205 results found
Varricchi G, Bencivenga L, Poto R, et al., 2020, The emerging role of T follicular helper (T-FH) cells in aging: Influence on the immune frailty, AGEING RESEARCH REVIEWS, Vol: 61, ISSN: 1568-1637
Sokolowska M, Lukasik Z, Agache I, et al., 2020, Immunology of COVID-19: mechanisms, clinical outcome, diagnostics and perspectives - a report of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI)., Allergy
With the worldwide spread of the novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) resulting in declaration of a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020, the SARS-CoV-2-induced Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has become one of the main challenges of our times. The high infection rate and the severe disease course led to major safety and social restriction measures worldwide. There is an urgent need of unbiased expert knowledge guiding the development of efficient treatment and prevention strategies. This report summarizes current immunological data on mechanisms associated with the SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 development and progression to the most severe forms. We characterize the differences between adequate innate and adaptive immune response in mild disease and the deep immune dysfunction in the severe multi-organ disease. The similarities of the human immune response to SARS-CoV-2 and the SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV are underlined. We also summarize known and potential SARS-CoV-2 receptors on epithelial barriers, immune cells, endothelium and clinically involved organs such as lung, gut, kidney, cardiovascular and neuronal system. Finally, we discuss the known and potential mechanisms underlying the involvement of comorbidities, gender and age in development of COVID-19. Consequently, we highlight the knowledge gaps and urgent research requirements to provide a quick roadmap for ongoing and needed COVID-19 studies.
Turner P, Boyle R, Durham S, et al., Cardiovascular changes during peanut-induced allergic reactions in human subjects, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN: 0091-6749
Bousquet J, Anto JM, Bachert C, et al., 2020, ARIA digital anamorphosis: Digital transformation of health and care in airway diseases from research to practice., Allergy
Digital anamorphosis is used to define a distorted image of health and care that may be viewed correctly using digital tools and strategies. MASK digital anamorphosis represents the process used by MASK to develop the digital transformation of health and care in rhinitis.It strengthens the ARIA change management strategy in the prevention and managementof airway disease. The MASK strategy is based on validated digital tools. Using the MASK digital tool and the CARAT online enhanced clinical framework, solutions for practical steps of digital enhancement of care are proposed.
Agache I, Akdis C, Akdis M, et al., 2020, EAACI Biologicals Guidelines - Recommendations for severe asthma., Allergy
Severe asthma imposes a significant burden on patients, families and healthcare systems. Management is difficult, due to disease heterogeneity, comorbidities, complexity in care pathways and differences between national or regional healthcare systems. Better understanding of the mechanisms has enabled a stratified approach to the management of severe asthma, supporting the use of targeted treatments with biologicals. However, there are still many issues that require further clarification. These include selection of a certain biological (as they all target overlapping disease phenotypes), the definition of response, strategies to enhance the responder rate, the duration of treatment and its regimen (in the clinic or home-based) and its cost-effectiveness. The EAACI Guidelines on the use of biologicals in severe asthma follow the GRADE approach in formulating recommendations for each biological and each outcome. In addition, a management algorithm for the use of biologicals in the clinic is proposed, together with future approaches and research priorities.
Larson D, Patel P, Salapatek AM, et al., 2020, Nasal allergen challenge and environmental exposure chamber challenge: A randomized trial comparing clinical and biological responses to cat allergen, JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 145, Pages: 1585-1597, ISSN: 0091-6749
Shamji MH, Akdis CA, Barber D, et al., 2020, EAACI Research and Outreach Committee: Improving standards and facilitating global collaboration through a Research Excellence Network, ALLERGY, ISSN: 0105-4538
Agache I, Rocha C, Beltran J, et al., 2020, Efficacy and safety of treatment with biologicals (benralizumab, dupilumab and omalizumab) for severe allergic asthma: A systematic review for the EAACI Guidelines - recommendations on the use of biologicals in severe asthma, ALLERGY, Vol: 75, Pages: 1043-1057, ISSN: 0105-4538
Klimek L, Jutel M, Akdis C, et al., 2020, Handling of allergen immunotherapy in the COVID-19 pandemic: An ARIA-EAACI statement., Allergy
The current COVID-19 pandemic influences many areas of social life, medical treatments and the way allergy is performed. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is one of the most important treatment options for IgE-mediated allergies and is based on immunological effects on the diseased patient.
