Imperial College London

DrMatthewShun-Shin

Faculty of MedicineNational Heart & Lung Institute

Senior Lecturer in Cardiology (Echocardiography and AI)
 
 
 
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Block A Hammersmith HospitalHammersmith Campus

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Publications

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170 results found

Foley M, Rajkumar CA, Ahmed-Jushuf F, Nour D, Fung CH, Seligman H, Pathimagaraj RH, Petraco R, Sen S, Nijjer S, Howard JP, Ahmad Y, Allahwala U, Bhindi R, Chamie D, Doi S, Kuwata S, Kaihara T, Koga M, Ishibashi Y, Higuma T, Tanabe Y, Nakayama M, Kawase Y, Watanabe A, Funayama N, Horinaka R, Hijikata N, Takahashi T, Matsuo H, Hansen PS, Manica A, Weaver J, Alzuhairi K, Yong T-H, Warisawa T, Francis DP, Shun-Shin MJ, Al-Lamee RKet al., 2024, The ability of contemporary cardiologists to judge the ischemic impact of a coronary lesion visually., Cardiovasc Revasc Med, Vol: 59, Pages: 60-66

BACKGROUND: Landmark trials showed that invasive pressure measurement (Fractional Flow Reserve, FFR) was a better guide to coronary stenting than visual assessment. However, present-day interventionists have benefited from extensive research and personal experience of mapping anatomy to hemodynamics. AIMS: To determine if visual assessment of the angiogram performs as well as invasive measurement of coronary physiology. METHODS: 25 interventional cardiologists independently visually assessed the single vessel coronary disease of 200 randomized participants in The Objective Randomized Blinded Investigation with optimal medical Therapy of Angioplasty in stable angina trial (ORBITA). They gave a visual prediction of the FFR and Instantaneous Wave-free Ratio (iFR), denoted vFFR and viFR respectively. Each judged each lesion on 2 occasions, so that every lesion had 50 vFFR, and 50 viFR assessments. The group consensus visual estimates (vFFR-group and viFR-group) and individual cardiologists' visual estimates (vFFR-individual and viFR-individual) were tested alongside invasively measured FFR and iFR for their ability to predict the placebo-controlled reduction in stress echo ischemia with stenting. RESULTS: Placebo-controlled ischemia improvement with stenting was predicted by vFFR-group (p < 0.0001) and viFR-group (p < 0.0001), vFFR-individual (p < 0.0001) and viFR-individual (p < 0.0001). There were no significant differences between the predictive performance of the group visual estimates and their invasive counterparts: p = 0.53 for vFFR vs FFR and p = 0.56 for viFR vs iFR. CONCLUSION: Visual assessment of the angiogram by contemporary experts, provides significant additional information on the amount of ischaemia which can be relieved by placebo-controlled stenting in single vessel coronary artery disease.

Journal article

Foley MJ, Rajkumar CA, Ahmed-Jushuf F, Simader F, Pathimagaraj RH, Nijjer S, Sen S, Petraco R, Clesham G, Johnson T, Harrell FE, Kellman P, Francis D, Shun-Shin M, Howard J, Cole GD, Al-Lamee Ret al., 2024, A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of the coronary sinus Reducer in refractory angina: design and rationale of the ORBITA-COSMIC trial., EuroIntervention, Vol: 20, Pages: e216-e223

The coronary sinus Reducer (CSR) is an hourglass-shaped device which creates an artificial stenosis in the coronary sinus. Whilst placebo-controlled data show an improvement in angina, these results are unreplicated and are the subject of further confirmatory research. The mechanism of action of this unintuitive therapy is unknown. The Coronary Sinus Reducer Objective Impact on Symptoms, MRI Ischaemia, and Microvascular Resistance (ORBITA-COSMIC) trial is a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial investigating the efficacy of the CSR. Patients with (i) established epicardial coronary artery disease, (ii) angina on maximally tolerated antianginal medication, (iii) evidence of myocardial ischaemia and (iv) no further options for percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting will be enrolled. Upon enrolment, angina and quality-of-life questionnaires, treadmill exercise testing and quantitative stress perfusion cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging will be performed. Participants will record their symptoms daily on a smartphone application throughout the trial. After a 2-week symptom assessment phase, participants will be randomised in the cardiac catheterisation laboratory to CSR or a placebo procedure. After 6 months of blinded follow-up, all prerandomisation tests will be repeated. A prespecified subgroup will undergo invasive coronary physiology assessment at prerandomisation and follow-up. The primary outcome is stress myocardial blood flow on CMR. Secondary outcomes include angina frequency, quality of life and treadmill exercise time. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04892537).

