Imperial College London

Dr Maarten van Reeuwijk

Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Reader in Environmental Fluid Mechanics



+44 (0)20 7594 6059m.vanreeuwijk Website CV




Miss Rebecca Naessens +44 (0)20 7594 5990




331Skempton BuildingSouth Kensington Campus





Publication Type

76 results found

Brizzolara S, Mollicone J-P, van Reeuwijk M, Mazzino A, Holzner Met al., 2021, Transition from shear-dominated to Rayleigh-Taylor turbulence, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol: 924, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 0022-1120

Turbulent mixing layers in nature are often characterised by the presence of a mean shear and an unstable buoyancy gradient between two streams of different velocities. Depending on the relative strength of shear versus buoyancy, either the former or the latter may dominate the turbulence and mixing between the two streams. In this paper, we present a phenomenological theory that leads to the identification of two distinct turbulent regimes: an early regime, dominated by mean shear, and a later regime dominated by buoyancy. The main theoretical result consists of the identification of a cross-over timescale that distinguishes between the shear- and the buoyancy-dominated turbulence. This cross-over time depends on three large-scale constants of the flow, namely, the buoyancy difference, the velocity difference between the two streams and the gravitational acceleration. We validate our theory against direct numerical simulations of a temporal turbulent mixing layer compounded with an unstable stratification. We observe that the cross-over time correctly predicts the transition from shear- to buoyancy-driven turbulence, in terms of turbulent kinetic energy production, energy spectra scaling and mixing layer thickness.

Journal article

Grylls T, Suter I, Sützl B, Owens S, Meyer D, van Reeuwijk Met al., 2021, uDALES: large-eddy-simulation software for urban flow, dispersion, and microclimate modelling, Journal of Open Source Software, Vol: 6, Pages: 1-4, ISSN: 2475-9066

With continuing urbanization, challenges associated with the urban environment such as airquality, heat islands, pedestrian thermal comfort, and wind loads on tall buildings, are increasingly relevant. Our ability to realistically capture processes such as the transport of heat,moisture, momentum and pollutants, and those of radiative transfer in urban environmentsis key to understanding and facing these challenges (Oke et al., 2017). The turbulent natureof the urban flow field and the inherent heterogeneity and wide range of scales associatedwith the urban environment result in a complex modelling problem. Large-eddy simulation(LES) is an approach to turbulence modelling used in computational fluid dynamics to simulate turbulent flows over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. LES is one of the mostpromising tools to model the interactions typical of urban areas due to its ability to resolve theurban flow field at resolutions of O(1 m, 0.1 s), over spatial domains of O(100 m), and timeperiods of O(10 h). Although there are many scalable LES models for atmospheric flows, toour knowledge, only few are capable of explicitly representing buildings and of modelling thefull range of urban processes (e.g. PALM-4U Resler et al. (2017); Maronga et al. (2020); orOpenFoam Weller et al. (1998)).

Journal article

Nair V, Heus T, van Reeuwijk M, 2021, A Lagrangian study of interfaces at the edges of cumulus clouds, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol: 78, Pages: 2397-2412, ISSN: 0022-4928

Interfaces at the edge of an idealised, non-precipitating, warm cloud are studied using Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) complemented with a Lagrangian particle tracking routine. Once a shell has formed, four zones can be distinguished: the cloud core, visible shell, invisible shell and the environment. The union of the visible and invisible regions is the shell commonly referred to in literature. The boundary between the invisible shell and the environment is the Turbulent-NonTurbulent Interface (TNTI) which is typically not considered in cloud studies. Three million particles were seeded homogeneously across the domain and properties were recorded along individual trajectories. The results demonstrate that the traditional cloud boundary (separating cloudy and non-cloudy regions using thresholds applied on liquid condensate or updraft velocity) are some distance away from the TNTI. Furthermore, there is no dynamic difference between the traditional liquid-condensate boundary and the region extending to the TNTI. However, particles crossing the TNTI exhibit a sharp jump in enstrophy and a smooth increase in buoyancy. The traditional cloud boundary coincides with the location of minimum buoyancy in the shell. The shell pre-mixes the entraining and detraining air and analysis reveals a highly skewed picture of entrainment and detrainment at the traditional cloud boundary. A preferential entrainment of particles with velocity and specific humidity higher than the mean values in the shell is observed. Large-eddy simulation of a more realistic setup detects an interface with similar properties using the same thresholds as in the DNS, indicating that the DNS results extrapolate beyond their idealised conditions.

