Imperial College London

Prof Milo Shaffer

Faculty of Natural SciencesDepartment of Chemistry

Professor of Materials Chemistry



+44 (0)20 7594 5825m.shaffer Website




Mr John Murrell +44 (0)20 7594 2845




M221Royal College of ScienceSouth Kensington Campus






BibTex format

author = {Au, H and Rubio, N and Shaffer, MSP},
doi = {10.1039/c7sc03455e},
journal = {Chemical Science},
pages = {209--217},
title = {Brominated graphene as a versatile precursor for multifunctional grafting},
url = {},
volume = {9},
year = {2018}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - A non-destructive and versatile chemical reduction method was used to dissolve and subsequently brominate few-layer graphene sheets (FLGs); the direct covalent attachment of bromine to the graphene framework was demonstrated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The brominated few-layer graphenes (FLG-Br) provide a convenient, stable, liquid-phase precursor, suitable for the synthesis of a variety of directly functionalised graphenes. As an example, the FLG-Br species was used to initiate atom transfer radical polymerisation (ATRP), to obtain poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-grafted graphene (FLG-PMMA), which was six times more dispersible in acetone than controls. In addition, the FLG-Br is active for nucleophilic substitution reactions, as illustrated by the preparation of methoxypolyethylene glycol (mPEG)- and OH-substituted derivatives. The products were characterised by thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectrometry (TGA-MS), XPS and Raman spectroscopy. Grafting ratios (GR) for these polymer-grafted materials varied between 6 and 25%; even at these GRs, all graphene derivatives showed increased solubility in organic solvents.
AU - Au,H
AU - Rubio,N
AU - Shaffer,MSP
DO - 10.1039/c7sc03455e
EP - 217
PY - 2018///
SN - 2041-6520
SP - 209
TI - Brominated graphene as a versatile precursor for multifunctional grafting
T2 - Chemical Science
UR -
UR -
VL - 9
ER -