172 results found
James NE, Chidambaram S, Gall TM, et al., 2022, Quality of life after pancreatic surgery - A systematic review., HPB (Oxford), Vol: 24, Pages: 1223-1237
BACKGROUND: Surgery for patients with pancreatic cancer carries a high risk of major post-operative complications and only marginally improves overall survival. This review aims to assess the impact of surgical resection on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of pancreatic cancer patients. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines. All studies assessing QOL using validated questionnaires in pancreatic cancer patients undergoing surgical resection were included. RESULTS: Twenty-two studies were assessed. Patients reported a decrease in physical, social and global scales within the first 3 months after surgery. These values showed improvement and were comparable to baseline values by 6 months. Recovery in emotional functioning towards baseline figures was demonstrated in the first 3 months post-operatively. Symptom scales including pain, fatigue and diarrhoea deteriorated after surgery, but reverted to baseline after 3-6 months. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical resection for pancreatic cancer has short-term negative impact on QOL. In the longer term, this will improve and eventually recover to baseline values after 6 months. Knowledge on the impact of surgery on QOL of pancreatic cancer patients is necessary to facilitate decision-making and tailoring of surgical techniques to the individual patient.
Troup LJ, Erridge S, Ciesluk B, et al., 2022, Perceived Stigma of Patients Undergoing Treatment with Cannabis-Based Medicinal Products, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH, Vol: 19
Papaefthymiou A, Laskaratos F-M, Koffas A, et al., 2022, State of the Art in Endoscopic Therapy for the Management of Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors, CURRENT TREATMENT OPTIONS IN ONCOLOGY, Vol: 23, Pages: 1014-1034, ISSN: 1527-2729
Karamchandani U, Erridge S, Evans-Harvey K, et al., 2022, Visual gaze patterns in trainee endoscopists - a novel assessment tool, Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, ISSN: 0036-5521
BackgroundColonoscopy proficiency is significantly influenced by skills achieved during training. Although assessment scores exist, they do not evaluate the impact of visual search strategies and their use is time and labour intensive. Eye-tracking has shown significant differences in visual gaze patterns (VGPs) between expert endoscopists with varying polyp detection rates, so may provide a means of automated assessment and guidance for trainees. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of eye-tracking as a novel assessment method for trainee endoscopists.MethodsEye-tracking glasses were used to record 26 colonoscopies from 12 endoscopy trainees who were assessed with directly observed procedural scores (DOPS), devised by the Joint Advisory Group (JAG) on GI endoscopy, and a visual analogue score of overall competence. A ‘total weighted procedure score’ (TWPS) was calculated from 1 to 20. Primary outcomes of fixation duration (FixD) and fixation frequency (FixF) were analysed according to areas of interest (AOIs) with the bowel surface and lumen represented by three concentric rings. Correlation was assessed using Pearson’s coefficient. Significance was set at p<.050.ResultsTrainees displayed a significant positive correlation between TWPS and FixD (R = 0.943, p<.0001) and FixF (R = 0.936, p<.0001) in the anatomical bowel mucosa peripheries. Conversely, they had significant negative correlations between TWPS and the anatomical bowel lumen (FixD: R= −0.546, p=.004; FixF: R= −0.568, p=.002).ConclusionsHigher objective performance scores were associated with VGPs focussing on bowel mucosa. This is consistent with prior analysis showing peripheral VGPs correspond with higher polyp detection rates. Analysis of VGPs, therefore, has potential for training and assessment in colonoscopy.