Journal article

van Reeuwijk M, Grylls T, 2021, Tree model with drag, transpiration, shading and deposition: Identification of cooling regimes and large-eddy simulation, EGU General Assembly 2021, Publisher: Copernicus GmbH, Pages: 1-1

Conference paper

Cimarelli A, Mollicone J-P, van Reeuwijk M, De Angelis Eet al., 2021, Spatially evolving cascades in temporal planar jets, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol: 910, ISSN: 0022-1120

Starting from an alternative decomposition of the turbulent field, a multi-dimensional statistical formalism for the description and understanding of turbulence in free-shear flows is proposed and applied to the symmetries of planar temporal jets. The theoretical framework is based on the exact equation for the second-order moment of the two-point velocity increment and allows us to trace, for the first time, the spatially evolving cascade processes at the basis of turbulence mixing and entrainment. Fascinating reverse energy cascade mechanisms are found to be responsible for the generation of long and wide structures in the interface region. Analogously to two-dimensional turbulence, the energy provided by these spatially ascending reverse cascades is found to be eventually dissipated by viscosity at large scales through friction shearing processes involving a thin cross-flow layer of these large-scale structures. Finally, the external non-turbulent region of the jet is also found to be active from an energetic point of view. It is found that pressure-mediated non-local phenomena of displacement of almost quiescent fluid give rise to non-turbulent fluctuations that in time, through transitional mechanisms, would contribute to the growth of the turbulent jet. Overall, the unexpected paths taken by the scale-energy flux in the combined physical/scale space, which are a substantial novelty with respect to known descriptions of turbulent mixing and entrainment, may have major repercussions on our theoretical understanding and modelling, as anticipated here by reduced equations capable of giving a simple scale-dependent description of the rich dynamics of the flow.

Journal article

Grylls T, van Reeuwijk M, 2021, Tree model with drag, transpiration, shading and deposition: Identification of cooling regimes and large-eddy simulation, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol: 298-299, Pages: 1-19, ISSN: 0168-1923

Trees play an important role in the urban heat island effect and urban air quality due to their impact on the transfer of radiation, momentum, heat, moisture and pollution. However, the effects of trees are hard to quantify due to their complex interactions with urban surfaces and the turbulent atmosphere overhead. We present a complete tree model for large-eddy simulations (LES) that represents the effects of trees on drag, transpiration, shading and deposition at resolutions of O(1 m, 0.1 s) whilst minimising the number of model parameters. The tree model avoids the necessity to resolve the leaf temperature via a derivation of the Penman-Monteith equation and distinguishes between cooling via transpiration and shading. The latent heat flux is further broken down into radiative and advective components in order to better understand the mechanism behind transpirational cooling (e.g. the ‘oasis’ effect).The new tree model is investigated analytically to provide insight into tree cooling regimes, and is applied to field studies to contextualise the analysis. The combined cooling effect of trees due to transpiration and shading processes can be reduced to a four-dimensional parameter space. The net tree cooling () and tree cooling ratio () parameters are defined to enable a systematic categorisation of the thermal effect of a tree into five regimes: net heating, net reduction (shading dominated), net reduction (transpiration dominated), net cooling (shading dominated) and net cooling (transpiration dominated). Existing parameterisations for tree cooling are reviewed, illustrating their limitations and highlighting the need for complete models to determine tree cooling.The tree model is implemented into the LES model uDALES. The drag and canopy energy balance models are validated, and results are presented for domains that are 1) fully covered by trees; 2) partially covered by trees; and 3) have a single line of trees. These simulations provide physical insi

Journal article

Puchol-Salort P, OKeeffe J, van Reeuwijk M, Mijic Aet al., 2021, An urban planning sustainability framework: systems approach to blue green urban design, Sustainable Cities and Society, Vol: 66, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 2210-6707

The climate emergency and population growth are challenging water security and sustainable urban design in cities worldwide. Sustainable urban development is crucial to minimise pressures on the natural environment and on existing urban infrastructure systems, including water, energy, and land. These pressures are particularly evident in London, which is considered highly vulnerable to water shortages and floods and where there has been a historical shortage of housing. However, the impacts of urban growth on environmental management and protection are complex and difficult to evaluate. In addition, there is a disconnection between the policy and decision-making processes as to what comprises a sustainable urban development project.We present a systems-based Urban Planning Sustainability Framework (UPSUF) that integrates sustainability evaluation, design solutions and planning system process. One of the features of this master planning framework is the spatial representation of the urban development in a Geographical Information System to create an operational link between design solutions and evaluation metrics. UPSUF moves from an initial baseline scenario to a sustainable urban development design, incorporating the requirements of governance and regulatory bodies, as well as those of the end-users. Ultimately, UPSUF has the potential to facilitate partnership between the public and the private sectors.

