosafety decision process. Case-by-case decisions are made within defined regulatory frameworks, however, and in general, regulatory consultation does not provide the opportunity for input to the overall decision-making process. The various objectives on both sides of engagement can make the experience challenging; there are no clear metrics for success. The situation is challenging because public input occurs within the context of the local legislative framework, regulatory requirements, and the peculiarities of the fairly recent biosafety frameworks, as well as of public opinion and individual values. Public engagement may be conducted voluntarily, or may be driven by legislation. What can be taken into account by the decision makers, and therefore what will be gathered and the timing of consultation, also may be legally defined. Several practical experiences suggest practices for effective engagement within the confines of regulatory mandates: (1) utilizing a range of resources to facilitate public education and opportunities for understanding complex technologies; (2) defining in advance the goal of seeking input; (3) identifying and communicating with the critical public groups from which input is needed; (4) using a clearly defined approach to gathering and assessi
Quinlan M, Stanaway M, Mengerson K, 2015, Biosecurity surveillance in agriculture and environment: a review, Biosecurity surveillance: quantitative approaches, Editors: Jarrad, Low-Choy, Mengerson
Quinlan MM, 2014, Assessing risk of transgenic insects, Transgenic insects: techniques and applications, Editors: Benedict, Pages: 283-305, ISBN: 9781780644516
Mengersen K, Quinlan M, Whittle P, et al., 2012, Beyond Compliance: Project on Integrated Systems Approach for Pest Risk Management in South East Asia, Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, Vol: 42, Pages: 109-116
Whittle P, Quinlan MM, Tahir H, 2011, Beyond Compliance - Report on workshop for STDF Project Preparation Grant 328: Developing trade opportunities: an integrated systems approach for pest risk management, Publisher: www.standardsfacility.org/.../Project.../Project_Preparation_Grants/S...
Beech C, Quinlan M, et al, 2011, Update: Deployment of Innovative Genetic Vector Control Strategies including an update on the MosqGuide Project, Asia-Pacific Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Vol: 19, Pages: 101-104
Quinlan M, et al, 2010, FAO/IAEA Guidelines for Implementing SystemsApproaches for Pest Risk Management of Fruit Flies, Publisher: IAEA
Report and recommendations of the consultants group meeting organized by the JointFAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna, Austria,June 7-11 2010
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