42 results found
Eisermann J, Wright JJ, Wilton-Ely JDET, et al., 2023, Using light scattering to assess how phospholipid-protein interactions affect complex I functionality in liposomes, RSC Chemical Biology, Vol: 4, Pages: 386-398, ISSN: 2633-0679
Complex I is an essential membrane protein in respiration, oxidising NADH and reducing ubiquinone to contribute to the proton-motive force that powers ATP synthesis. Liposomes provide an attractive platform to investigate complex I in a phospholipid membrane with the native hydrophobic ubiquinone substrate and proton transport across the membrane, but without convoluting contributions from other proteins present in the native mitochondrial inner membrane. Here, we use dynamic and electrophoretic light scattering techniques (DLS and ELS) to show how physical parameters, in particular the zeta potential (ζ-potential), correlate strongly with the biochemical functionality of complex I-containing proteoliposomes. We find that cardiolipin plays a crucial role in the reconstitution and functioning of complex I and that, as a highly charged lipid, it acts as a sensitive reporter on the biochemical competence of proteoliposomes in ELS measurements. We show that the change in ζ-potential between liposomes and proteoliposomes correlates linearly with protein retention and catalytic oxidoreduction activity of complex I. These correlations are dependent on the presence of cardiolipin, but are otherwise independent of the liposome lipid composition. Moreover, changes in the ζ-potential are sensitive to the proton motive force established upon proton pumping by complex I, thereby constituting a complementary technique to established biochemical assays. ELS measurements may thus serve as a more widely useful tool to investigate membrane proteins in lipid systems, especially those that contain charged lipids.
Pichler CM, Bhattacharjee S, Lam E, et al., 2022, Bio-electrocatalytic conversion of food waste to ethylene via succinic acid as the central intermediate, ACS Catalysis, Vol: 12, Pages: 13360-13371, ISSN: 2155-5435
Ethylene is an important feedstock in the chemical industry, but currently requires production from fossil resources. The electrocatalytic oxidative decarboxylation of succinic acid offers in principle an environmentally friendly route to generate ethylene. Here, a detailed investigation of the role of different carbon electrode materials and characteristics revealed that a flat electrode surface and high ordering of the carbon material are conducive for the reaction. A range of electrochemical and spectroscopic approaches such as Koutecky–Levich analysis, rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE) studies, and Tafel analysis as well as quantum chemical calculations, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and in situ infrared (IR) spectroscopy generated further insights into the mechanism of the overall process. A distinct reaction intermediate was detected, and the decarboxylation onset potential was determined to be 2.2–2.3 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE). Following the mechanistic studies and electrode optimization, a two-step bio-electrochemical process was established for ethylene production using succinic acid sourced from food waste. The initial step of this integrated process involves microbial hydrolysis/fermentation of food waste into aqueous solutions containing succinic acid (0.3 M; 3.75 mmol per g bakery waste). The second step is the electro-oxidation of the obtained intermediate succinic acid to ethylene using a flow setup at room temperature, with a productivity of 0.4–1 μmol ethylene cmelectrode–2 h–1. This approach provides an alternative strategy to produce ethylene from food waste under ambient conditions using renewable energy.
Ji Y, Wei L, Da A, et al., 2022, Radical-SAM dependent nucleotide dehydratase (SAND), rectification of the names of an ancient iron-sulfur enzyme using NC-IUBMB recommendations, FRONTIERS IN MOLECULAR BIOSCIENCES, Vol: 9
Seif-Eddine M, Abdiaziz K, Bajada M, et al., 2022, Following the evolution of paramagnetic species during catalysis: film-electrochemical EPR spectroscopy, 21st European Bioenergetics Conference (EBEC), Publisher: ELSEVIER, Pages: 49-49, ISSN: 0005-2728
Roessler MM, 2022, Controlling and exploiting unpaired electrons in photosynthetic complex I, 21st European Bioenergetics Conference (EBEC), Publisher: ELSEVIER, Pages: 15-15, ISSN: 0005-2728
Richardson K, Seif-Eddine M, Sills A, et al., 2022, Controlling and exploiting intrinsic unpaired electrons in metalloproteins, Methods in Enzymology, Vol: 666, Pages: 233-296, ISSN: 0076-6879
Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy encompasses a versatile set of techniques that allow detailed insight into intrinsically occurring paramagnetic centers in metalloproteins and enzymes that undergo oxidation-reduction reactions. In this chapter, we discuss the process from isolating the protein to acquiring and analyzing pulse EPR spectra, adopting a practical perspective. We start with considerations when preparing the protein sample, explain techniques and procedures available for determining the reduction potential of the redox-active center of interest and provide details on methodologies to trap a given paramagnetic state for detailed pulse EPR studies, with an emphasis on biochemical and spectroscopic tools available when multiple EPR-active species are present. We elaborate on some of the most commonly used pulse EPR techniques and the choices the user has to make, considering advantages and disadvantages and how to avoid pitfalls. Examples are provided throughout.