Journal article

Mader J, Van Reeuwijk M, Craske J, 2021, Confined turbulent convection driven by a combination of line and distributed sources of buoyancy, Physical Review Fluids, Vol: 6, Pages: 1-25, ISSN: 2469-990X

We study the flow and thermal stratification of a closed domain subjected to different combinations of line and distributed surface heating and cooling. Our observations are drawn from a set of direct numerical simulations in which the ratio of the strength of the distributed sources to the localised sources \HfRb is varied and shown to play a decisive role in determining the system’s statistically steady state. Domains of sufficient horizontal extent that are (\HfRb=0) produce a stable two-layer stratification. The planar plumes generated by each line source are connected by a large scale circulation over the full depth of the domain and induce secondary circulations within each layer. As the distributed component of the heating, and therefore \HfRb, increases, the buoyancy difference between the layers decreases, before being destroyed when \HfRb>1. For increasing \HfRb∈[0,1], we observe an increasing tilt of the interface between the layers and the eventual disappearance of the secondary circulation cells. The mean buoyancy transport between the two layers of the stable stratification is dominated by the plumes for all $

Journal article

van Reeuwijk M, Vassilicos JC, Craske J, 2021, Unified description of turbulent entrainment, JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS, Vol: 908, ISSN: 0022-1120

Journal article

Sützl BS, Rooney GG, van Reeuwijk M, 2021, Drag distribution in idealized heterogeneous urban environments, Boundary-Layer Meteorology, Vol: 178, Pages: 225-248, ISSN: 0006-8314

Large-eddy simulations of nine idealized heterogeneous urban morphologies with identical building density and frontal area index are used to explore the impact of heterogeneity on urban airflow. The fractal-like urban morphologies were generated with a new open-source Urban Landscape Generator tool (doi:10.5281/zenodo.3747475). The vertical structure of mean flow and the dispersive vertical momentum transport within the roughness sublayer are shown to be strongly influenced by the building morphologies. The friction velocity and displacement height show high correlations with the maximum building height rather than the average height. Well-known roughness parametrizations of the logarithmic layer cannot adequately capture the large spread observed in the large-eddy simulation data. A generalized frontal area index Λf is introduced that characterizes the vertical distribution of the frontal area in the urban canopy. The vertically distributed stress profiles, which differ significantly per simulation, are shown to roughly collapse upon plotting them against Λf. The stress distribution representing urban drag can be fitted with a third degree polynomial. The results can be used for more detailed and robust representations of building effects in the development of urban canopy models.

Journal article

Neamtu-Halic MM, Mollicone J-P, van Reeuwijk M, Holzner Met al., 2020, Role of vortical structures for enstrophy and scalar transport in flows with and without stable stratification, Journal of Turbulence, Vol: 22, Pages: 393-412, ISSN: 1468-5248

We investigate the enstrophy dynamics in relation to objective Eulerian coherent structures (OECSs) and their impact on the enstrophy and scalar transport near the turbulent/non-turbulent interface (TNTI) in flows with and without stable stratification. We confirm that vortex-stretching produces enstrophy inside the boundaries of the OECSs, while viscous diffusion transfers the enstrophy across the boundaries of the structures. Although often overlooked in the literature, viscous dissipation of enstrophy within the boundaries of vortical structures is significant. Conversely, for the weakly stratified flows also investigated here, the effect of the baroclinic torque is negligible. We provide evidence that the OECSs advect the passive/active scalar and redistribute it via molecular diffusion. Finally, we use conditional analysis to show that the typical profiles of the enstrophy and scalar transport equation terms across the TNTI are compatible with the presence of OECSs positioned at the edge between the turbulent sublayer and the turbulent core region. We show that when these profiles are further conditioned to the presence of OECSs, their magnitude is considerably higher.

Journal article

Le Cornec CMA, Molden N, van Reeuwijk M, Stettler MEJet al., 2020, Modelling of instantaneous emissions from diesel vehicles with a special focus on NOx: Insights from machine learning techniques, Science of The Total Environment, Vol: 737, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 0048-9697