Journal article

Rajkumar CA, Foley MJ, Ahmed-Jushuf F, Nowbar AN, Simader FA, Davies JR, O'Kane PD, Haworth P, Routledge H, Kotecha T, Gamma R, Clesham G, Williams R, Din J, Nijjer SS, Curzen N, Ruparelia N, Sinha M, Dungu JN, Ganesananthan S, Khamis R, Mughal L, Kinnaird T, Petraco R, Spratt JC, Sen S, Sehmi J, Collier DJ, Sohaib A, Keeble TR, Cole GD, Howard JP, Francis DP, Shun-Shin MJ, Al-Lamee RK, ORBITA-2 Investigatorset al., 2023, A Placebo-Controlled Trial of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Stable Angina., N Engl J Med, Vol: 389, Pages: 2319-2330

BACKGROUND: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is frequently performed to reduce the symptoms of stable angina. Whether PCI relieves angina more than a placebo procedure in patients who are not receiving antianginal medication remains unknown. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of PCI in patients with stable angina. Patients stopped all antianginal medications and underwent a 2-week symptom assessment phase before randomization. Patients were then randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to undergo PCI or a placebo procedure and were followed for 12 weeks. The primary end point was the angina symptom score, which was calculated daily on the basis of the number of angina episodes that occurred on a given day, the number of antianginal medications prescribed on that day, and clinical events, including the occurrence of unblinding owing to unacceptable angina or acute coronary syndrome or death. Scores range from 0 to 79, with higher scores indicating worse health status with respect to angina. RESULTS: A total of 301 patients underwent randomization: 151 to the PCI group and 150 to the placebo group. The mean (±SD) age was 64±9 years, and 79% were men. Ischemia was present in one cardiac territory in 242 patients (80%), in two territories in 52 patients (17%), and in three territories in 7 patients (2%). In the target vessels, the median fractional flow reserve was 0.63 (interquartile range, 0.49 to 0.75), and the median instantaneous wave-free ratio was 0.78 (interquartile range, 0.55 to 0.87). At the 12-week follow-up, the mean angina symptom score was 2.9 in the PCI group and 5.6 in the placebo group (odds ratio, 2.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.41 to 3.47; P<0.001). One patient in the placebo group had unacceptable angina leading to unblinding. Acute coronary syndromes occurred in 4 patients in the PCI group and in 6 patients in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with stable angina who were receivi

Journal article

Kandzari DE, Townsend RR, Kario K, Mahfoud F, Weber MA, Schmieder RE, Pocock S, Tsioufis K, Konstantinidis D, Choi J, East C, Lauder L, Cohen DL, Kobayashi T, Schmid A, Lee DP, Ma A, Weil J, Agdirlioglu T, Schlaich MP, Shetty S, Devireddy CM, Lea J, Aoki J, Sharp ASP, Anderson R, Fahy M, DeBruin V, Brar S, Böhm M, SPYRAL HTN-ON MED Investigatorset al., 2023, Safety and Efficacy of Renal Denervation in Patients Taking Antihypertensive Medications., J Am Coll Cardiol, Vol: 82, Pages: 1809-1823

BACKGROUND: Renal denervation (RDN) reduces blood pressure (BP) in patients with uncontrolled hypertension in the absence of antihypertensive medications. OBJECTIVES: This trial assessed the safety and efficacy of RDN in the presence of antihypertensive medications. METHODS: SPYRAL HTN-ON MED is a prospective, randomized, sham-controlled, patient- and assessor-blinded trial enrolling patients from 56 clinical centers worldwide. Patients were prescribed 1 to 3 antihypertensive medications. Patients were randomized to radiofrequency RDN or sham control procedure. The primary efficacy endpoint was the baseline-adjusted change in mean 24-hour ambulatory systolic BP at 6 months between groups using a Bayesian trial design and analysis. RESULTS: The treatment difference in the mean 24-hour ambulatory systolic BP from baseline to 6 months between the RDN group (n = 206; -6.5 ± 10.7 mm Hg) and sham control group (n = 131; -4.5 ± 10.3 mm Hg) was -1.9 mm Hg (95% CI: -4.4 to 0.5 mm Hg; P = 0.12). There was no significant difference between groups in the primary efficacy analysis with a posterior probability of superiority of 0.51 (Bayesian treatment difference: -0.03 mm Hg [95% CI: -2.82 to 2.77 mm Hg]). However, there were changes and increases in medication intensity among sham control patients. RDN was associated with a reduction in office systolic BP compared with sham control at 6 months (adjusted treatment difference: -4.9 mm Hg; P = 0.0015). Night-time BP reductions and win ratio analysis also favored RDN. There was 1 adverse safety event among 253 assessed patients. CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant difference between groups in the primary analysis. However, multiple secondary endpoint analyses favored RDN over sham control. (SPYRAL HTN-ON MED Study [Global Clinical Study of Renal Denervation With the Symplicity Spyral