Richardson KH, Seif-Eddine M, Sills A, et al., 2022, Controlling and exploiting intrinsic unpaired electrons in metalloproteins, ADVANCES IN BIOMOLECULAR EPR, Editors: Britt, Publisher: ACADEMIC PRESS LTD-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, Pages: 233-296
Richardson K, Wright JJ, Simenas M, et al., 2021, Functional basis of electron transport within photosynthetic complex I, Nature Communications, Vol: 12, Pages: 1-8, ISSN: 2041-1723
Photosynthesis and respiration rely upon a proton gradient to produce ATP. In photosynthesis, the Respiratory Complex I homologue, Photosynthetic Complex I (PS-CI) is proposed to couple ferredoxin oxidation and plastoquinone reduction to proton pumping across thylakoid membranes. However, little is known about the PS-CI molecular mechanism and attempts to understand its function have previously been frustrated by its large size and high lability. Here, we overcome these challenges by pushing the limits in sample size and spectroscopic sensitivity, to determine arguably the most important property of any electron transport enzyme – the reduction potentials of its cofactors, in this case the iron-sulphur clusters of PS-CI (N0, N1 and N2), and unambiguously assign them to the structure using double electron-electron resonance. We have thus determined the bioenergetics of the electron transfer relay and provide insight into the mechanism of PS-CI, laying the foundations for understanding of how this important bioenergetic complex functions.
Rimmele M, Nogala W, Seif-Eddine M, et al., 2021, Functional group introduction and aromatic unit variation in a set of π‑conjugated macrocycles: revealing the central role of local and global aromaticity, Organic Chemistry Frontiers, Vol: 8, Pages: 4730-4745, ISSN: 2052-4110
π-Conjugated macrocycles are molecules with unique properties that are increasingly exploited for applications and the question of whether they can sustain global aromatic or antiaromatic ring currents is particularly intriguing. However, there are only a small number of experimental studies that investigate how the properties of π‑conjugated macrocycles evolve with systematic structural changes. Here, we present such a systematic experimental study of a set of [22.214.171.124]cyclophanetetraenes, all with formally Hückel antiaromatic ground states, and combine it with an in-depth computational analysis. The study reveals the central role of local and global aromaticity for rationalizing the observed optoelectronic properties, ranging from extremely large Stokes shifts of up to 1.6 eV to reversible fourfold reduction, a highly useful feature for charge storage/accumulation applications. A recently developed method for the visualization of chemical shielding tensors (VIST) is applied to provide unique insight into local and global ring currents occurring in different planes along the macrocycle. Conformational changes as a result of the structural variations can further explain some of the observations. The study contributes to the development of structure–property relationships and molecular design guidelines and will help to understand, rationalize, and predict the properties of other π‑conjugated macrocycles.
Cirulli M, Salvadori E, Zhang Z-H, et al., 2021, Rotaxane Co-II complexes as field-induced single-ion magnets, Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol: 60, Pages: 16051-16058, ISSN: 1433-7851
Mechanically chelating ligands have untapped potential for the engineering of metal ion properties. Here we demonstrate this principle in the context of CoII-based single-ion magnets. Using multi-frequency EPR, susceptibility and magnetization measurements we found that these complexes show some of the highest zero field splittings reported for five-coordinate CoII complexes to date. The predictable coordination behaviour of the interlocked ligands allowed the magnetic properties of their CoII complexes to be evaluated computationally a priori and our combined experimental and theoretical approach enabled us to rationalize the observed trends. The predictable magnetic behaviour of the rotaxane CoII complexes demonstrates that interlocked ligands offer a new strategy to design metal complexes with interesting functionality.