Han J, Davids J, Ashrafian H, et al., 2022, A systematic review of robotic surgery: From supervised paradigms to fully autonomous robotic approaches, International Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery, Vol: 18, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 1478-5951
BackgroundFrom traditional open surgery to laparoscopic surgery and robot-assisted surgery, advances in robotics, machine learning, and imaging are pushing the surgical approach to-wards better clinical outcomes. Pre-clinical and clinical evidence suggests that automation may standardise techniques, increase efficiency, and reduce clinical complications.MethodsA PRISMA-guided search was conducted across PubMed and OVID.ResultsOf the 89 screened articles, 51 met the inclusion criteria, with 10 included in the final review. Automatic data segmentation, trajectory planning, intra-operative registration, trajectory drilling, and soft tissue robotic surgery were discussed.ConclusionAlthough automated surgical systems remain conceptual, several research groups have developed supervised autonomous robotic surgical systems with increasing consideration for ethico-legal issues for automation. Automation paves the way for precision surgery and improved safety and opens new possibilities for deploying more robust artificial intelligence models, better imaging modalities and robotics to improve clinical outcomes.
Ergisi M, Erridge S, Harris M, et al., 2022, An updated analysis of clinical outcome measures across patients from the UK medical cannabis registry., Cannabis Cannabinoid Res
Introduction: There is a growing body of literature supporting the efficacy of cannabis-based medicinal products (CBMPs). Despite an increase in prescribing globally, there is a paucity of high-quality clinical data on the efficacy of CBMPs for many conditions. This study aims to detail the changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and associated clinical safety in patients prescribed CBMPs for any clinical indication from the UK Medical Cannabis Registry (UKMCR). Methods: An uncontrolled prospective case series of the UKMCR was analyzed. Primary outcomes included change from baseline in patient-reported outcome measures collected across all patients (the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale [GAD-7], EQ-5D-5L, and Sleep Quality Scale [SQS]) at 1, 3, and 6 months. Secondary outcomes included the self-reported incidence and severity of adverse events. Statistical significance was defined as p<0.050. Results: Three hundred twelve patients were included in the final analysis, with a mean age of 44.8. The most common primary diagnoses were chronic pain of undefined etiology (n=102, 32.7%), neuropathic pain (n=43, 13.8%), and fibromyalgia (n=31, 9.9%). Before enrolment, 112 (35.9%) patients consumed cannabis daily. The median cannabidiol and (-)-trans-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol doses prescribed at baseline were 20.0 mg (0.0-510.0 mg) and 3.0 mg (0.0-660.0 mg), respectively. Statistically significant improvements were observed in GAD-7, EQ-5D-5L Index, EQ-5D Visual Analog Scale and SQS scores at 1, 3, and 6 months (p<0.050). There were 94 (30.1%) reported adverse events, of which nausea (n=12, 3.8%), dry mouth (n=10, 3.2%), dizziness (n=7, 2.2%), and somnolence (n=7, 2.2%) were the most common. Conclusion: This study demonstrated CBMP treatment to be associated with a relatively low incidence of severe adverse events in the medium-term. Positive changes following treatment were observed in general, as well as anxiety and sleep-spe
Ergisi M, Erridge S, Harris M, et al., 2022, UK Medical Cannabis Registry: an analysis of clinical outcomes of medicinal cannabis therapy for generalized anxiety disorder, Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology, ISSN: 1751-2433
ObjectivesAnxiety disorders are one of the most common reasons for seeking treatment with cannabis-based medicinal products (CBMPs). Current pharmacological treatments are variable in efficacy and the endocannabinoid system has been identified as a potential therapeutic target. This study aims to detail the changes in health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) and clinical safety following CBMP therapy for generalized anxiety disorder.MethodsA case series from the UK Medical Cannabis Registry was performed. Primary outcomes included changes from baseline in patient-reported outcome measures (the General Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7), EQ-5D-5L (a measure of health-related quality of life), and Sleep Quality Scale (SQS)) at 1, 3 and 6 months. Statistical significance was defined as p<0.050.ResultsSixty-seven patients were treated for generalized anxiety disorder. Statistically significant improvements were observed in GAD-7, EQ-5D-5L Index Value, EQ5D Visual Analog Scale, and SQS scores at 1, 3 and 6 months (p<0.050). Twenty-five (39.1%) patients reported adverse events during the follow-up period.ConclusionThis study suggests that CBMPs may be associated with improvements in HRQoL outcomes when used as a treatment for generalized anxiety disorder. These findings must be treated with caution considering limitations of study design; however this data may help inform future clinical studies and practice.