Accurate instantaneous vehicle emissions models are vital for evaluating the impacts of road transport on air pollution at high temporal and spatial resolution. In this study, we apply machine learning techniques to a dataset of 70 diesel vehicles tested in real-world driving conditions to: (i) cluster vehicles with similar emissions performance, and (ii) model instantaneous emissions. The application of dynamic time warping and clustering analysis by NOx emissions resulted in 17 clusters capturing 88% of trips in the dataset. We show that clustering effectively groups vehicles with similar emissions profiles, however no significant correlation between emissions and vehicle characteristics (i.e. engine size, vehicle weight) were found. For each cluster, we evaluate three instantaneous emissions models: a look-up table (LT) approach, a non-linear regression (NLR) model and a neural network multi-layer perceptron (MLP) model. The NLR model provides accurate instantaneous NOx predictions, on par with the MLP: relative errors in prediction of emission factors are below 20% for both models, average fractional biases are −0.01 (s.d. 0.02) and −0.0003 (s.d. 0.04), and average normalised mean squared errors are 0.25 (s.d. 0.14) and 0.29 (s.d. 0.16), for the NLR and MLP models respectively. However, neural networks are better able to deal with vehicles not belonging to a specific cluster. The new models that we present rely on simple inputs of vehicle speed and acceleration, which could be extracted from existing sources including traffic cameras and vehicle tracking devices, and can therefore be deployed immediately to enable fast and accurate prediction of vehicle NOx emissions. The speed and the ease of use of these new models make them an ideal operational tool for policy makers aiming to build emission inventories or evaluate emissions mitigation strategies.

Journal article

Neamtu-Halic MM, Krug D, Mollicone J-P, van Reeuwijk M, Haller G, Holzner Met al., 2020, Connecting the time evolution of the turbulence interface to coherent structures, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol: 898, Pages: 1-24, ISSN: 0022-1120

The surface area of turbulent/non-turbulent interfaces (TNTIs) is continuously produced and destroyed via stretching and curvature/propagation effects. Here, the mechanisms responsible for TNTI area growth and destruction are investigated in a turbulent flow with and without stable stratification through the time evolution equation of the TNTI area. We show that both terms have broad distributions and may locally contribute to either production or destruction. On average, however, the area growth is driven by stretching, which is approximately balanced by destruction by the curvature/propagation term. To investigate the contribution of different length scales to these processes, we apply spatial filtering to the data. In doing so, we find that the averages of the stretching and the curvature/propagation terms balance out across spatial scales of TNTI wrinkles and this scale-by-scale balance is consistent with an observed scale invariance of the nearby coherent vortices. Through a conditional analysis, we demonstrate that the TNTI area production (destruction) is localized at the front (lee) edge of the vortical structures in the interface proximity. Finally, we show that while basic mechanisms remain the same, increasing stratification reduces the rates at which TNTI surface area is produced as well as destroyed. We provide evidence that this reduction is largely connected to a change in the multiscale geometry of the interface, which tends to flatten in the wall-normal direction at all active length scales of the TNTI.

Journal article

Meyer D, Schoetter R, Riechert M, Verrelle A, Tewari M, Dudhia J, Masson V, van Reeuwijk M, Grimmond Set al., 2020, WRF-TEB: Implementation and evaluation of the coupled weather research and forecasting (WRF) and town energy balance (TEB) model, Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol: 12, Pages: 1-18, ISSN: 1942-2466

Urban land surface processes need to be represented to inform future urban climate and building energy projections. Here, the single layer urban canopy model Town Energy Balance (TEB) is coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to create WRF‐TEB. The coupling method is described generically, implemented into software, and the code and data are released with a Singularity image to address issues of scientific reproducibility. The coupling is implemented modularly and verified by an integration test. Results show no detectable errors in the coupling. Separately, a meteorological evaluation is undertaken using observations from Toulouse, France. The latter evaluation, during an urban canopy layer heat island episode, shows reasonable ability to estimate turbulent heat flux densities and other meteorological quantities. We conclude that new model couplings should make use of integration tests as meteorological evaluations by themselves are insufficient, given that errors are difficult to attribute because of the interplay between observational errors and multiple parameterization schemes (e.g., radiation, microphysics, and boundary layer).

Journal article

Grylls T, Suter I, Van Reeuwijk M, 2020, Steady-state large-eddy simulations of convective and stable urban Boundary layers, Boundary-Layer Meteorology: an international journal of physical and biological processes in the atmospheric boundary layer, Vol: 175, Pages: 309-341, ISSN: 0006-8314