Journal article

Ali N, Saqi K, Arnold AD, Miyazawa AA, Keene D, Chow J-J, Little I, Peters NS, Kanagaratnam P, Qureshi N, Ng FS, Linton NWF, Lefroy DC, Francis DP, Boon Lim P, Tanner MA, Muthumala A, Agarwal G, Shun-Shin MJ, Cole GD, Whinnett ZIet al., 2023, Left bundle branch pacing with and without anodal capture: impact on ventricular activation pattern and acute haemodynamics., Europace, Vol: 25

AIMS: Left bundle branch pacing (LBBP) can deliver physiological left ventricular activation, but typically at the cost of delayed right ventricular (RV) activation. Right ventricular activation can be advanced through anodal capture, but there is uncertainty regarding the mechanism by which this is achieved, and it is not known whether this produces haemodynamic benefit. METHODS AND RESULTS: We recruited patients with LBBP leads in whom anodal capture eliminated the terminal R-wave in lead V1. Ventricular activation pattern, timing, and high-precision acute haemodynamic response were studied during LBBP with and without anodal capture. We recruited 21 patients with a mean age of 67 years, of whom 14 were males. We measured electrocardiogram timings and haemodynamics in all patients, and in 16, we also performed non-invasive mapping. Ventricular epicardial propagation maps demonstrated that RV septal myocardial capture, rather than right bundle capture, was the mechanism for earlier RV activation. With anodal capture, QRS duration and total ventricular activation times were shorter (116 ± 12 vs. 129 ± 14 ms, P < 0.01 and 83 ± 18 vs. 90 ± 15 ms, P = 0.01). This required higher outputs (3.6 ± 1.9 vs. 0.6 ± 0.2 V, P < 0.01) but without additional haemodynamic benefit (mean difference -0.2 ± 3.8 mmHg compared with pacing without anodal capture, P = 0.2). CONCLUSION: Left bundle branch pacing with anodal capture advances RV activation by stimulating the RV septal myocardium. However, this requires higher outputs and does not improve acute haemodynamics. Aiming for anodal capture may therefore not be necessary.

Journal article

Shi X, Sau A, Li X, Patel K, Bajaj N, Varela M, Wu H, Handa B, Arnold A, Shun-Shin M, Keene D, Howard J, Whinnett Z, Peters N, Christensen K, Jensen HJ, Ng FSet al., 2023, Information theory-based direct causality measure to assess cardiac fibrillation dynamics, Journal of the Royal Society Interface, Vol: 20, ISSN: 1742-5662

Understanding the mechanism sustaining cardiac fibrillation can facilitate the personalization of treatment. Granger causality analysis can be used to determine the existence of a hierarchical fibrillation mechanism that is more amenable to ablation treatment in cardiac time-series data. Conventional Granger causality based on linear predictability may fail if the assumption is not met or given sparsely sampled, high-dimensional data. More recently developed information theory-based causality measures could potentially provide a more accurate estimate of the nonlinear coupling. However, despite their successful application to linear and nonlinear physical systems, their use is not known in the clinical field. Partial mutual information from mixed embedding (PMIME) was implemented to identify the direct coupling of cardiac electrophysiology signals. We show that PMIME requires less data and is more robust to extrinsic confounding factors. The algorithms were then extended for efficient characterization of fibrillation organization and hierarchy using clinical high-dimensional data. We show that PMIME network measures correlate well with the spatio-temporal organization of fibrillation and demonstrated that hierarchical type of fibrillation and drivers could be identified in a subset of ventricular fibrillation patients, such that regions of high hierarchy are associated with high dominant frequency.

Journal article

Ali N, Arnold AD, Miyazawa AA, Keene D, Peters NS, Kanagaratnam P, Qureshi N, Ng FS, Linton NWF, Lefroy DC, Francis DP, Lim PB, Kellman P, Tanner MA, Muthumala A, Shun-Shin M, Whinnett ZI, Cole GDet al., 2023, Septal scar as a barrier to left bundle branch area pacing, PACE-PACING AND CLINICAL ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, Vol: 46, Pages: 1077-1084, ISSN: 0147-8389

Journal article

Kanagaratnam P, Francis DP, Chamie D, Coyle C, Marynina A, Katritsis G, Paiva P, Szigeti M, Cole G, de Andrade Nunes D, Howard J, Esper R, Khan M, More R, Barreto G, Meneguz-Moreno R, Arnold A, Nowbar A, Kaura A, Mariveles M, March K, Shah J, Nijjer S, Lip GY, Mills N, Camm AJ, Cooke GS, Corbett SJ, Llewelyn MJ, Ghanima W, Toshner M, Peters N, Petraco R, Al-Lamee R, Boshoff ASM, Durkina M, Malik I, Ruparelia N, Cornelius V, Shun-Shin Met al., 2023, A randomised controlled trial to investigate the use of acute coronary syndrome therapy in patients hospitalised with COVID-19: the C19-ACS trial, Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, Vol: 21, Pages: 2213-2222, ISSN: 1538-7836