Nimalan D, Kawka M, Erridge S, et al., 2022, UK Medical Cannabis Registry palliative care patients cohort: initial experience and outcomes, Journal of Cannabis Research, Vol: 4, ISSN: 2522-5782
IntroductionPalliative care aims to improve quality of life through optimal symptom control and pain management. Cannabis-based medicinal products (CBMPs) have a proven role in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. However, there is a paucity of high-quality evidence with regards to the optimal therapeutic regimen, safety, and effectiveness of CBMPs in palliative care, as existing clinical trials are limited by methodological heterogeneity. The aim of this study is to summarise the outcomes of the initial subgroup of patients from the UK Medical Cannabis Registry who were prescribed CBMPs for a primary indication of palliative care, cancer pain and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, including effects on health-related quality of life and clinical safety.MethodsA case series from the UK Medical Cannabis Registry of patients, who were receiving CBMPs for the indication of palliative care was undertaken. The primary outcome consisted of changes in patient-reported outcome measures including EQ-5D-5L, General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), Single-Item Sleep Quality Scale (SQS), Pain Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and the Australia-Modified Karnofsky Performance Scale at 1 and 3 months compared to baseline. Secondary outcomes included the incidence and characteristics of adverse events. Statistical significance was defined by p-value< 0.050.ResultsSixteen patients were included in the analysis, with a mean age of 63.25 years. Patients were predominantly prescribed CBMPs for cancer-related palliative care (n = 15, 94%). The median initial CBD and THC daily doses were 32.0 mg (Range: 20.0–384.0 mg) and 1.3 mg (Range: 1.0–16.0 mg) respectively. Improvements in patient reported health outcomes were observed according to SQS, EQ-5D-5L mobility, pain and discomfort, and anxiety and depression subdomains, EQ-5D-5L index, EQ-VAS and Pain VAS validated scales at both 1-month and 3-mo
Harris M, Erridge S, Ergisi M, et al., 2022, UK Medical Cannabis registry: an analysis of clinical outcomes of medicinal cannabis therapy for chronic pain conditions, Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 1751-2433
ObjectivesTo explore pain-specific, general health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and safety outcomes of chronic pain patients prescribed cannabis-based medicinal products (CBMPs).MethodsA case series was performed using patients with chronic pain from the UK Medical Cannabis Registry. Primary outcomes were changes in Brief Pain Inventory short-form (BPI), Short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire-2 (SF-MPQ-2), Visual Analogue Scale-Pain (VAS), General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), Sleep Quality Scale (SQS), and EQ-5D-5L, at 1, 3, and 6 months from baseline. Statistical significance was defined at p-value<0.050.Results190 patients were included. Median initial Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol daily doses were 2.0mg (range:0.0–442.0mg) and 20.0mg (range:0.0–188.0mg) respectively. Significant improvements were observed within BPI, SF-MPQ-2, GAD-7, SQS, EQ-5D-5 L index, and VAS measures at all timepoints (p<0.050). Seventy-five adverse events (39.47%) were reported, of which 37 (19.47%) were rated as mild, 23 (12.11%) as moderate, and 14 (7.37%) as severe. Nausea (n=11; 5.8%) was the most frequent adverse event.