A comprehensive investigation is carried out to establish best practice guidelines for the modelling of statistically steady-state non-neutral urban boundary layers (UBL) using large-eddy simulation (LES). These steady-state simulations enable targeted studies under realistic non-neutral conditions without the complications associated with the inherently transient nature of the UBL. An extensive set of simulations of convective and stable conditions is carried out to determine which simplifications, volumetric forcings, and boundary conditions can be applied to replicate the mean and turbulent (variance and covariance) statistics of this intrinsically transient problem most faithfully. In addition, a new method is introduced in which a transient simulation can be ‘frozen’ into a steady state. It is found that non-neutral simulations have different requirements to their neutral counterparts. In convective conditions, capping the boundary-layer height h with the top of the modelled domain to h/5 and h/10 (which is common practice in neutral simulations) reduces the turbulent kinetic energy by as much as 61% and 44%, respectively. Consistent with the literature, we find that domain heights lz≥5|L| are necessary to reproduce the convective-boundary-layer dynamics, where L is the Obukhov length. In stably stratified situations, the use of a uniform momentum forcing systematically underestimates the mechanical generation of turbulence over the urban canopy layer, and therefore leads to misrepresentations of both the inner- and outer-layer dynamics. The new ‘frozen-transient’ method that is able to maintain a prescribed flow state (including entrainment at the boundary-layer top) is shown to work well in both stable and convective conditions. Guidelines are provided for future studies of the capped and uncapped convective and stable UBL.

Journal article

Sutzl B, Van Reeuwijk M, 2020, bss116/citygenerator: Urban Landscape Generator v1.0

The Urban Landscape Generator is a tool that creates randomised urban landscapes with fractal-like street networks, based on urban morpholgy parameters. This version v1.0 provides the functionality of creating urban layouts based on building density, proportion of green space, and wind-facing frontal area for a fixed wind direction. Three different fractal types ('hierarchical', 'cascade', 'random') can be chosen, as well as the level of randomness in building-layout and -height generation.


Nair V, Heus T, Van Reeuwijk M, 2020, Dynamics of subsiding shells in actively growing clouds with vertical updrafts, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol: 77, Pages: 1353-1369, ISSN: 0022-4928

The dynamics of a subsiding shell at the edges of actively growing shallow cumulus clouds with updrafts is analyzed using direct numerical simulation. The actively growing clouds have a fixed in-cloud buoyancy and velocity. Turbulent mixing and evaporative cooling at the cloud edges generate a subsiding shell which grows with time. A self-similar regime is observed for first and second order moments when normalized with respective maximum values. Internal scales derived from integral properties of the flow problem are identified. Self-similarity analysis conducted by normalizing using these scales reveal that contrary to classical self similar flows, the turbulent kinetic energy budget terms and velocity moments scale according to the buoyancy and not with the mean velocity. The shell thickness is observed to increase linearly with time. The buoyancy scale remains time-invariant and is set by the initial cloud-environment thermodynamics. The shell accelerates ballistically with a magnitude set by the saturation value of the buoyancy of the cloud-environment mixture. In this regime, the shell is buoyancy driven and independent of the in-cloud velocity. Relations are obtained for predicting the shell thickness and minimum velocities by linking the internal scales with external flow parameters. The values thus calculated are consistent with the thickness and velocities observed in typical shallow cumulus clouds. The entrainment coefficient is a function of the initial state of the cloud and the environment, and is shown to be of the same order of magnitude as fractional entrainment rates calculated for large scale models.

Journal article

Verso L, van Reeuwijk M, Liberzon A, 2019, Transient stratification force on particles crossing a density interface, International Journal of Multiphase Flow, Vol: 121, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 0301-9322

We perform a series of experiments to measure Lagrangian trajectories of settling and rising particles as they traverse a density interface of thickness h using an index-matched water-salt-ethanol solution. The experiments confirm the substantial deceleration that particles experience as a result of the additional force exerted on the particle due to the sudden change in density. This stratification force is calculated from the measurement data for all particle trajectories. In absence of suitable parameterisations in the literature, a simple phenomenological model is developed which relies on parameterisations of the effective wake volume and recovery time scale. The model accurately predicts the particle trajectories obtained in our experiments and those of Srdić-Mitrović et al. (1999). Furthermore, the model demonstrates that the problem depends on four key parameters, namely the entrance Reynolds number Re1, entrance Froude number Fr, particle to fluid density ratio ρp/ρf, and relative interface thickness h/a.

Journal article

Van Reeuwijk M, Holzner M, Caulfield CP, 2019, Mixing and entrainment are suppressed in inclined gravity currents, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol: 873, Pages: 786-815, ISSN: 0022-1120

