Imperial College London

Prof Milo Shaffer

Faculty of Natural SciencesDepartment of Chemistry

Professor of Materials Chemistry
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 5825m.shaffer Website

 
 
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Assistant

 

Mr John Murrell +44 (0)20 7594 2845

 
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Location

 

M221Royal College of ScienceSouth Kensington Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

257 results found

Greenhalgh ES, Ankersen J, Asp LE, Bismarck A, Fontana QPV, Houlle M, Kalinka G, Kucernak A, Mistry M, Nguyen S, Qian H, Shaffer MSP, Shirshova N, Steinke JHG, Wienrich Met al., 2014, Mechanical, electrical and microstructural characterisation of multifunctional structural power composites, Journal of Composite Materials, Vol: 49, Pages: 1823-1834, ISSN: 1530-793X

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Yau HC, Bayazit MK, Steinke JHG, Shaffer MSPet al., 2014, Diamond Rings or Dumbbells: Controlling the Structure of Poly(ethylene glycol)-Fullerene [60] Adducts by Varying Linking Chain Length, MACROMOLECULES, Vol: 47, Pages: 4870-4875, ISSN: 0024-9297

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Shaffer MSP, Morishita T, Clancy AJ, 2014, Optimised exfoliation conditions enhance isolation and solubility of grafted graphenes from graphite intercalation compounds, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Pages: 15022-15028, ISSN: 2050-7488

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Chen S, Hu S, Smith EF, Ruenraroengsak P, Thorley AJ, Menzel R, Goode AE, Ryan MP, Tetley TD, Porter AE, Shaffer MSPet al., 2014, Aqueous cationic, anionic and non-ionic multi-walled carbon nanotubes, functionalised with minimal framework damage, for biomedical application, Biomaterials, Vol: 35, Pages: 4729-4738

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Goode AE, Hine NDM, Chen S, Bergin SD, Shaffer MSP, Ryan MP, Haynes PD, Porter AE, McComb DWet al., Mapping functional groups on oxidised multi-walled carbon nanotubes at the nanometre scale, Chemical Communications, ISSN: 1364-548X

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Javaid A, Ho KKC, Bismarck A, Shaffer MSP, Steinke JHG, Greenhalgh ESet al., 2014, Multifunctional structural supercapacitors for electrical energy storage applications, JOURNAL OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS, Vol: 48, Pages: 1409-1416, ISSN: 0021-9983

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Boncel S, Pattinson SW, Geiser V, Shaffer MSP, Koziol KKKet al., 2014, En route to controlled catalytic CVD synthesis of densely packed and vertically aligned nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube arrays, BEILSTEIN JOURNAL OF NANOTECHNOLOGY, Vol: 5, Pages: 219-233, ISSN: 2190-4286

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Boncel S, Gorka J, Shaffer MSP, Koziol KKKet al., 2014, "Binary Salt" of Hexane-1,6-Diaminium Adipate and "Carbon Nanotubate" as a Synthetic Precursor of Carbon Nanotube/Nylon-6,6 Hybrid Materials, POLYMER COMPOSITES, Vol: 35, Pages: 523-529, ISSN: 0272-8397

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Brown NJ, Harris JE, Yin X, Silverwood I, White AJP, Kazarian SG, Hellgardt K, Shaffer MSP, Williams CKet al., 2014, Mononuclear phenolate diamine zinc hydride complexes and their Reactions with CO2, Organometallics, Vol: 33, Pages: 1112-1119, ISSN: 1520-6041

The synthesis, characterization, and zinc coordination chemistry of the three proligands 2-tert-butyl-4-[tert-butyl (1)/methoxy (2)/nitro (3)]-6-{[(2′-dimethylaminoethyl)methylamino]methyl}phenol are described. Each of the ligands was reacted with diethylzinc to yield zinc ethyl complexes 4–6; these complexes were subsequently reacted with phenylsilanol to yield zinc siloxide complexes 7–9. Finally, the zinc siloxide complexes were reacted with phenylsilane to produce the three new zinc hydride complexes 10–12. The new complexes 4–12 have been fully characterized by NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and elemental analyses. The structures of the zinc hydride complexes have been probed using VT-NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction experiments. These data indicate that the complexes exhibit mononuclear structures at 298 K, both in the solid state and in solution (d8-toluene). At 203 K, the NMR signals broaden, consistent with an equilibrium between the mononuclear and dinuclear bis(μ-hydrido) complexes. All three zinc hydride complexes react rapidly and quantitatively with carbon dioxide, at 298 K and 1 bar of pressure over 20 min, to form the new zinc formate complexes 13–15. The zinc formate complexes have been analyzed by NMR spectroscopy and VT-NMR studies, which reveal a temperature-dependent monomer–dimer equilibrium that is dominated by the mononuclear species at 298 K.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Boncel S, Gorka J, Shaffer MSP, Koziol KKKet al., 2014, Shear-induced crystallisation of molten isotactic polypropylene within the intertube channels of aligned multi-wall carbon nanotube arrays towards structurally controlled composites, MATERIALS LETTERS, Vol: 116, Pages: 53-56, ISSN: 0167-577X