BACKGROUND: Patients hospitalised with COVID-19 suffer thrombotic complications. Risk factors for poor outcomes are shared with coronary artery disease. OBJECTIVES: To investigate efficacy of an acute coronary syndrome regimen in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 and coronary disease risk factors. PATIENTS/METHODS: A randomised controlled open-label trial across acute hospitals (UK and Brazil) added aspirin, clopidogrel, low-dose rivaroxaban, atorvastatin, and omeprazole to standard care for 28-days. Primary efficacy and safety outcomes were 30-day mortality and bleeding. The key secondary outcome was a daily clinical status (at home, in hospital, on intensive therapy unit admission, death). RESULTS: 320 patients from 9 centres were randomised. The trial terminated early due to low recruitment. At 30 days there was no significant difference in mortality (intervention: 11.5% vs control: 15%, unadjusted OR 0.73, 95%CI 0.38 to 1.41, p=0.355). Significant bleeds were infrequent and not significantly different between the arms (intervention: 1.9% vs control 1.9%, p>0.999). Using a Bayesian Markov longitudinal ordinal model, it was 93% probable that intervention arm participants were more likely to transition to a better clinical state each day (OR 1.46, 95% CrI 0.88 to 2.37, Pr(Beta>0)=93%; adjusted OR 1.50, 95% CrI 0.91 to 2.45, Pr(Beta>0)=95%) and median time to discharge home was two days shorter (95% CrI -4 to 0, 2% probability that it was worse). CONCLUSIONS: Acute coronary syndrome treatment regimen was associated with a reduction in the length of hospital stay without an excess in major bleeding. A larger trial is needed to evaluate mortality.

Journal article

Seligman H, Patel SB, Alloula A, Howard JP, Cook CM, Ahmad Y, de Waard GA, Pinto ME, van de Hoef TP, Rahman H, Kelshiker MA, Rajkumar CA, Foley M, Nowbar AN, Mehta S, Toulemonde M, Tang M-X, Al-Lamee R, Sen S, Cole G, Nijjer S, Escaned J, Van Royen N, Francis DP, Shun-Shin MJ, Petraco Ret al., 2023, Development of artificial intelligence tools for invasive Doppler-based coronary microvascular assessment., Eur Heart J Digit Health, Vol: 4, Pages: 291-301

AIMS: Coronary flow reserve (CFR) assessment has proven clinical utility, but Doppler-based methods are sensitive to noise and operator bias, limiting their clinical applicability. The objective of the study is to expand the adoption of invasive Doppler CFR, through the development of artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms to automatically quantify coronary Doppler quality and track flow velocity. METHODS AND RESULTS: A neural network was trained on images extracted from coronary Doppler flow recordings to score signal quality and derive values for coronary flow velocity and CFR. The outputs were independently validated against expert consensus. Artificial intelligence successfully quantified Doppler signal quality, with high agreement with expert consensus (Spearman's rho: 0.94), and within individual experts. Artificial intelligence automatically tracked flow velocity with superior numerical agreement against experts, when compared with the current console algorithm [AI flow vs. expert flow bias -1.68 cm/s, 95% confidence interval (CI) -2.13 to -1.23 cm/s, P < 0.001 with limits of agreement (LOA) -4.03 to 0.68 cm/s; console flow vs. expert flow bias -2.63 cm/s, 95% CI -3.74 to -1.52, P < 0.001, 95% LOA -8.45 to -3.19 cm/s]. Artificial intelligence yielded more precise CFR values [median absolute difference (MAD) against expert CFR: 4.0% for AI and 7.4% for console]. Artificial intelligence tracked lower-quality Doppler signals with lower variability (MAD against expert CFR 8.3% for AI and 16.7% for console). CONCLUSION: An AI-based system, trained by experts and independently validated, could assign a quality score to Doppler traces and derive coronary flow velocity and CFR. By making Doppler CFR more automated, precise, and operator-independent, AI could expand the clinical applicability of coronary microvascular assessment.

Journal article

Butcher CJT, Cantor E, Sohaib A, Shun-Shin MJ, Haynes R, Khan H, Kyriacou A, Shi R, Chen Z, Haldar S, Cleland JGF, Hussain W, Markides V, Jones DG, Lane RE, Mason MJ, Whinnett ZI, Francis DP, Wong Tet al., 2023, Variation in optimal hemodynamic atrio-ventricular delay of biventricular pacing with different endocardial left ventricular lead locations using precision hemodynamics, JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, Vol: 34, Pages: 1431-1440, ISSN: 1045-3873

