Imperial College London

Prof Milo Shaffer

Faculty of Natural SciencesDepartment of Chemistry

Professor of Materials Chemistry



+44 (0)20 7594 5825m.shaffer Website




Mr John Murrell +44 (0)20 7594 2845




M221Royal College of ScienceSouth Kensington Campus






BibTex format

author = {Hodge, SA and Buckley, D and Yau, HC and Skipper, N and Howard, C and Shaffer, MSP},
doi = {10.1039/c6nr10004j},
journal = {Nanoscale},
pages = {3150--3158},
title = {Chemical routes to discharging graphenides},
url = {},
volume = {9},
year = {2017}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Chemical and electrochemical reduction methods allow the dispersion, processing, and/or functionalization of discrete sp2-hybridised nanocarbons, including fullerenes, nanotubes and graphenes. Electron transfer to the nanocarbon raises the Fermi energy creating nanocarbon anions, thereby activating an array of possible covalent reactions. The Fermi level may then be partially or fully lowered by intended functionalization reactions, but in general, techniques are required to removeexcess charge without inadvertent covalent reactions that potentially degrade the nanocarbon properties of interest. Here, simple and effective chemical discharging routes are demonstrated for graphenide polyelectrolytes and are expected to apply to other systems, particularly nanotubides. Thedischarging process is inherently linked to the reduction potentials of such chemical discharging agents and the unusual fundamental chemistry of charged nanocarbons.
AU - Hodge,SA
AU - Buckley,D
AU - Yau,HC
AU - Skipper,N
AU - Howard,C
AU - Shaffer,MSP
DO - 10.1039/c6nr10004j
EP - 3158
PY - 2017///
SN - 2040-3372
SP - 3150
TI - Chemical routes to discharging graphenides
T2 - Nanoscale
UR -
UR -
VL - 9
ER -