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Iruretagoyena D, Shaffer MSP, Chadwick D, 2014, Adsorption of carbon dioxide on graphene oxide supported layered double oxides, ADSORPTION-JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL ADSORPTION SOCIETY, Vol: 20, Pages: 321-330, ISSN: 0929-5607

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Diba M, Garcia-Gallastegui A, Taylor RNK, Pishbin F, Ryan MP, Shaffer MSP, Boccaccini ARet al., 2014, Quantitative evaluation of electrophoretic deposition kinetics of graphene oxide, CARBON, Vol: 67, Pages: 656-661, ISSN: 0008-6223

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Hodge SA, Tay HH, Anthony DB, Menzel R, Buckley DJ, Cullen PL, Skipper NT, Howard CA, Shaffer MSPet al., 2014, Probing the charging mechanisms of carbon nanomaterial polyelectrolytes, FARADAY DISCUSSIONS, Vol: 172, Pages: 311-325, ISSN: 1359-6640

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Dryfe R, Chen GZ, Bayer D, Jonsson-Niedziolka M, McCreery R, Macpherson J, Abruna H, Gogotsi Y, Hu C-C, Beguin F, Hardwick L, Foord J, Duca M, Howe E, Holt K, Alvarez-Guerra M, Unwin PR, Rabbow T, Shaffer M, Lee J-S, Frackowiak E, Qiu F, Dyatkin B, Ash PA, Stevenson K, Guldi D, Bergonzo Pet al., 2014, The many faces of carbon in electrochemistry: general discussion, FARADAY DISCUSSIONS, Vol: 172, Pages: 117-137, ISSN: 1359-6640

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Shirshova N, Qian H, Houlle M, Steinke JHG, Kucernak ARJ, Fontana QPV, Greenhalgh ES, Bismarck A, Shaffer MSPet al., 2014, Multifunctional structural energy storage composite supercapacitors, FARADAY DISCUSSIONS, Vol: 172, Pages: 81-103, ISSN: 1359-6640

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Goode AE, Hine NDM, Chen S, Bergin SD, Shaffer MSP, Ryan MP, Haynes PD, Porter AE, McComb DWet al., 2014, Mapping functional groups on oxidised multiwalled carbon nanotubes at the nanometre scale, CHEMICAL COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 50, Pages: 6744-6747, ISSN: 1359-7345

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Silverwood IP, Keyworth CW, Brown NJ, Shaffer MSP, Williams CK, Hellgardt K, Kelsall GH, Kazarian SGet al., 2014, An Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) Spectroscopic Study of Gas Adsorption on Colloidal Stearate-Capped ZnO Catalyst Substrate, APPLIED SPECTROSCOPY, Vol: 68, Pages: 88-94, ISSN: 0003-7028

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Davies P, Kratochvilova I, Ewels C, Aqeel T, Martin N, Fal'ko V, Enoki T, Rodriguez-Fortea A, Kaneko K, Turak A, Buono C, Kovalenko V, Ajayan P, Heggie M, Khare V, Hirsch A, Gspann T, Windle A, Costa P, Shaffer M, Casado J, Chan-Park M, Busquets Ret al., 2014, Doping and Theory: general discussion, FARADAY DISCUSSIONS, Vol: 173, Pages: 233-256, ISSN: 1359-6640

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Chen S, Theodorou IG, Goode AE, Gow A, Schwander S, Zhang JJ, Chung KF, Tetley TD, Shaffer MS, Ryan MP, Porter AEet al., 2013, High-Resolution Analytical Electron Microscopy Reveals Cell Culture Media-Induced Changes to the Chemistry of Silver Nanowires, ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Vol: 47, Pages: 13813-13821, ISSN: 0013-936X

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Leo BF, Chen S, Kyo Y, Herpoldt KL, Terrill NJ, Dunlop IE, McPhail D, Shaffer MS, Schwander S, Gow A, Zhang J, Chung KF, Tetley T, Porter AE, Ryan MPet al., 2013, The Stability of Silver Nanoparticles in a Model of Pulmonary Surfactant., Environ Sci Technol, Vol: 47, Pages: 11232-11240