Pfaar O, Agache I, Bergmann KC, et al., 2020, Placebo effects in allergen immunotherapy - an EAACI Task Force Position Paper., Allergy
The placebo (Latin "I will please") effect commonly occurs in clinical trials. The psychological and physiological factors associated with patients' expectations about a treatment's positive and negative effects have yet to be well characterized, although a functional prefrontal cortex and intense bidirectional communication between the central nervous system and the immune system appear to be prerequisites for a placebo effect. The use of placebo raises certain ethical issues, especially if patients in a placebo group are denied an effective treatment for a long period of time. The placebo effect appears to be relatively large (up to 77%, relative to pre-treatment scores) in controlled clinical trials of allergen immunotherapy (AIT), such as the pivotal, double-blind, placebo-controlled (DBPC) randomized clinical trials currently required by regulatory authorities worldwide. The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) therefore initiated a Task Force, in order to better understand the placebo effect in AIT and its specific role in comorbidities, blinding issues, adherence, measurement time points, variability, and the natural course of the disease. In this Position Paper, the EAACI Task Force highlights several important topics regarding the placebo effect in AIT such as i) regulatory aspects, ii) neuroimmunological and psychological mechanisms, iii) placebo effect sizes in AIT trials, iv) methodological limitations in AIT trial design and v) potential solutions in future AIT trial design. In conclusion, this Position Paper aims to examine the methodological problem of placebo in AIT from different aspects and also to highlight unmet needs and possible solutions for future trials.
Klimek L, Hoffmann HJ, Kalpaklioglu AF, et al., 2020, In-vivo diagnostic test allergens in Europe: A call to action and proposal for recovery plan - An EAACI position paper., Allergy
Diagnostic allergens are defined as medicinal products in the EU. Marketing authorization by national authorities is necessary, howeverdiagnostic allergensare not homogeneously regulated in different EU member states. Allergen manufacturers argue with increasing costs forcing them to continuously reduce the diagnostic allergen portfolios offeredto allergists. In contrast, EAACI and national European Allergy Societies see the need for the availability of a wide range of high-qualitydiagnostic allergens for in-vivo diagnosis of IgE-mediated allergies not only covering predominant but also less frequent allergen sources. In a recent EAACI task force survey, the current practice of allergy diagnosis was shown to rely on skin tests as first option in almost 2/3 of all types of allergic diseases and in 90 % regarding respiratory allergies. With the need to ensure the availability of high-qualitydiagnostic allergens in the EU, an action plan has been set up by EAACIto analyse the current regulatory demands in EU member states and to define possible solutions stated in this document: 1. Simplification of authorization for diagnostic allergens; 2.Specific regulation of special types of diagnostic allergens; 3. New models beyond the current model of homologous groups; 4. Reduction of pharmacovigilance reporting; 5. Reduction of regulation fees for diagnostic allergens; 6. Reimbursementfor diagnostic allergens. Joining forces of allergists, manufacturers and authorities are of high importance to ensure remaining relevant allergens in the EU markets to facilitatea sustainable and comprehensive service for the diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases.