Anand U, Oldfield C, Pacchetti B, et al., 2021, Dose-related inhibition of capsaicin responses by cannabinoids CBG, CBD, THC and their combination in cultured sensory neurons, Journal of Pain Research, Vol: 14, Pages: 3603-3614, ISSN: 1178-7090
AbstractBackground: The analgesic effects of Cannabis sativa are mediated by ∆9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), but the contributions of other bioactive complex components, including cannabigerol (CBG) and cannabidiol (CBD), are unclear. We describe the individual and combined effects of CBG, CBD and THC, on blocking capsaicin responses in dorsal root ganglion (DRG), neurons, in an in vitro model of nociceptor hypersensitivity.Materials and Methods: Adult rat DRG were dissected and enzyme digested to obtain a neuronal suspension in BSF2 medium containing 2% fetal calf serum, and the neurotrophic factors NGF and GDNF. After 48 h, cultured neurons were loaded with Fura-2 AM, to determine the effects of cannabinoids on capsaicin responses using calcium imaging. In control experiments, neurons were treated with vehicle, followed by 1 µM capsaicin. In cannabinoid treated cultures, CBG, CBD or THC were applied individually, or combined (1:1:1 ratio), followed by 1 µM capsaicin. Data from n=6 experiments were analysed with Student’s t-test, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results: CBG, CBD and THC, applied individually, elicited dose-related calcium influx in a subset of DRG neurons, and a corresponding dose-related reduction of subsequent responses to capsaicin. Maximum inhibition of capsaicin responses was observed at 30 µM CBG, 100 µM CBD, and 100 µM THC individually, and with combined CBD+CBG+THC (1:1:1) at 90 µM. THC+CBD+CBG combined in a 1:1:1 proportion has the potential to enhance the potency of these compounds applied individually. There was a high correlation between cannabinoid-mediated calcium influx and reduction of capsaicin responses: CBG = -0.88, THC = -0.97, CBD = -0.99 and combined CBG + THC + CBD = -1.00. Conclusions: CBG, CBD and THC demonstrated potent dose-related inhibition of capsaicin responses in DRG neurons when applied individually in vitro, and enhanced when applied in combination
McLean KA, Kamarajah SK, Chaudhry D, et al., 2021, Death following pulmonary complications of surgery before and during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, BRITISH JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Vol: 108, Pages: 1448-1464, ISSN: 0007-1323
BackgroundWhilst access to cannabis-based medicinal products (CBMPs) has increased globally subject to relaxation of scheduling laws globally, one of the main barriers to appropriate patient access remains a paucity of high-quality evidence surrounding their clinical effects.DiscussionWhilst randomised controlled trials (RCTs) remain the gold-standard for clinical evaluation, there are notable barriers to their implementation. Development of CBMPs requires novel approaches of evidence collection to address these challenges. Real world evidence (RWE) presents a solution to not only both provide immediate impact on clinical care, but also inform well-conducted RCTs. RWE is defined as evidence derived from health data sourced from non-interventional studies, registries, electronic health records and insurance data. Currently it is used mostly to monitor post-approval safety requirements allowing for long-term pharmacovigilance. However, RWE has the potential to be used in conjunction or as an extension to RCTs to both broaden and streamline the process of evidence generation.ConclusionNovel approaches of data collection and analysis will be integral to improving clinical evidence on CBMPs. RWE can be used in conjunction or as an extension to RCTs to increase the speed of evidence generation, as well as reduce costs. Currently, there is an abundance of potential data however, whilst a number of platforms now exist to capture real world data it is important the right tools and analysis are utilised to unlock potential insights from these.