Journal article

Chow J-J, Leong KMW, Shun-Shin MJ, Ormerod JOM, Koa-Wing M, Lefroy DC, Lim PB, Linton NWF, Ng FS, Qureshi NA, Whinnett ZI, Peters NS, Francis DP, Varnava AM, Kanagaratnam Pet al., 2023, Ventricular conduction stability noninvasively identifies an arrhythmic substrate in survivors of idiopathic ventricular fibrillation, Journal of the American Heart Association, Vol: 12, Pages: 1-24, ISSN: 2047-9980

Background Idiopathic ventricular fibrillation (VF) is a diagnosis of exclusion following normal cardiac investigations. We sought to determine if exercise-induced changes in electrical substrate could distinguish patient groups with various ventricular arrhythmic pathophysiological conditions and identify patients susceptible to VF. Methods and Results Computed tomography and exercise testing in patients wearing a 252-electrode vest were combined to determine ventricular conduction stability between rest and peak exercise, as previously described. Using ventricular conduction stability, conduction heterogeneity in idiopathic VF survivors (n=14) was compared with those surviving VF during acute ischemia with preserved ventricular function following full revascularization (n=10), patients with benign ventricular ectopy (n=11), and patients with normal hearts, no arrhythmic history, and negative Ajmaline challenge during Brugada family screening (Brugada syndrome relatives; n=11). Activation patterns in normal subjects (Brugada syndrome relatives) are preserved following exercise, with mean ventricular conduction stability of 99.2±0.9%. Increased heterogeneity of activation occurred in the idiopathic VF survivors (ventricular conduction stability: 96.9±2.3%) compared with the other groups combined (versus 98.8±1.6%; P=0.001). All groups demonstrated periodic variation in activation heterogeneity (frequency, 0.3-1 Hz), but magnitude was greater in idiopathic VF survivors than Brugada syndrome relatives or patients with ventricular ectopy (7.6±4.1%, 2.9±2.9%, and 2.8±1.2%, respectively). The cause of this periodicity is unknown and was not replicable by introducing exercise-induced noise at comparable frequencies. Conclusions In normal subjects, ventricular activation patterns change little with exercise. In contrast, patients with susceptibility to VF experience activation heterogeneity following exercise that requires f

Journal article

Kaza N, Htun V, Miyazawa A, Simader F, Porter B, Howard JP, Arnold AD, Naraen A, Luria D, Glikson M, Israel C, Francis DP, Whinnett Z, Shun-Shin MJ, Keene Det al., 2023, Upgrading right ventricular pacemakers to biventricular pacing or conduction system pacing: a systematic review and meta-analysis, EUROPACE, Vol: 25, Pages: 1077-1086, ISSN: 1099-5129

Journal article

Ali N, Arnold AD, Miyazawa AA, Keene D, Chow J-J, Little I, Peters NS, Kanagaratnam P, Qureshi N, Ng FS, Linton NWF, Lefroy DC, Francis DP, Lim PB, Tanner MA, Muthumala A, Shun-Shin MJ, Cole GD, Whinnett Zet al., 2023, Comparison of methods for delivering cardiac resynchronization therapy: an acute electrical and haemodynamic within-patient comparison of left bundle branch area, His bundle, and biventricular pacing, EP Europace, Vol: 25, Pages: 1060-1067, ISSN: 1099-5129

AimsLeft bundle branch area pacing (LBBAP) is a promising method for delivering cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), but its relative physiological effectiveness compared with His bundle pacing (HBP) is unknown. We conducted a within-patient comparison of HBP, LBBAP, and biventricular pacing (BVP).Methods and resultsPatients referred for CRT were recruited. We assessed electrical response using non-invasive mapping, and acute haemodynamic response using a high-precision haemodynamic protocol. Nineteen patients were recruited: 14 male, mean LVEF of 30%. Twelve had time for BVP measurements. All three modalities reduced total ventricular activation time (TVAT), (ΔTVATHBP -43 ± 14 ms and ΔTVATLBBAP −35 ± 20 ms vs. ΔTVATBVP −19 ± 30 ms, P = 0.03 and P = 0.1, respectively). HBP produced a significantly greater reduction in TVAT compared with LBBAP in all 19 patients (−46 ± 15 ms, −36 ± 17 ms, P = 0.03). His bundle pacing and LBBAP reduced left ventricular activation time (LVAT) more than BVP (ΔLVATHBP −43 ± 16 ms, P < 0.01 vs. BVP, ΔLVATLBBAP −45 ± 17 ms, P < 0.01 vs. BVP, ΔLVATBVP −13 ± 36 ms), with no difference between HBP and LBBAP (P = 0.65). Acute systolic blood pressure was increased by all three modalities. In the 12 with BVP, greater improvement was seen with HBP and LBBAP (6.4 ± 3.8 mmHg BVP, 8.1 ± 3.8 mmHg HBP, P = 0.02 vs. BVP and 8.4 ± 8.2 mmHg for LBBAP, P = 0.3 vs. BVP), with no difference between HBP and LBBAP (P = 0.8).ConclusionHBP delivered better ventricular resynchronization than LBBAP because right ventricular activation was slower during LBBAP. But LBBAP was not inferior to HBP with respect to LV electrical resynchronization and acute haemodynamic response.