We explore the dynamics of inclined temporal gravity currents using directnumerical simulation, and find that the current creates an environment in which the flux Richardson number $Ri_f$, gradient Richardson number $Ri_g$, and turbulent flux coefficient $\Gamma$ are constant across a large portion of the depth. Changing the slope angle $\alpha$ modifies these mixing parameters, and the flow approaches a maximum Richardson number $Ri_\textrm{max}\approx 0.15$ as $\alpha \rightarrow 0$ at which the entrainment coefficient $E \rightarrow 0$. The turbulent Prandtl number remains $O(1)$ for all slope angles, demonstrating that $E\rightarrow 0$ is not caused by a switch-off of the turbulent buoyancy flux as conjectured by Ellison (1957). Instead, $E\rightarrow 0$ occurs as the result of the turbulence intensity going to zero as $\alpha\rightarrow 0$, due to the flow requiring larger and larger shear to maintain the same level of turbulence. We develop an approximate model valid for small $\alpha$ which is able to predict accurately $Ri_f$, $Ri_g$ and $\Gamma$ as a function of $\alpha$ and their maximum attainable values. The model predicts an entrainment law of the form $E=0.31(Ri_\textrm{max}-Ri)$, which is in good agreement with the simulation data. The simulations and model presented here contribute to a growing body of evidence that an approach to a marginally or critically stable, relatively weakly stratified equilibrium for stratified shear flows may well be a generic property of turbulent stratified flows.

Journal article

Grylls T, Le Cornec CMA, Salizzoni P, Soulhac L, Stettler MEJ, Van Reeuwijk Met al., 2019, Evaluation of an operational air quality model using large-eddy simulation, Atmospheric Environment: X, Vol: 3, ISSN: 2590-1621

The large-eddy simulation (LES) model uDALES is used to evaluate the predictive skill of the operational air quality model SIRANE. The use of LES in this study presents a novel approach to air quality model evaluation, avoiding sources of uncertainty and providing numerical control that permits systematic analysis of targeted parametrisations and assumptions.A case study is conducted over South Kensington, London with the morphology, emissions, meteorological conditions and boundary conditions carefully matched in both models. The dispersion of both inert (NOx) and reactive (NO, NO2 and O3) pollutants under neutral, steady-state conditions is simulated for a south-westerly and westerly wind direction. A quantitative comparison between the two models is performed using statistical indices (the fractional bias, FB, the normalised mean squared error, NMSE, and the fraction in a factor of 2, FAC2).SIRANE is shown to successfully capture the dominant trends with respect to canyon-averaged concentrations of inert NOx (FB = -0.08, NMSE = 0.08 and FAC2 = 1.0). The prediction of along-canyon velocities is shown to exhibit sources of systematic error dependant on the angle of incidence of the mean wind (FB = -0.18). The assumption of photostationarity within SIRANE (deviations from equilibrium of up to 170% exist close to busy roads) is also identified as a significant source of systematic bias resulting in over- and underpredictions of NO2 (FB = -0.18) and O3 (FB = 0.14) respectively. The validity of the assumed uniform in-canyon concentration is assessed by analysing the pedestrian, leeward and windward concentrations resolved in uDALES. The use of canyon-averaged concentrations to predict pedestrian level exposure is shown to result in significant underestimations. Linear regression is used to effectively capture the relationship between pedestrian- and canyon-averaged concentrations in uDALES. Correction factors are derived (m ≈ 1.62 and R 2 = 0.92 for inert NOx) th

Journal article

Auwerter LCC, Templeton MR, van Reeuwijk M, O Taiwo O, Cheeseman Cet al., 2019, Development of porous glass surfaces with recoverable hydrophobicity, Materials Letters: X, Vol: 1, ISSN: 2590-1508

Porous glass tiles have been reacted with a low-surface energy coating to produce hydrophobic surfaces. Washing the surface with surfactant reduces hydrophobicity and the wetting state changes from Cassie-Baxter to Wenzel. Passing air through the porous glass when it is immersed in water causes a solid-gas-liquid interface to form and this is associated with recovery of hydrophobicity. The processing and microstructural characteristics of the porous glass that show this effect are reported. Potential applications include low-friction pipes, where maintaining the Cassie-Baxter state at the water-pipe interface would significantly reduce the energy required to transport water.

Journal article

Fouxon I, Schmidt L, Ditlevsen P, van Reeuwijk M, Holzner Met al., 2018, Inhomogeneous growth of fluctuations of concentration of inertial particles in channel turbulence, Physical Review Fluids, Vol: 3, ISSN: 2469-990X

We study the growth of concentration fluctuations of weakly inertial particles in the turbulent channel flow starting with a smooth initial distribution. The steady-state concentration is singular and multifractal so the growth describes the increasingly rugged structure of the distribution. We demonstrate that inhomogeneity influences the growth of concentration fluctuations profoundly. For homogeneous turbulence the growth is exponential and is fully determined by Kolmogorov scale eddies.We derive lognormality of the statistics in this case. The growth exponents of the moments are proportional to the sum of Lyapunov exponents, which is quadratic in the small inertia of the particles. In contrast, for inhomogeneous turbulence the growth is linear in inertia. It involves correlations of inertial range and viscous scale eddies that turn the growth into a stretched exponential law with exponent three halves. We demonstrate using direct numerical simulations that the resulting growth rate can differ by orders of magnitude over channel height. This strong variation might have relevance in the planetary boundary layer.