Agache I, Song Y, Rocha C, et al., 2020, Efficacy and safety of treatment with dupilumab for severe asthma: A systematic review of the EAACI guidelines-Recommendations on the use of biologicals in severe asthma, ALLERGY, Vol: 75, Pages: 1058-1068, ISSN: 0105-4538
Konradsen JR, Grundstr J, Hellkvist L, et al., 2020, Intralymphatic immunotherapy in pollen-allergic young adults with rhinoconjunctivitis and mild asthma: A randomized trial, JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 145, Pages: 1005-+, ISSN: 0091-6749
Agache I, Beltran J, Akdis C, et al., 2020, Efficacy and safety of treatment with biologicals (benralizumab, dupilumab, mepolizumab, omalizumab and reslizumab) for severe eosinophilic asthma, ALLERGY, Vol: 75, Pages: 1023-1042, ISSN: 0105-4538
Patel K, Vila-Nadal G, Shah J, et al., 2020, Is pollen-food syndrome a frequent comorbidity in adults with irritable bowel syndrome?, ALLERGY, ISSN: 0105-4538
Parkin R, Eguiluz-Gracia I, Jaen MT, et al., 2020, Nasal Allergen Neutralizing Antibodies Correlate Closely with Tolerated Intranasal Allergen Challenge Dose Following Grass Pollen Subcutaneous Immunotherapy in Patients with Local Allergic Rhinitis, Annual Meeting of the American-Academy-of-Allergy-Asthma-and-Immunology (AAAAI), Publisher: MOSBY-ELSEVIER, Pages: AB184-AB184, ISSN: 0091-6749
Bousquet J, Schunemann HJ, Togias A, et al., 2020, Next-generation Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) guidelines for allergic rhinitis based on Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) and real-world evidence, JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 145, Pages: 70-+, ISSN: 0091-6749
Hoof I, Schulten V, Layhadi JA, et al., 2019, Allergen-specific IgG+ memory B cells are temporally linked to IgE memory responses, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN: 0091-6749
BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin E (IgE) are least abundant, tightly regulated and IgE producing B cells are rare. The cellular origin and evolution of IgE responses are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cellular and clonal origin of IgE memory responses following mucosal allergen exposure by sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT). METHODS: In a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, time-course SLIT study, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and nasal biopsies were collected from forty adults with seasonal allergic rhinitis at baseline, 4, 8, 16, 28 and 52 weeks. RNA was extracted from PBMCs, sorted B cells and nasal biopsies for VH repertoire sequencing. Moreover, monoclonal antibodies were derived from single B cell transcriptomes. RESULTS: Combining VH repertoire sequencing and single cell transcriptomics yielded direct evidence of a parallel boost of two clonally and functionally related B cell subsets of short-lived IgE+ plasmablasts and IgG+ memory B cells (termed IgGE). Mucosal grass pollen allergen exposure by SLIT resulted in highly diverse IgE and IgGE repertoires. These were extensively mutated and appeared relative stable as per heavy chain isotype, somatic hypermutations and clonal composition. Single IgGE + memory B cell and IgE+ pre-plasmablast transcriptomes encoded antibodies that were specific for major grass pollen allergens and were able to elicit basophil activation at very low allergen concentrations. CONCLUSION: For the first time, we have shown that upon mucosal allergen exposure, human IgE memory resides in allergen-specific IgG+ memory B cells. These rapidly switch isotype and expand into short-lived IgE+ plasmablasts and serve as a potential target for therapeutic intervention.
Pfaar O, Agache I, de Blay F, et al., 2019, Perspectives in allergen immunotherapy: 2019 and beyond, ALLERGY, Vol: 74, Pages: 3-25, ISSN: 0105-4538
Agache I, Annesi-Maesano I, Bonertz A, et al., 2019, Prioritizing research challenges and funding for allergy and asthma and the need for translational research-The European Strategic Forum on Allergic Diseases, ALLERGY, Vol: 74, Pages: 2064-2076, ISSN: 0105-4538
Hj Awg Sharif H, Singh I, Kouser L, et al., 2019, Immunologic mechanisms of short-course of Lolium Perenne peptide immunotherapy: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Vol: 144, Pages: 738-749, ISSN: 0091-6749
BackgroundThree-week, short-course of adjuvant-free hydrolysates of Lolium perenne peptide (LPP) immunotherapy for rhinoconjunctivitis with/without asthma over 4 physician visits is safe, well-tolerated and effective.ObjectiveTo investigate immunologic mechanisms of LPP immunotherapy in a subset of patients who participated in a Phase III, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (clinical.gov NCT02560948).MethodsParticipants were randomized to receive LPP (n=21) or placebo (PL; n=11) for 3 weeks over 4 visits. Grass pollen-induced basophil, T and B cell responses were evaluated before (V2), end of treatment (V6) and after the pollen season (V8).ResultsCombined symptom and rescue medication scores (CSMS) were lower during the peak (-35.1%, P=.03) and throughout pollen season (-53.7%, P=.03) in LPP- compared to PL-treated group. CD63+ and CD203cbrightCRTH2+basophils were decreased following LPP treatment at V6 (all, P<.0001) and V8 (all, P<.001), compared to V2. No change in PL-treated group was observed. Blunting of seasonal increases of grass pollen-specific IgE was observed in LPP- but not PL-treated group. LPP immunotherapy but not PL was associated with a reduction of IL-4+ Th2 (V6, P=.02), IL-4+ (V6, P=.001;V8, P=.0095) and IL-21+ (V6, P=.0002) T follicular helper cells. Induction of FoxP3+, follicular regulatory T and IL-10+ Breg cells were observed at V6 (all, P<.05) and V8 (all, P<.05) in LPP-treated group. Induction of regulatory B cells was associated with allergen neutralizing IgG4 blocking antibodies.ConclusionFor the first time, we demonstrate that the immunological mechanisms of LPP immunotherapy are underscored by immune modulation in the T and B cell compartments which is necessary for its effect.