Eisermann J, Seif-Eddine M, Roessler MM, 2021, Insights into metalloproteins and metallodrugs from electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, Current Opinion in Chemical Biology, Vol: 61, Pages: 114-122, ISSN: 1367-5931
Metal ions play an important role in diverse biological processes, and much of the basic knowledge derived from studying native bioinorganic systems are applied in the synthesis of new molecules with the aim of diagnosing and treating diseases. At first glance, metalloproteins and metallodrugs are very different systems, but metal ion coordination, redox chemistry and substrate binding play essential roles in advancing both of these research fields. In this article, we discuss recent metalloprotein and metallodrug studies where electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy served as a major tool to gain a better understanding of metal-based structures and their function.
Hameedi MA, Grba DN, Richardson KH, et al., 2021, A conserved arginine residue is critical for stabilizing the N2 FeS cluster in mitochondrial complex I, Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol: 296, ISSN: 0021-9258
Respiratory complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase), the first enzyme of the electron-transport chain, captures the free energy released by NADH oxidation and ubiquinone reduction to translocate protons across an energy-transducing membrane and drive ATP synthesis during oxidative phosphorylation. The cofactor that transfers the electrons directly to ubiquinone is an iron-sulfur cluster (N2) located in the NDUFS2/NUCM subunit. A nearby arginine residue (R121), which forms part of the second coordination sphere of the N2 cluster, is known to be post-translationally dimethylated but its functional and structural significance are not known. Here, we show that mutations of this arginine residue (R121M/K) abolish the quinone-reductase activity, concomitant with disappearance of the N2 signature from the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum. Analysis of the cryo-EM structure of NDUFS2-R121M complex I at 3.7 Å resolution identified the absence of the cubane N2 cluster as the cause of the dysfunction, within an otherwise intact enzyme. The mutation further induced localised disorder in nearby elements of the quinone-binding site, consistent with the close connections between the cluster and substrate-binding regions. Our results demonstrate that R121 is required for the formation and/or stability of the N2 cluster, and highlight the importance of structural analyses for mechanistic interpretation of biochemical and spectroscopic data on complex I variants.
Šimėnas M, OSullivan J, Zollitsch CW, et al., 2021, A sensitivity leap for X-band EPR using a probehead with a cryogenic preamplifier, Journal of Magnetic Resonance, Vol: 322, Pages: 1-7, ISSN: 1090-7807
Inspired by the considerable success of cryogenically cooled NMR cryoprobes, we present an upgraded X-band EPR probehead, equipped with a cryogenic low-noise preamplifier. Our setup suppresses source noise, can handle the high microwave powers typical in X-band pulsed EPR, and is compatible with the convenient resonator coupling and sample access found on commercially available spectrometers. Our approach allows standard pulsed and continuous-wave EPR experiments to be performed at X-band frequency with significantly increased sensitivity compared to the unmodified setup. The probehead demonstrates a voltage signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) enhancement by a factor close to 8× at a temperature of 6 K, and remains close to 2× at room temperature. By further suppressing room-temperature noise at the expense of reduced microwave power (and thus minimum -pulse length), the factor of SNR improvement approaches 15 at 6 K, corresponding to an impressive 200-fold reduction in EPR measurement time. We reveal the full potential of this probehead by demonstrating such SNR improvements using a suite of typical hyperfine and dipolar spectroscopy experiments on exemplary samples.
Bajada MA, Roy S, Warnan J, et al., 2020, A Precious-Metal-Free Hybrid Electrolyzer for Alcohol Oxidation Coupled to CO<inf>2</inf>-to-Syngas Conversion, Angewandte Chemie, Vol: 132, Pages: 15763-15771, ISSN: 0044-8249
© 2020 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA Electrolyzers combining CO2 reduction (CO2R) with organic substrate oxidation can produce fuel and chemical feedstocks with a relatively low energy requirement when compared to systems that source electrons from water oxidation. Here, we report an anodic hybrid assembly based on a (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxyl (TEMPO) electrocatalyst modified with a silatrane-anchor (STEMPO), which is covalently immobilized on a mesoporous indium tin oxide (mesoITO) scaffold for efficient alcohol oxidation (AlcOx). This molecular anode was subsequently combined with a cathode consisting of a polymeric cobalt phthalocyanine on carbon nanotubes to construct a hybrid, precious-metal-free coupled AlcOx–CO2R electrolyzer. After three-hour electrolysis, glycerol is selectively oxidized to glyceraldehyde with a turnover number (TON) of ≈1000 and Faradaic efficiency (FE) of 83 %. The cathode generated a stoichiometric amount of syngas with a CO:H2 ratio of 1.25±0.25 and an overall cobalt-based TON of 894 with a FE of 82 %. This prototype device inspires the design and implementation of nonconventional strategies for coupling CO2R to less energy demanding, and value-added, oxidative chemistry.
