14 results found
Hylton E, Noad L, Templeton MR, et al., 2020, The rate of vermi-compost accumulation within ‘Tiger Toilets’ in India, Environmental Technology, ISSN: 0959-3330
Tiger Toilets use a worm-based ecosystem to degrade human waste and have recently been demonstrated as a cost-effective innovation in on-site sanitation. The benefits over traditional pit latrines include slower fill rate, fewer odours, and safer emptying. However, a question remains around how to measure the rate of accumulation of vermi-compost and predict the fill rate into the future. In this study, fifteen Tiger Toilets of varying installation ages in the villages of Jejuri, Bhalgudi and Walhe/Adachiwadi, in Maharashtra province, India were investigated to determine the rate of filling. A laser measure was used to define cross-sections of the depth to vermi-compost layers within the Tiger Toilet digesters. Bench-scale column tests were used to estimate liquid infiltration rates from the digesters into the surrounding soils. Changes over time in the interior digester conditions were photographed and a video camera was installed in selected digesters to confirm and observe the worm activity in situ under red light. Calculated fill rates of the Tiger Toilets were significantly lower compared to estimated fill rates of traditional pit latrines of a similar size and usage rate. The infiltration of the liquid fraction of the waste into the surrounding soil was observed to be a key factor in filling.
Sule MN, Kingung'hi S, Imana T, et al., 2019, A theatre-based approach for assessing and influencing high-risk water contact behaviours of schistosomiasis-endemic communities in Ethiopia and Tanzania, American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH) Annual Meeting, National Harbor, Maryland, USA
Imana T, Zewge F, Sule M, et al., 2019, Schistosomiasis Awareness and Community Water Contact Practices in Kemise Town, Ethiopia, 6th Annual International Conference on Public Health, Bangkok, Thailand
Sule M, Braun L, Luo X, et al., 2018, Systematic Review of Water Treatment Methods and Knowledge, Attitude and Perceptions of Case Study Communities, 2nd Early Career WASH Conference – New Perspectives in WASH
Kis Z, Koppelaar RHEM, Sule MN, et al., 2018, Framework for WASH sector data improvements in data-poor environments, applied to Accra, Ghana, Water, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2073-4441
Improvements in water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) service provision are hampered by limited open data availability. This paper presents a data integration framework, collects the data and develops a material flow model, which aids data-based policy and infrastructure development for the WASH sector. This model provides a robust quantitative mapping of the complete anthropogenic WASH flow-cycle: from raw water intake to water use, wastewater and excreta generation, discharge and treatment. This approach integrates various available sources using a process-chain bottom-up engineering approach to improve the quality of WASH planning. The data integration framework and the modelling methodology are applied to the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area (GAMA), Ghana. The highest level of understanding of the GAMA WASH sector is achieved, promoting scenario testing for future WASH developments. The results show 96% of the population had access to improved safe water in 2010 if sachet and bottled water was included, but only 67% if excluded. Additionally, 66% of 338,000 m3 per day of generated wastewater is unsafely disposed locally, with 23% entering open drains, and 11% sewage pipes, indicating poor sanitation coverage. Total treated wastewater is <0.5% in 2014, with only 18% of 43,000 m3 per day treatment capacity operational. The combined data sets are made available to support research and sustainable development activities.
Hammoud AS, Leung J, Tripathi S, et al., 2018, The impact of latrine contents and emptying practices on nitrogen contamination of well water in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, AIMS Environmental Science, Vol: 5, Pages: 143-153, ISSN: 2372-0352
Leaching of nitrogen-containing compounds (e.g., ammonia, nitrate) from pit latrines and seepage tanks into groundwater may pose health risks, given that groundwater is a significant source for drinking water in many low-income countries. In this study, three communities within Kathmandu, Nepal (Manohara, Kupondole, and Lokanthali) were visited to investigate the impact of pit latrines on groundwater quality, with a focus on understanding the fate of nitrogen-containing compounds specifically. Well water samples were analyzed over two seasons (wet and dry) for their nitrogen content, dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxidation demand (COD), and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), and samples collected from within the nearby pits were also analyzed to determine nitrogen content and COD. Hand dug wells were found to be more likely receptors of contamination than tube wells, as expected, with inter-well variations related to the relative redox conditions in the wells. Increased pit-emptying frequency was related to lower levels of nitrogen in the latrines and in the nearest wells, suggesting this may be an effective strategy for reducing the risks of groundwater contamination in such settings, all else being equal.
Sule MN, Templeton MR, Bond T, 2016, Rejection of organic micro-pollutants from water by a tubular, hydrophilic pervaporative membrane designed for irrigation applications, Environmental Technology, Vol: 37, Pages: 1382-1389, ISSN: 1479-487X
The links between chemical properties, including those relating to molecular size, solubility,hydrophobicity and vapour pressure, and rejection of model aromatic micro-pollutants by atubular, hydrophilic polymer pervaporation membrane designed for irrigation applicationswas investigated. Open air experiments were conducted at room temperature for individualsolutions of fluorene, naphthalene, phenol, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 1,2-diethylbenzene and 2-phenoxyethanol. Percentage rejection generally increased with increased molecular size forthe model micro-pollutants (47% - 86%). Molecular weight and logKow had the strongestpositive relationships with rejection, as demonstrated by respective correlation coefficients ofr = 0.898 and 0.824. Rejection was also strongly negatively correlated with aqueoussolubility and H-bond δ. However, properties which relate to vapour phase concentrations ofthe micro-pollutants were not well correlated with rejection. Thus, physicochemicalseparation processes, rather than vapour pressure, drives removal of aromatic contaminantsby the investigated pervaporation tube. This expanded knowledge could be utilised inconsidering practical applications of pervaporative irrigation systems for treating organiccontaminatedwaters such as oilfield produced waters.
Bond T, Sule MN, Todman LC, et al., 2014, Pervaporative membrane filtration for subsurface irrigation, 248th American Chemical Society National Meeting and Exposition, San Francisco, California, USA
Sule M, Jiang J, Templeton M, et al., 2014, Erratum: Salt rejection and water flux through a tubular pervaporative polymer membrane designed for irrigation applications (Environmental Technology (United Kingdom) (2014) 34:10 (1329-1339) DOI: 10.1080/09593330.2012.746736), Environmental Technology (United Kingdom), Vol: 35, ISSN: 0959-3330
Sule MN, Bond T, Templeton MR, et al., 2013, Desalination performance of a tubular pervaporative hydrophilic membrane for irrigation applications, Elsevier MEMDES 2013: 1st Conference on Desalination using Membrane Technology, Sitges, Spain
Sule MN, Jiang J, Templeton MR, et al., 2013, Salt rejection and water flux through a tubular pervaporative polymer membrane designed for irrigation applications, Environmental Technology, Vol: 34, Pages: 1329-1339
Sule M, 2011, 2011, Sustainable Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) in developing countries: Learning from WaterAid’s approach, 15th International Conference for Women Engineers and Scientists
Sule MN, Templeton MR, 2011, Reclamation of oilfield produced water using hydrophilic pervaporative membranes, 15th International Conference of Women Engineers and Scientists, Adelaide, Australia
Sule MN, 2008, Water Management: A case for developing countries – The Challenge, 14th International Conference for Women Engineers and Scientists
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