Journal article

Foley MJ, Rajkumar CA, Ahmed-Jushuf F, Nour D, Fung CH, Seligman H, Pathimagaraj RH, Petraco R, Sen S, Nijjer S, Howard JP, Ahmad Y, Chamie D, Warisawa T, Shun-Shin MJ, Francis DP, Al-Lamee RKet al., 2023, The Ability of Contemporary Interventional Cardiologists to Judge the Ischaemic Impact of a Coronary Lesion From Visual Inspection, Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, Pages: S30-S30, ISSN: 1936-8798

Conference paper

Simader FA, Howard JP, Ahmad Y, Saleh K, Naraen A, Samways JW, Mohal J, Reddy RK, Kaza N, Keene D, Shun-Shin MJ, Francis DP, Whinnett Z, Arnold ADet al., 2023, Catheter ablation improves cardiovascular outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation and heart failure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, EUROPACE, Vol: 25, Pages: 341-350, ISSN: 1099-5129

Journal article

Stegemann E, Weidmann M, Miyazawa AA, Shun-Shin MJ, Leyva F, Zegard A, Stegemann Bet al., 2023, Laser Doppler flow for the hemodynamic differentiation of tachycardia, PACE-PACING AND CLINICAL ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, Vol: 46, Pages: 114-124, ISSN: 0147-8389

Journal article

Whinnett ZI, Shun-Shin MJ, Tanner M, Foley P, Chandrasekaran B, Moore P, Adhya S, Qureshi N, Muthumala A, Lane R, Rinaldi A, Agarwal S, Leyva F, Behar J, Bassi S, Ng A, Scott P, Prasad R, Swinburn J, Tomson J, Sethi A, Shah J, Lim PB, Kyriacou A, Thomas D, Chuen J, Kamdar R, Kanagaratnam P, Mariveles M, Burden L, March K, Howard JP, Arnold A, Vijayaraman P, Stegemann B, Johnson N, Falaschetti E, Francis DP, Cleland JGF, Keene Det al., 2023, Effects of haemodynamically atrio-ventricular optimized His bundle pacing on heart failure symptoms and exercise capacity: the His Optimized Pacing Evaluated for Heart Failure (HOPE-HF) randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF HEART FAILURE, Vol: 25, Pages: 274-283, ISSN: 1388-9842

Journal article

Lane ES, Jevsikov J, Shun-shin MJ, Dhutia N, Matoorian N, Cole GD, Francis DP, Zolgharni Met al., 2023, Automated multi-beat tissue Doppler echocardiography analysis using deep neural networks, MEDICAL & BIOLOGICAL ENGINEERING & COMPUTING, ISSN: 0140-0118

Journal article

Alajrami E, Naidoo P, Jevsikov J, Lane E, Pordoy J, Serej ND, Azarmehr N, Dinmohammadi F, Shun-shin MJ, Francis DP, Zolgharni Met al., 2023, Deep Active Learning for Left Ventricle Segmentation in Echocardiography, Pages: 283-291, ISSN: 0302-9743

The training of advanced deep learning algorithms for medical image interpretation requires precisely annotated datasets, which is laborious and expensive. Therefore, this research investigates state-of-the-art active learning methods for utilising limited annotations when performing automated left ventricle segmentation in echocardiography. Our experiments reveal that the performance of different sampling strategies varies between datasets from the same domain. Further, an optimised method for representativeness sampling is introduced, combining images from feature-based outliers to the most representative samples for label acquisition. The proposed method significantly outperforms the current literature and demonstrates convergence with minimal annotations. We demonstrate that careful selection of images can reduce the number of images needed to be annotated by up to 70%. This research can therefore present a cost-effective approach to handling datasets with limited expert annotations in echocardiography.

Conference paper

Kelshiker MA, Seligman H, Howard JP, Rahman H, Foley M, Nowbar AN, Rajkumar CA, Shun-Shin MJ, Ahmad Y, Sen S, Al-Lame R, Petraco Ret al., 2023, Coronary flow reserve and cardiovascular outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis (vol 43, pg 1582, 2022), EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL, Vol: 44, Pages: 27-27, ISSN: 0195-668X

Journal article

Jevsikov J, Lane ES, Alajrami E, Naidoo P, Serej ND, Azarmehr N, Aleshaiker S, Stowell CC, Shun-shin MJ, Francis DP, Zolgharni Met al., 2023, Automated Analysis of Mitral Inflow Doppler Using Deep Neural Networks, Pages: 394-402, ISSN: 0302-9743