Journal article

Alpresa P, Sherwin S, Weinberg P, van Reeuwijk Met al., 2018, Orbitally shaken shallow fluid layers. II. An improved wall shear stress model, Physics of Fluids, Vol: 30, ISSN: 1070-6631

A new model for the analytical prediction of wall shear stress distributions at the base of orbitally shaken shallow fluid layers is developed. This model is a generalisation of the classical extended Stokes solution and will be referred to as the potential theory-Stokes model. The model is validated using a large set of numerical simulations covering a wide range of flow regimes representative of those used in laboratory experiments. It is demonstrated that the model is in much better agreement with the simulation data than the classical Stokes solution, improving the prediction in 63% of the studied cases. The central assumption of the model—which is to link the wall shear stress with the surface velocity—is shown to hold remarkably well over all regimes covered.

Journal article

Alpresa P, Sherwin S, Weinberg P, van Reeuwijk Met al., 2018, Orbitally shaken shallow fluid layers. I. Regime classification, PHYSICS OF FLUIDS, Vol: 30, ISSN: 1070-6631

Orbital shakers are simple devices that provide mixing, aeration, and shear stress at multiple scales and high throughput. For this reason, they are extensively used in a wide range of applications from protein production to bacterial biofilms and endothelial cell experiments. This study focuses on the behaviour of orbitally shaken shallow fluid layers in cylindrical containers. In order to investigate the behaviour over a wide range of different conditions, a significant number of numerical simulations are carried out under different configuration parameters. We demonstrate that potential theory—despite the relatively low Reynolds number of the system—describes the free-surface amplitude well and the velocity field reasonably well, except when the forcing frequency is close to a natural frequency and resonance occurs. By classifying the simulations into non-breaking, breaking, and breaking with part of the bottom uncovered, it is shown that the onset of wave breaking is well described by Δh/(2R) = 0.7Γ, where Δh is the free-surface amplitude, R is the container radius, and Γ is the container aspect ratio; Δh can be well approximated using the potential theory. This result is in agreement with standard wave breaking theories although the significant inertial forcing causes wave breaking at lower amplitudes.

Journal article

van Reeuwijk M, Jonker HJJ, 2018, Understanding entrainment processes in the atmosphere: the role of numerical simulation, 10th ERCOFTAC Workshop on Direct and Large Eddy Simulation (DLES), Publisher: SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG, Pages: 53-60, ISSN: 1382-4309

Turbulent entrainment is a process of primary importance in the atmospheric boundary layer; however despite several decades of intense study much remains to be understood. Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) and Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) have a tremendous potential to improve the understanding of turbulent entrainment, particularly if combined with theory. We discuss a recently developed framework for turbulent jets and plumes to decompose turbulent entrainment in various physical processes, and modify it for use in a stably stratified shear driven (nocturnal) boundary layer. The decomposition shows that inner layer processes become negligible as time progresses and that the entrainment coefficient is determined by turbulence production in the outer layer only.

Conference paper

Verso L, van Reeuwijk M, Liberzon A, 2017, Steady state model and experiment for an oscillating grid turbulent two-layer stratified flow, PHYSICAL REVIEW FLUIDS, Vol: 2, ISSN: 2469-990X

Turbulence generated by an oscillating grid in a two-layer stably stratified system is a classical flow utilized to study various aspects of turbulence in presence of stratification without mean shear. This flow evolves in a quasisteady state, in which the layer thickness and density difference evolves in a quasisteady manner due to the large separation of timescales between the turbulence and the setup. We present an extension of the classical setup that enables full steady state conditions and in which the entrainment velocity can be prescribed separately from the Richardson number. We develop a theoretical box-model and show that the model is in good agreement with the experiments. The model allows to predict the transient response of the system for a variety of initial conditions and the imposed steady state. The new setup is necessary to obtain the steady position of the density interface, for example, when using advanced optical techniques to measure the small-scale features of turbulence near the interface.