Plummer R, Sodergren M, Pinato D, et al., 2021, A PHASE 1 STUDY OF MYELOID MODULATING AGENT MTL-CEBPA IN COMBINATION WITH PEMBROLIZUMAB IN ADULT PATIENTS WITH ADVANCED SOLID TUMOURS, Publisher: BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, Pages: A545-A545
Hashimoto A, Sarker D, Reebye V, et al., 2021, Upregulation of C/EBP alpha Inhibits Suppressive Activity of Myeloid Cells and Potentiates Antitumor Response in Mice and Patients with Cancer, CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH, Vol: 27, Pages: 5961-5978, ISSN: 1078-0432
Desai K, Lawrence PV, Wadsworth C, et al., 2021, Characterization of longitudinally collected fine needle aspiration biopsies of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma upon endoscopic ultrasound guided radiofrequency ablation., Publisher: AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH, Pages: 68-69, ISSN: 0008-5472
Glasbey J, Ademuyiwa A, Adisa A, et al., 2021, Effect of COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns on planned cancer surgery for 15 tumour types in 61 countries: an international, prospective, cohort study, The Lancet Oncology, Vol: 22, Pages: 1507-1517, ISSN: 1470-2045
BackgroundSurgery is the main modality of cure for solid cancers and was prioritised to continue during COVID-19 outbreaks. This study aimed to identify immediate areas for system strengthening by comparing the delivery of elective cancer surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic in periods of lockdown versus light restriction.MethodsThis international, prospective, cohort study enrolled 20 006 adult (≥18 years) patients from 466 hospitals in 61 countries with 15 cancer types, who had a decision for curative surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic and were followed up until the point of surgery or cessation of follow-up (Aug 31, 2020). Average national Oxford COVID-19 Stringency Index scores were calculated to define the government response to COVID-19 for each patient for the period they awaited surgery, and classified into light restrictions (index <20), moderate lockdowns (20–60), and full lockdowns (>60). The primary outcome was the non-operation rate (defined as the proportion of patients who did not undergo planned surgery). Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used to explore the associations between lockdowns and non-operation. Intervals from diagnosis to surgery were compared across COVID-19 government response index groups. This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04384926.FindingsOf eligible patients awaiting surgery, 2003 (10·0%) of 20 006 did not receive surgery after a median follow-up of 23 weeks (IQR 16–30), all of whom had a COVID-19-related reason given for non-operation. Light restrictions were associated with a 0·6% non-operation rate (26 of 4521), moderate lockdowns with a 5·5% rate (201 of 3646; adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0·81, 95% CI 0·77–0·84; p<0·0001), and full lockdowns with a 15·0% rate (1775 of 11 827; HR 0·51, 0·50–0·53; p<0·0001). In sensitivity analyses, including adjustment for SARS-CoV-2 case notif
Hammond S, Erridge S, Mangal N, et al., 2021, The effect of cannabis-based medicine in the treatment of cachexia: a systematic review and meta-analysis., Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, Vol: 6, Pages: 1-1, ISSN: 2378-8763
Background: Cachexia is a prevalent condition associated with underlying chronic disease. Wasting of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue loss in cachectic patients is associated with higher rates of disability, reduced quality of life (QoL), and worse prognosis. There is a large unmet need to develop strategies to treat cachexia as there are currently no standardized guidelines in the management of cachexia. Activation of endogenous cannabinoid receptors, through exogenous cannabinoids, has demonstrated potential in increasing appetite, reducing catabolism, and has shown anti-inflammatory properties. Since no single pharmacological agent is currently recommended for use in cachexia, the potential of cannabinoids as an appetite stimulant warrants further research and assessment of current evidence. Objective: This review aims to evaluate the evidence for the efficacy of cannabis-based medicinal products, against placebo and other active treatments, in anorexia-cachexia syndrome in improving appetite, weight, and QoL. Methods: A literature search of the Medline, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and the Web of Science Core Collection, for articles published up to February 2020, was conducted. All randomized controlled trials comparing the use of cannabis-based medicine versus placebo/active treatments for patients with cachexia were screened. The quality of evidence in included studies was assessed using the GRADE framework and any risk of bias was judged using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results: A total of five studies, encompassing 934 participants, were found to be eligible. The pooled group effect size for change in appetite was -1.79 (95% confidence interval: -3.77 to 0.19) favoring the control group (p=0.08). Additionally, no significant difference for weight change or change in QoL for cannabinoids versus placebo/other treatment was observed. The quality of evidence for all five studies was assessed to be low. Conclusion: There is a lack of high-quality evidence to recommen