Bousquet J, Nhan P-T, Bedbrook A, et al., 2019, Next-generation care pathways for allergic rhinitis and asthma multimorbidity: a model for multimorbid non-communicable diseases-Meeting Report (Part 2), JOURNAL OF THORACIC DISEASE, Vol: 11, Pages: 4072-4084, ISSN: 2072-1439
Bousquet J, Pfaar O, Togias A, et al., 2019, 2019 ARIA Care pathways for allergen immunotherapy, ALLERGOLOGIE, Vol: 42, Pages: 404-425, ISSN: 0344-5062
Layhadi JA, Sharif H, Singh I, et al., 2019, Immunomodulatory properties of lolium perenne peptides for the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis, Congress of the European-Academy-of-Allergy-and-Clinical-Immunology (EAACI), Publisher: WILEY, Pages: 79-79, ISSN: 0105-4538
Bousquet J, Nhan P-T, Bedbrook A, et al., 2019, Next-generation care pathways for allergic rhinitis and asthma multimorbidity: a model for multimorbid non-communicable diseases, JOURNAL OF THORACIC DISEASE, Vol: 11, Pages: 3633-3641, ISSN: 2072-1439
Witmer M, Kearney P, Getts RC, et al., 2019, Predicting eliciting dose at food challenge using epitope mapping in peanut-allergic children, Congress of the European-Academy-of-Allergy-and-Clinical-Immunology (EAACI), Publisher: WILEY, Pages: 152-152, ISSN: 0105-4538
Lenormand M, Layhadi JA, Hu J, et al., 2019, Epigenetic changes in SATB1 gene in FoxP3+regulatory T cells reflect immune tolerance status during grass pollen subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy, Congress of the European-Academy-of-Allergy-and-Clinical-Immunology (EAACI), Publisher: WILEY, Pages: 63-64, ISSN: 0105-4538
Parkin R, Eguiluz-Gracia I, Tang J, et al., 2019, Nasal allergen neutralizing antibodies correlate closely with tolerated intranasal allergen challenge dose following grass pollen subcutaneous immunotherapy in patients with local allergic rhinitis, Congress of the European-Academy-of-Allergy-and-Clinical-Immunology (EAACI), Publisher: WILEY, Pages: 119-119, ISSN: 0105-4538
Yi Y, Sharif H, Krasner-Macleod S, et al., 2019, Immunomodulation of CD4+CXCR5+PD-1+T follicular helper (Tfh) and CD4+CXCR5+PD-1+FoxP3+T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cell responses in grass pollen allergy, Congress of the European-Academy-of-Allergy-and-Clinical-Immunology (EAACI), Publisher: WILEY, Pages: 199-199, ISSN: 0105-4538
Sharif H, Acharya S, Dhondalay GK, et al., 2019, Altered chromatin landscape in T follicular cells in seasonal allergic rhinitis and following allergen-specific immunotherapy, Congress of the European-Academy-of-Allergy-and-Clinical-Immunology (EAACI), Publisher: WILEY, Pages: 64-65, ISSN: 0105-4538
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