Doppler echocardiography is a widely applied modality for the functional assessment of heart valves, such as the mitral valve. Currently, Doppler echocardiography analysis is manually performed by human experts. This process is not only expensive and time-consuming, but often suffers from intra- and inter-observer variability. An automated analysis tool for non-invasive evaluation of cardiac hemodynamic has potential to improve accuracy, patient outcomes, and save valuable resources for health services. Here, a robust algorithm is presented for automatic Doppler Mitral Inflow peak velocity detection utilising state-of-the-art deep learning techniques. The proposed framework consists of a multi-stage convolutional neural network which can process Doppler images spanning arbitrary number of heartbeats, independent from the electrocardiogram signal and any human intervention. Automated measurements are compared to Ground-truth annotations obtained manually by human experts. Results show the proposed model can efficiently detect peak mitral inflow velocity achieving an average F1 score of 0.88 for both E- and A-peaks across the entire test set.

Conference paper

Arnold AD, Shun-Shin MJ, Ali N, Keene D, Howard JP, Francis DP, Whinnett ZIet al., 2023, Contributions of Atrioventricular Delay Shortening and Ventricular Resynchronization to Hemodynamic Benefits of Biventricular Pacing, JACC-CLINICAL ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, Vol: 9, Pages: 117-119, ISSN: 2405-500X

Journal article

Reddy RK, Howard JP, Ahmad Y, Shun-Shin MJ, Simader FA, Miyazawa AA, Saleh K, Naraen A, Samways JW, Katritsis G, Mohal JS, Kaza N, Porter B, Keene D, Linton NW, Francis DP, Whinnett ZI, Luther V, Kanagaratnam P, Arnold ADet al., 2023, Catheter Ablation for Ventricular Tachycardia After MI: A Reconstructed Individual Patient Data Meta-analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials., Arrhythm Electrophysiol Rev, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2050-3369

BACKGROUND: The prognostic impact of ventricular tachycardia (VT) catheter ablation is an important outstanding research question. We undertook a reconstructed individual patient data meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials comparing ablation to medical therapy in patients developing VT after MI. METHODS: We systematically identified all trials comparing catheter ablation to medical therapy in patients with VT and prior MI. The prespecified primary endpoint was reconstructed individual patient assessment of all-cause mortality. Prespecified secondary endpoints included trial-level assessment of all-cause mortality, VT recurrence or defibrillator shocks and all-cause hospitalisations. Prespecified subgroup analysis was performed for ablation approaches involving only substrate modification without VT activation mapping. Sensitivity analyses were performed depending on the proportion of patients with prior MI included. RESULTS: Eight trials, recruiting a total of 874 patients, were included. Of these 874 patients, 430 were randomised to catheter ablation and 444 were randomised to medical therapy. Catheter ablation reduced all-cause mortality compared with medical therapy when synthesising individual patient data (HR 0.63; 95% CI [0.41-0.96]; p=0.03), but not in trial-level analysis (RR 0.91; 95% CI [0.67-1.23]; p=0.53; I2=0%). Catheter ablation significantly reduced VT recurrence, defibrillator shocks and hospitalisations compared with medical therapy. Sensitivity analyses were consistent with the primary analyses. CONCLUSION: In patients with postinfarct VT, catheter ablation reduces mortality.

Journal article

Saleh K, Varnava A, Shun-Shin MJ, Ali N, Mohal J, Chiew K, Hanif MA, Merzah AJ, Howard JP, Jurak P, Leinveber P, Kanagaratnam P, Francis DP, Whinnett ZI, Arnold Aet al., 2022, Ultra-high-frequency ECG assessment of QRS fragmentation predicts sudden cardiac death risk in inherited arrhythmia syndromes, Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS, Pages: 678-678, ISSN: 0195-668X

Conference paper

Kaza N, Htun V, Miyazawa A, Simader F, Porter B, Howard JP, Arnold A, Francis DP, Whinnett ZI, Shun-Shin MJ, Keene Det al., 2022, A systematic review and meta-analysis of upgrade to biventricular or conduction system pacing approaches, Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS, Pages: 736-736, ISSN: 0195-668X

Conference paper

Pathimagaraj R, Foley M, Nowbar A, Rajkumar C, Shun-Shin M, Howard J, Al-Lamee Ret al., 2022, A Symptom-Stratified Analysis of the Objective Randomised Blinded Investigation With Optimal Medical Therapy of Angioplasty in Stable Angina Trial, 34th Annual Symposium on Transcatheter Cardiovascular Therapeutics (TCT), Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, Pages: B80-B80, ISSN: 0735-1097

Conference paper

Rajkumar C, Foley M, Syam S, Pathimagaraj R, Ahmed-Jushuf F, Towbar A, Seligman H, Nijjer S, Sen S, Petraco R, Davies J, Ruparelia N, Kotecha T, Keeble T, Clesham G, Shun-Shin M, Al-Lamee Ret al., 2022, The Role of the Collateral Circulation in Stable Coronary Artery Disease: A Placebo-Controlled Study in Patients With Stable Angina, 34th Annual Symposium on Transcatheter Cardiovascular Therapeutics (TCT), Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, Pages: B120-B121, ISSN: 0735-1097