Bajada MA, Roy S, Warnan J, et al., 2020, A Precious-Metal-Free Hybrid Electrolyzer for Alcohol Oxidation Coupled to CO<sub>2</sub>-to-Syngas Conversion, ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE-INTERNATIONAL EDITION, Vol: 59, Pages: 15633-15641, ISSN: 1433-7851
Wright JJ, Fedor J, Hirst J, et al., 2020, Using a chimeric respiratory chain and EPR spectroscopy to determine the origin of semiquinone species previously assigned to mitochondrial complex I, BMC Biology, Vol: 18, ISSN: 1741-7007
Background. For decades semiquinone intermediates have been suggested to play an essential role in catalysis by one of the most enigmatic proton-pumping enzymes, respiratory complex I, and different mechanisms have been proposed on their basis. However, the difficulty in investigating complex I semiquinones, due to the many different enzymes embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane, has resulted in an ambiguous picture and no consensus. Results. In this paper we re-examine the highly debated origin of semiquinone species in mitochondrial membranes using a novel approach. Our combination of a semi-artificial chimeric respiratory chain with pulse EPR spectroscopy (HYSCORE) has enabled us to conclude, unambiguously and for the first time, that the majority of the semiquinones observed in mitochondrial membranes originate from complex III. We also identify a minor contribution from complex II.Conclusions. We are unable to attribute any semiquinone signals unambiguously to complex I and, reconciling our observations with much of the previous literature, conclude that they are likely to have been misattributed to it. We note that, for this earlier work, the tools we have relied on here to deconvolute overlapping EPR signals were not available. Proposals for the mechanism of complex I based on the EPR signals of semiquinone species observed in mitochondrial membranes should thus be treated with caution until future work has succeeded in isolating any complex I semiquinone EPR spectroscopic signatures present.
Luo H, Papaioannou N, Salvadori E, et al., 2019, Manipulating the Optical Properties of Carbon Dots by Fine-Tuning their Structural Features, CHEMSUSCHEM, Vol: 12, Pages: 4432-4441, ISSN: 1864-5631
Mellor SB, Vinde MH, Nielsen AZ, et al., 2019, Defining optimal electron transfer partners for light-driven cytochrome P450 reactions, Metabolic Engineering, Vol: 55, Pages: 33-43, ISSN: 1096-7176
Plants and cyanobacteria are promising heterologous hosts for metabolic engineering, and particularly suited for expression of cytochrome P450 (P450s), enzymes that catalyse key steps in biosynthetic pathways leading to valuable natural products such as alkaloids, terpenoids and phenylpropanoids. P450s are often difficult to express and require a membrane-bound NADPH-dependent reductase, complicating their use in metabolic engineering and bio-production. We previously demonstrated targeting of heterologous P450s to thylakoid membranes both in N. benthamiana chloroplasts and cyanobacteria, and functional substitution of their native reductases with the photosynthetic apparatus via the endogenous soluble electron carrier ferredoxin. However, because ferredoxin acts as a sorting hub for photosynthetic reducing power, there is fierce competition for reducing equivalents, which limits photosynthesis-driven P450 output. This study compares the ability of four electron carriers to increase photosynthesis-driven P450 activity. These carriers, three plant ferredoxins and a flavodoxin-like engineered protein derived from cytochrome P450 reductase, show only modest differences in their electron transfer to our model P450, CYP79A1 in vitro. However, only the flavodoxin-like carrier supplies appreciable reducing power in the presence of competition for reduced ferredoxin, because it possesses a redox potential that renders delivery of reducing equivalents to endogenous processes inefficient. We further investigate the efficacy of these electron carrier proteins in vivo by expressing them transiently in N. benthamiana fused to CYP79A1. All but one of the fusion enzymes show improved sequestration of photosynthetic reducing power. Fusion with the flavodoxin-like carrier offers the greatest improvement in this comparison - nearly 25-fold on a per protein basis. Thus, this study demonstrates that synthetic electron transfer pathways with optimal redox potentials can allevi
Abdiaziz K, Salvadori E, Sokol K, et al., 2019, Protein film electrochemical EPR spectroscopy as a technique to investigate redox reactions in biomolecules, Chemical Communications, Vol: 55, Pages: 8840-8843, ISSN: 1359-7345
Redox reactions and paramagnetic intermediates are ubiquitous in biological chemistry. We report a new method, protein film electrochemical electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (PFE-EPR), that enables the direct and accurate potential control of proteins on the electrode surface for both electrochemical and EPR spectroscopic characterisation of their redox centres.