The growing use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in consumer products has raised concerns about their potential impact on the environment and human health. Whether AgNPs dissolve and release Ag+ ions, or coarsen to form large aggregates, is critical in determining their potential toxicity. In this work, the stability of AgNPs in dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), the major component of pulmonary surfactant, was investigated as a function of pH. Spherical, citrate-capped AgNPs with average diameters of 14 ± 1.6 nm (n=200) were prepared by a chemical bath reduction. The kinetics of Ag+ ion release was strongly pH-dependent. After 14 days of incubation in sodium perchlorate (NaClO4) or perchloric acid (HClO4) solutions, the total fraction of AgNPs dissolved varied from ~10 % at pH 3, to ~2 % at pH 5, with negligible dissolution at pH 7. A decrease in pH from 7 to 3 also promoted particle aggregation and coarsening. DPPC (100 mg.L-1) delayed the release of Ag+ ions, but did not significantly alter the total amount of Ag+ released after two weeks. In addition, DPPC improved the dispersion of the AgNPs and inhibited aggregation and coarsening. TEM images revealed that the AgNPs were coated with a DPPC layer serving as a semi-permeable layer. Hence, lung lining fluid, particularly DPPC, can modify the aggregation state and kinetics of Ag+ ion release of inhaled AgNPs in the lung. These observations have important implications for predicting the potential reactivity of AgNPs in the lung and the environment.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Lachman N, Qian H, Houlle M, Amadou J, Shaffer MSP, Wagner HDet al., 2013, Fracture behavior of carbon nanotube/carbon microfiber hybrid polymer composites, JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE, Vol: 48, Pages: 5590-5595, ISSN: 0022-2461

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Qian H, Kucernak AR, Greenhalgh ES, Bismarck A, Shaffer MSPet al., 2013, Multifunctional Structural Supercapacitor Composites Based on Carbon Aerogel Modified High Performance Carbon Fiber Fabric, ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES, Vol: 5, Pages: 6113-6122, ISSN: 1944-8244

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Hodge SA, Bayazit MK, Tay HH, Shaffer MSPet al., 2013, Giant cationic polyelectrolytes generated via electrochemical oxidation of single-walled carbon nanotubes, NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 4, ISSN: 2041-1723

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Menzel R, Duerrbeck A, Liberti E, Yau HC, McComb D, Shaffer MSPet al., 2013, Determining the Morphology and Photocatalytic Activity of Two-Dimensional Anatase Nanoplatelets Using Reagent Stoichiometry, CHEMISTRY OF MATERIALS, Vol: 25, Pages: 2137-2145, ISSN: 0897-4756

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Qian H, Diao H, Shirshova N, Greenhalgh ES, Steinke JGH, Shaffer MSP, Bismarck Aet al., 2013, Activation of structural carbon fibres for potential applications in multifunctional structural supercapacitors, JOURNAL OF COLLOID AND INTERFACE SCIENCE, Vol: 395, Pages: 241-248, ISSN: 0021-9797

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Chavez-Valdez A, Shaffer MSP, Boccaccini AR, 2013, Applications of Graphene Electrophoretic Deposition. A Review, JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY B, Vol: 117, Pages: 1502-1515, ISSN: 1520-6106

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Hodge SA, Fogden S, Howard CA, Skipper NT, Shaffer MSPet al., 2013, Electrochemical Processing of Discrete Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Anions, ACS NANO, Vol: 7, Pages: 1769-1778, ISSN: 1936-0851

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Subhani T, Shaffer MSP, Boccaccini AR, 2013, Carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced glass and glass-ceramic matrix composites, Ceramic Nanocomposites, Pages: 208-256, ISBN: 9780857093387

In this chapter, glass and glass-ceramic matrix composites containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are discussed with an emphasis on their production, properties, microstructures and applications. Composite manufacturing routes require both CNT/matrix powder preparation techniques and their densification by suitable sintering processes. Physical, mechanical, functional and technological properties of the composites are evaluated, including density, hardness, elastic modulus, fracture strength and toughness, electrical and thermal conductivity, wear and friction resistance, and thermal shock, cycling and ageing resistance. Microstructural features are typically characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Based on the characteristics obtained, potential applications of the composites are considered, together with a discussion of the unresolved manufacturing challenges and desirable, but still unattained, properties. © 2013. Woodhead Publishing Limited All rights reserved.

BOOK CHAPTER

Shirshova N, Bismarck A, Carreyette S, Fontana QPV, Greenhalgh ES, Jacobsson P, Johansson P, Marczewski MJ, Kalinka G, Kucernak ARJ, Scheers J, Shaffer MSP, Steinke JHG, Wienrich Met al., 2013, Structural supercapacitor electrolytes based on bicontinuous ionic liquid-epoxy resin systems, JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY A, Vol: 1, Pages: 15300-15309, ISSN: 2050-7488

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Brown NJ, Weiner J, Hellgardt K, Shaffer MSP, Williams CKet al., 2013, Phosphinate stabilised ZnO and Cu colloidal nanocatalysts for CO2 hydrogenation to methanol, CHEMICAL COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 49, Pages: 11074-11076, ISSN: 1359-7345

JOURNAL ARTICLE

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