Conference paper

Ganesananthan S, Rajkumar C, Foley M, Thompson D, Nowbar A, Seligman H, Petraco R, Sen S, Nijjer S, Thom S, Wensel R, Davies J, Francis D, Shun-Shin M, Howard J, Al-Lamee Ret al., 2022, Cardiopulmonary exercise testing and efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention: A substudy of the ORBITA trial, European Heart Journal, Vol: 43, Pages: 3132-3145, ISSN: 0195-668X

AimsOxygen-pulse morphology and gas exchange analysis measured during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) has been associated with myocardial ischaemia. We examine the relationship between CPET parameters, myocardial ischaemia and anginal symptoms in patients with chronic coronary syndrome. We also determine the ability of these parameters to predict the placebo-controlled response to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).Methods and resultsPatients with severe single vessel coronary artery disease were randomised 1:1 to PCI or placebo in the ORBITA trial. Subjects underwent pre-randomisation treadmill CPET, dobutamine stress-echocardiography (DSE) and symptom assessment. These assessments were repeated at the end of a 6-week blinded follow-up period. 195 patients with CPET data were randomised (102 PCI, 93 placebo). Patients in whom an oxygen-pulse plateau was observed during CPET had higher (more ischaemic) DSE score (+0.82 segments; 95%CI, 0.40 to 1.25, P=0.0068) and lower FFR (-0.07; -0.12 to -0.02, P=0.011) compared to those without. At lower (more abnormal) oxygen-pulse slopes, there was a larger improvement of the placebo-controlled effect of PCI on DSE score (oxygen-pulse plateau presence [Pinteraction=0.026] and oxygen-pulse gradient [Pinteraction=0.023]) and Seattle angina physical-limitation score (oxygen-pulse plateau presence [Pinteraction=0.037]). Impaired peak VO2, VE/VCO2 slope, peak oxygen-pulse and oxygen-uptake efficacy slope was significantly associated with higher symptom burden but did not relate to severity of ischaemia or predict response to PCI.ConclusionAlthough selected CPET parameters relate to severity of angina symptoms and quality of life, only an oxygen-pulse plateau detects the severity of myocardial ischaemia and predicts the placebo-controlled efficacy of PCI in patients with single-vessel coronary artery disease.

Journal article

Nowbar AN, Howard JP, Shun-Shin MJ, Rajkumar C, Foley M, Basu A, Goel A, Patel S, Adnan A, Beattie CJ, Keeble TR, Sohaib A, Collier D, McVeigh P, Harrell FE, Francis DP, Al-Lamee RKet al., 2022, Daily angina documentation versus subsequent recall: development of a symptom smartphone app., Eur Heart J Digit Health, Vol: 3, Pages: 276-283

AIMS: The traditional approach to documenting angina outcomes in clinical trials is to ask the patient to recall their symptoms at the end of a month. With the ubiquitous availability of smartphones and tablets, daily contemporaneous documentation might be possible. METHODS AND RESULTS: The ORBITA-2 symptom smartphone app was developed with a user-centred iterative design and testing cycle involving a focus group of previous ORBITA participants. The feasibility and acceptability were assessed in an internal pilot of participants in the ongoing ORBITA-2 trial. Seven days of app entries by ORBITA-2 participants were compared with subsequent participant recall at the end of the 7-day period. The design focus group tested a prototype app. They reported that the final version captured their symptoms and was easy to use. In the completion assessment group, 141 of 142 (99%) completed the app in full and 47 of 141 (33%) without reminders. In the recall assessment group, 29 of 29 (100%) participants said they could recall the previous day's symptoms, and 82% of them recalled correctly. For 2 days previously, 88% said they could recall and of those, 87% recalled correctly. The proportion saying they could recall their symptoms fell progressively thereafter: 89, 67, 61, 50%, and at 7 days, 55% (P < 0.001 for trend). The proportion of recalling correctly also fell progressively to 55% at 7 days (P = 0.04 for trend). CONCLUSION: Episode counts of angina are difficult to recall after a few days. For trials such as ORBITA-2 focusing on angina, daily symptom collection via a smartphone app will increase the validity of the results.

Journal article

Rajkumar CA, Wereski R, Parsonage W, Cullen L, Khamis R, Foley M, Harrell FE, Shun-Shin MJ, Mills NL, Al-Lamee RKet al., 2022, Association Between High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin, Myocardial Ischemia, and Revascularization in Stable Coronary Artery Disease, JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY, Vol: 79, Pages: 2185-2187, ISSN: 0735-1097

Journal article

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