Salazar O, Erridge S, Beatty JW, et al., 2021, Comparison of Surgeon Gaze Behaviour Against Objective Skill Assessment in Open Inguinal Hernia Repair - A Pilot Study, Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS, ISSN: 0007-1323
Kawka M, Erridge S, Holvey C, et al., 2021, Clinical outcome data of first cohort of chronic pain patients treated with cannabis-based sublingual oils in the United Kingdom – analysis from the UK Medical Cannabis Registry, Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Vol: 16, Pages: 1545-1554, ISSN: 1552-4604
Cannabis-based medicinal products (CBMPs) are an emerging therapeutic option in the management of primary chronic pain, utilizing the role of the endocannabinoid system in modulating central and peripheral pain processes. Despite promising pre-clinical data there is a paucity of high-quality evidence to support the use of CBMPs for chronic pain. This study aimed to investigate the health-related quality of life outcomes of patients with chronic pain who were prescribed CBMP oil preparations (Adven®, Curaleaf International)This study is a case-series of patients from the UK Medical Cannabis Registry, who were treated with CBMP oils for an indication of chronic pain. The primary outcomes were the changes in Brief Pain Inventory short-form (BPI), Short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire-2 (SF-MPQ-2), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) Pain, General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), Sleep Quality Scale (SQS), and EQ-5D-5L, at 1, 3, and 6 months.110 patients were included. Significant improvements in SQS, EQ-5D-5L pain and discomfort subscale, and Brief Pain Inventory Interference Subscale (p<0.05) at 1, 3, and 6 months were demonstrated. There were no notable differences between cannabis naïve and previous cannabis users in quality-of-life outcomes. The adverse event incidence was 30.0%, with most (n=58, 92.1%) adverse events being mild or moderate in intensity.Treatment of chronic pain with Adven® CBMP oils was associated with an improvement in pain-specific outcomes, HRQoL and self-reported sleep quality. Relative safety was demonstrated over medium-term prescribed use. Whilst these findings must be treated with caution considering the limitations of study design, they can inform future clinical trials.
Erridge S, Salazar O, Kawka M, et al., 2021, An initial analysis of the UK Medical Cannabis Registry: Outcomes analysis of first 129 patients, Neuropsychopharmacology Reports, Vol: 41, Pages: 362-370, ISSN: 2574-173X
AIM: Cannabis-based medicinal products (CBMPs) are prescribed with increased frequency, despite a paucity of high-quality randomized controlled trials. The aim of this study is to analyze the early outcomes of the first series of patients prescribed CBMPs in the UK with respect to effects on health-related quality of life and clinical safety. METHODS: A prospective case series was performed using the UK Medical Cannabis Registry. Primary outcomes were change in patient-reported outcomes measures (EQ-5D-5L, General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) and Single-Item Sleep Quality Scale (SQS)) at 1 and 3 months from baseline. The secondary outcome was the incidence of adverse events. Statistical significance was defined by a P-value <.050. RESULTS: There were 129 patients included in the final analysis with a mean age of 46.23 (±14.51) years. The most common indication was chronic pain of undefined etiology (n = 48; 37.2%). The median initial cannabidiol and (-)-trans-Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol daily dose was 20.0 mg (Range: 0.0-768.0 mg) and 3.9 mg (Range: 0.0-660.0 mg), respectively. Statistically significant improvements in health-related quality of life were demonstrated at 1 and 3 months in GAD-7, SQS, EQ-5D-5L pain and discomfort subscale, EQ-5D-5L anxiety and depression subscale, EQ-VAS and EQ-5D-5L index values(P < .050). There were 31 (24.03%) total reported adverse events. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that CBMP therapy may be associated with an improvement in health-related quality-of-life outcomes as self-reported by patients. CBMPs are also demonstrated to be relatively safe in the short to medium-term. These findings must be treated with caution given the limited scope of this initial analysis, with no placebo or an active comparator, with further research required.