Cirulli M, Kaur A, Lewis JEM, et al., 2019, Rotaxane-based transition metal complexes: Effect of the mechanical bond on structure and electronic properties, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol: 141, Pages: 879-889, ISSN: 0002-7863
Early work by Sauvage revealed that mechanical bonding alters the stability and redox properties of their original catenane metal complexes. However, despite the importance of controlling metal ion properties for a range of applications, these effects have received relatively little attention since. Here we present a series of tri-, tetra-, and pentadentate rotaxane-based ligands and a detailed study of their metal binding behavior and, where possible, compare their redox and electronic properties with their noninterlocked counterparts. The rotaxane ligands form complexes with most of the metal ions investigated, and X-ray diffraction revealed that in some cases the mechanical bond enforces unusual coordination numbers and distorted arrangements as a result of the exclusion of exogenous ligands driven by the sterically crowded binding sites. In contrast, only the noninterlocked equivalent of the pentadentate rotaxane CuII complex could be formed selectively, and this exhibited compromised redox stability compared to its interlocked counterpart. Frozen-solution EPR data demonstrate the formation of an interesting biomimetic state for the tetradentate CuII rotaxane, as well as the formation of stable NiI species and the unusual coexistence of high- and low-spin CoII in the pentadentate framework. Our results demonstrate that readily available mechanically chelating rotaxanes give rise to complexes the noninterlocked equivalent of which are inaccessible, and that the mechanical bond augments the redox behavior of the bound metal ion in a manner analogous to the carefully tuned amino acid framework in metalloproteins.
Martinez-Lumbreras S, Krysztofinska EM, Thapaliya A, et al., 2018, Structural complexity of the co-chaperone SGTA: a conserved C-terminal region is implicated in dimerization and substrate quality control, BMC Biology, Vol: 16, ISSN: 1741-7007
BackgroundProtein quality control mechanisms are essential for cell health and involve delivery of proteins to specific cellular compartments for recycling or degradation. In particular, stray hydrophobic proteins are captured in the aqueous cytosol by a co-chaperone, the small glutamine-rich, tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein alpha (SGTA), which facilitates the correct targeting of tail-anchored membrane proteins, as well as the sorting of membrane and secretory proteins that mislocalize to the cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation. Full-length SGTA has an unusual elongated dimeric structure that has, until now, evaded detailed structural analysis. The C-terminal region of SGTA plays a key role in binding a broad range of hydrophobic substrates, yet in contrast to the well-characterized N-terminal and TPR domains, there is a lack of structural information on the C-terminal domain. In this study, we present new insights into the conformation and organization of distinct domains of SGTA and show that the C-terminal domain possesses a conserved region essential for substrate processing in vivo.ResultsWe show that the C-terminal domain region is characterized by α-helical propensity and an intrinsic ability to dimerize independently of the N-terminal domain. Based on the properties of different regions of SGTA that are revealed using cell biology, NMR, SAXS, Native MS, and EPR, we observe that its C-terminal domain can dimerize in the full-length protein and propose that this reflects a closed conformation of the substrate-binding domain.ConclusionOur results provide novel insights into the structural complexity of SGTA and provide a new basis for mechanistic studies of substrate binding and release at the C-terminal region.