Huang K-W, Tan CP, Reebye V, et al., 2021, MTL-CEBPA Combined with Immunotherapy or RFA Enhances Immunological Anti-Tumor Response in Preclinical Models, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES, Vol: 22
IntroductionCannabinoids are a group of terpenophenolic compounds derived from the Cannabis sativa L. plant. There is a growing body of evidence from cell culture and animal studies in support of cannabinoids possessing anticancer properties.MethodA database search of peer reviewed articles published in English as full texts between January 1970 and April 2021 in Google Scholar, MEDLINE, PubMed and Web of Science was undertaken. References of relevant literature were searched to identify additional studies to construct a narrative literature review of oncological effects of cannabinoids in pre-clinical and clinical studies in various cancer types.ResultsPhyto-, endogenous and synthetic cannabinoids demonstrated antitumour effects both in vitro and in vivo. However, these effects are dependent on cancer type, the concentration and preparation of the cannabinoid and the abundance of receptor targets. The mechanism of action of synthetic cannabinoids, (−)-trans-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) has mainly been described via the traditional cannabinoid receptors; CB1 and CB2, but reports have also indicated evidence of activity through GPR55, TRPM8 and other ion channels including TRPA1, TRPV1 and TRPV2.ConclusionCannabinoids have shown to be efficacious both as a single agent and in combination with antineoplastic drugs. These effects have occurred through various receptors and ligands and modulation of signalling pathways involved in hallmarks of cancer pathology. There is a need for further studies to characterise its mode of action at the molecular level and to delineate efficacious dosage and route of administration in addition to synergistic regimes.
Yatham SS, Perikleous Y, Ezzat A, et al., 2021, Splenocystojejunostomy for the treatment of a symptomatic splenic pseudocyst, ANNALS OF THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF SURGEONS OF ENGLAND, Vol: 103, Pages: E202-E205, ISSN: 0035-8843
Ashraf H, Sodergren M, Mylonas G, et al., 2021, 837 The Identification of Gaze Behaviour and Physiological Markers Associated With Making An Error During Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy, ASiT/MedAll Virtual Surgical Summit, Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS, ISSN: 0007-1323
Sharma C, Singh H, Orihuela-Espina F, et al., 2021, Visual gaze patterns reveal surgeons' ability to identify risk of bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, HPB, Vol: 23, Pages: 715-722, ISSN: 1365-182X
BACKGROUND: Bile duct injury is a serious surgical complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The aim of this study was to identify distinct visual gaze patterns associated with the prompt detection of bile duct injury risk during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: Twenty-nine participants viewed a laparoscopic cholecystectomy that led to a serious bile duct injury ('BDI video') and an uneventful procedure ('control video') and reported when an error was perceived that could result in bile duct injury. Outcome parameters include fixation sequences on anatomical structures and eye tracking metrics. Surgeons were stratified into two groups based on performance and compared. RESULTS: The 'early detector' group displayed reduced common bile duct dwell time in the first half of the BDI video, as well as increased cystic duct dwell time and Calot's triangle glances count during Calot's triangle dissection in the control video. Machine learning based classification of fixation sequences demonstrated clear separability between early and late detector groups. CONCLUSION: There are discernible differences in gaze patterns associated with early recognition of impending bile duct injury. The results could be transitioned into real time and used as an intraoperative early warning system and in an educational setting to improve surgical safety and performance.
Pinato D, Cortellini A, Sukumaran A, et al., 2021, PRIME-HCC: Phase Ib study of neoadjuvant ipilimumab and nivolumab prior to liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma, BMC Cancer, Vol: 21, ISSN: 1471-2407
BackgroundAfter liver resection (LR), patients with hepatocellular cancer (HCC) are at high risk of recurrence. There are no approved anti-cancer therapies known to affect such risk, highlighting the acute need for novel systemic therapies to control the probability of disease relapse. Immunotherapy is expanding as a novel treatment option for HCC. Emerging data from cohort 4 of the CA209–040 study, which investigated the safety and preliminary efficacy of nivolumab/ipilimumab co-administration in advanced HCC, suggest that the combination can be delivered safely with an acceptable proportion of reversible grade 3–4 toxicities (27.1%) and a low discontinuation rate (2%) in patients with HCC. Here, we describe the design and rationale of PRIME-HCC, a two-part, multi-centre, phase Ib study to assess