Volbeda A, Mouesca JM, Darnault C, et al., 2018, X- ray structural, functional and computational studies of the O2-sensitive E. coli hydrogenase-1 C19G variant reveal an unusual [ 4Fe-4S] cluster+, CHEMICAL COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 54, Pages: 7175-7178, ISSN: 1359-7345
Roessler MM, Salvadori E, 2018, Principles and applications of EPR spectroscopy in the chemical sciences, CHEMICAL SOCIETY REVIEWS, Vol: 47, Pages: 2534-2553, ISSN: 0306-0012
Le Breton N, Wright JJ, Jones AJY, et al., 2017, Using hyperfine electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to define the proton-coupled electron transfer reaction at Fe-S cluster N2 in respiratory complex I, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol: 139, Pages: 16319-16326, ISSN: 1520-5126
Energy-transducing respiratory complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is one of the largest and most complicated enzymes in mammalian cells. Here, we used hyperfine electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic methods, combined with site-directed mutagenesis, to determine the mechanism of a single proton-coupled electron transfer reaction at one of eight iron-sulfur clusters in complex I, [4Fe-4S] cluster N2. N2 is the terminal cluster of the enzyme's intramolecular electron-transfer chain and the electron donor to ubiquinone. Because of its position and pH-dependent reduction potential, N2 has long been considered a candidate for the elusive "energy-coupling" site in complex I at which energy generated by the redox reaction is used to initiate proton translocation. Here, we used hyperfine sublevel correlation (HYSCORE) spectroscopy, including relaxation-filtered hyperfine and single-matched resonance transfer (SMART) HYSCORE, to detect two weakly coupled exchangeable protons near N2. We assign the larger coupling with A(1H) = [-3.0, -3.0, 8.7] MHz to the exchangeable proton of a conserved histidine and conclude that the histidine is hydrogen-bonded to N2, tuning its reduction potential. The histidine protonation state responds to the cluster oxidation state, but the two are not coupled sufficiently strongly to catalyze a stoichiometric and efficient energy transduction reaction. We thus exclude cluster N2, despite its proton-coupled electron transfer chemistry, as the energy-coupling site in complex I. Our work demonstrates the capability of pulse EPR methods for providing detailed information on the properties of individual protons in even the most challenging of energy-converting enzymes.
Adamson H, Robinson M, Wright JJ, et al., 2017, Retuning the catalytic bias and overpotential of a [NiFe]-Hydrogenase via a single amino acid exchange at the electron entry/exit site, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol: 139, Pages: 10677-10686, ISSN: 1520-5126
The redox chemistry of the electron entry/exit site in Escherichia coli hydrogenase-1 is shown to play a vital role in tuning biocatalysis. Inspired by nature, we generate a HyaA-R193L variant to disrupt a proposed Arg–His cation−π interaction in the secondary coordination sphere of the outermost, “distal”, iron–sulfur cluster. This rewires the enzyme, enhancing the relative rate of H2 production and the thermodynamic efficiency of H2 oxidation catalysis. On the basis of Fourier transformed alternating current voltammetry measurements, we relate these changes in catalysis to a shift in the distal [Fe4S4]2+/1+ redox potential, a previously experimentally inaccessible parameter. Thus, metalloenzyme chemistry is shown to be tuned by the second coordination sphere of an electron transfer site distant from the catalytic center.
Wright JJ, Salvadori E, Bridges HR, et al., 2016, Small-volume potentiometric titrations: EPR investigations of Fe-S cluster N2 in mitochondrial complex I, Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, Vol: 162, Pages: 201-206, ISSN: 0162-0134
EPR-based potentiometric titrations are a well-established method for determining the reduction potentials of cofactors in large and complex proteins with at least one EPR-active state. However, such titrations require large amounts of protein. Here, we report a new method that requires an order of magnitude less protein than previously described methods, and that provides EPR samples suitable for measurements at both X- and Q-band microwave frequencies. We demonstrate our method by determining the reduction potential of the terminal [4Fe-4S] cluster (N2) in the intramolecular electron-transfer relay in mammalian respiratory complex I. The value determined by our method, Em7 = − 158 mV, is precise, reproducible, and consistent with previously reported values. Our small-volume potentiometric titration method will facilitate detailed investigations of EPR-active centres in non-abundant and refractory proteins that can only be prepared in small quantities.
Hirst J, Roessler MM, 2016, Energy conversion, redox catalysis and generation of reactive oxygen species by respiratory complex I, BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA-BIOENERGETICS, Vol: 1857, Pages: 872-883, ISSN: 0005-2728
Armstrong FA, Evans RM, Hexter SV, et al., 2016, Guiding Principles of Hydrogenase Catalysis Instigated and Clarified by Protein Film Electrochemistry, ACCOUNTS OF CHEMICAL RESEARCH, Vol: 49, Pages: 884-892, ISSN: 0001-4842
Flanagan LA, Wright JJ, Roessler MM, et al., 2016, Re-engineering a NiFe hydrogenase to increase the H<sub>2</sub> production bias while maintaining native levels of O<sub>2</sub> tolerance, CHEMICAL COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 52, Pages: 9133-9136, ISSN: 1359-7345
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