safety and bioactivity of the nivolumab/ipilimumab combination prior to LR in early-stage HCC.MethodsThe study involves an initial safety run-in phase (Part 1) to allow for preliminary safety characterisation within the first 6 patients enrolled and a subsequent expansion (Part 2). Ipilimumab will be administered once only on Day 1. Nivolumab will be administered on Day 1 and Day 22 (± 3 days) for a total of two 21-day cycles (i.e. 6 weeks of treatment). The primary objective of the study is to determine the safety and tolerability of the nivolumab/ipilimumab combination prior to LR. The secondary objective is to preliminarily characterize the efficacy of the combination prior to LR, including objective response rate (ORR) and pathologic response rates. Additional exploratory objectives include preliminary evidence of long-term disease control and to identify predictive correlates of response to the nivolumab/ipilimumab combination in HCC.DiscussionThe results of this study will help define the positioning of neoadjuvant nivolumab/ipilimumab combination in the perioperative management of HCC, with potential to improve survival outcom
Anand U, Pacchetti B, Anand P, et al., 2021, Cannabis-based medicines and pain: a review of potential synergistic and entourage effects, Pain Management, Vol: 11, Pages: 395-403, ISSN: 1758-1869
The recent legalization of medicinal cannabis in several jurisdictions has spurred the development of therapeutic formulations for chronic pain. Unlike pure delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), full-spectrum products contain naturally occurring cannabinoids and have been reported to show improved efficacy or tolerability, attributed to synergy between cannabinoids and other components in the cannabis plant. Although ‘synergy’ indicates that two or more active compounds may produce an additive or combined effect greater than their individual analgesic effect, potentiation of the biological effect of a compound by related but inactive compounds, in combination, was termed the ‘entourage effect’. Here, we review current evidence for potential synergistic and entourage effects of cannabinoids in pain relief. However, definitive clinical trials and in vitro functional studies are still required.
Glasbey JC, Omar O, Nepogodiev D, et al., 2021, Preoperative nasopharyngeal swab testing and postoperative pulmonary complications in patients undergoing elective surgery during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, BRITISH JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Vol: 108, Pages: 88-96, ISSN: 0007-1323
Schneider C, Sodergren MH, Pencavel T, et al., 2020, Prognostic relevance of the posterior resection margin for predicting disease free survival in ampullary adenocarcinoma, SURGICAL ONCOLOGY-OXFORD, Vol: 35, Pages: 211-217, ISSN: 0960-7404
Evans-Harvey K, Erridge S, Karamchandani U, et al., 2020, Comparison of surgeon gaze behaviour against objective skill assessment in laparoscopic cholecystectomy-a prospective cohort study, International Journal of Surgery, Vol: 82, Pages: 149-155, ISSN: 1743-9159
BackgroundEye tracking technology may provide the basis of a novel, objective technical skill assessment in surgery. Past research has showed differences in the gaze patterns between expert and novice surgeons. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between gaze behaviors and technical skill during laparoscopic cholecystectomy as determined by objective assessment scores.MethodsGaze behaviors of surgeons performing laparoscopic cholecystectomies were mapped using wearable eye tracking apparatus. Two impartial surgeons retrospectively analyzed video footage of the procedure to perform Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill (OSATS) assessments. Primary endpoints were correlation between gaze behaviours (dwell time (%) and fixation frequency (count/s)) and OSATS scores. Dwell time was defined as the percentage of time spent fixating on particular visual areas of interest (AOI). Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to estimate the relationship between primary endpoints and AOIs. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.Results13 procedures were analyzed. Throughout all operative segments, a negative correlation was present between operating theatre dwell time and OSATS scores (p < 0.05). During dissection of Calot's triangle, there was a strong positive correlation between laparoscopic screen dwell time and OSATS scoring [r = 0.655, p < 0.05]. Scrub nurse dwell time during dissection of Calot's triangle showed a strong negative correlation with OSATS scoring [r = −0.619, p < 0.05]. During dissection of gallbladder fossa, operating theatre fixation frequency negatively correlated against OSATS scores [r = −0.566, p < 0.05].ConclusionThe results suggest a greater focus on significant visual stimuli alongside a lack of attention to non-essential stimuli during critical stages of the operative period is associated with greater technical skill. This aids the validation of eye tracking as an adjunct high-stak
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