Journal article

Ghim M, Alpresa P, Yang S, Braakman ST, Gray SG, Sherwin SJ, van Reeuwijk M, Weinberg PDet al., 2017, Visualization of three pathways for macromolecule transport across cultured endothelium and their modification by flow., AJP - Heart and Circulatory Physiology, Vol: 313, Pages: H959-H973, ISSN: 1522-1539

Transport of macromolecules across vascular endothelium and its modification by fluid mechanical forces are important for normal tissue function and in the development of atherosclerosis. However, the routes by which macromolecules cross endothelium, the hemodynamic stresses that maintain endothelial physiology or trigger arterial disease, and the dependence of transendothelial transport on hemodynamic stresses are controversial. Here we visualised pathways for macromolecule transport and determined the effect on these pathways of different types of flow. Endothelial monolayers were cultured under static conditions or on an orbital shaker producing different flow profiles in different parts of the wells. Fluorescent tracers that bound to the substrate after crossing the endothelium were used to identify transport pathways. Maps of tracer distribution were compared with numerical simulations of flow to determine effects of different shear stress metrics on permeability. Albumin-sized tracers dominantly crossed the cultured endothelium via junctions between neighbouring cells, high-density-lipoprotein-sized tracers crossed at tricelluar junctions whilst low-density-lipoprotein-sized tracers crossed through cells. Cells aligned close to the angle that minimised shear stresses across their long axis. The rate of paracellular transport under flow correlated with the magnitude of these minimised transverse stresses, whereas transport across cells was uniformly reduced by all types of flow. These results contradict the long-standing two-pore theory of solute transport across microvessel walls and the consensus view that endothelial cells align with the mean shear vector. They suggest that endothelial cells minimise transverse shear, supporting its postulated pro-atherogenic role. Preliminary data show that similar tracer techniques are practicable in vivo.

Journal article

Craske J, Salizzoni P, van Reeuwijk M, 2017, The turbulent Prandtl number in a pure plume is 3/5, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol: 822, Pages: 774-790, ISSN: 0022-1120

We derive a new expression for the entrainment coefficient in a turbulent plume usingan equation for the squared mean buoyancy. Consistency of the resulting expressionwith previous relations for the entrainment coefficient implies that the turbulent Prandtlnumber in a pure plume is equal to 3/5 when the mean profiles of velocity and buoyancyhave a Gaussian form of equal width. Entrainment can be understood in terms of thevolume flux, the production of turbulence kinetic energy or the production of scalarvariance for either active or passive variables. The equivalence of these points of viewindicates how the entrainment coefficient and the turbulent Prandtl and Schmidt numbersdepend on the Richardson number of the flow, the ambient stratification and the relativewidths of the velocity and scalar profiles. The general framework is valid for self-similarplumes, which are characterised by a power-law scaling. For jets and pure plumes it isshown that the derived relations are in reasonably good agreement with results fromdirect numerical simulations and experiments.

Journal article

Verso L, van Reeuwijk M, Gurka R, Diamessis PJ, Taylor ZJ, Liberzon Aet al., 2017, Experimental study of the initial growth of a localized turbulent patch in a stably stratified fluid, International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, Vol: 66, Pages: 127-136, ISSN: 0142-727X

We present a laboratory experiment of the initial growth of a turbulent patch in a stably stratified fluid. The patch is created due to a localized source of turbulence, generated by a horizontally oriented and vertically oscillating grid much smaller than the tank size and far from solid boundaries. Synchronized and overlapping particle image velocimetry(PIV) and planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) measurements capture the evolution of the patch through its initial growth until it reached a maximum size. The simultaneous measurements of density and velocity fields allow for a direct quantification of the distribution of kinetic energy, buoyancy and degree of mixing within the patch. We can also relate the propagation speed of the turbulent/non-turbulent interface and its thickness to the properties of the turbulent fluid inside the evolving patch. The velocity measurements in this setup indicate significant transient effects inside the patch during its growth. A local analysis of the turbulent/non-turbulent interface provides direct measurements of the entrainment velocity we as compared to the local vertical velocity and turbulent intensity at the proximity of the interface. The detailed information about the growth of localized sources of turbulence in stratified environment might be of use in stealth design of autonomous underwater vehicles.

Journal article

Krug D, Holzner M, Marusic I, Van Reeuwijk Met al., 2017, Fractal scaling of the turbulence interface in gravity currents, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol: 820, Pages: R3-1-R3-12, ISSN: 0022-1120

It was previously observed by Krug et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 765, 2015, pp. 303–324) that the surface area 𝐴𝜂 of the turbulent/non-turbulent interface (TNTI) in gravity currents decreases with increasing stratification, significantly reducing the entrainment rate. Here, we consider the multiscale properties of this effect using direct numerical simulations of temporal gravity currents with different gradient Richardson numbers 𝑅𝑖𝑔 . Our results indicate that the reduction of 𝐴𝜂 is caused by a decrease of the fractal scaling exponent 𝛽 , while the scaling range remains largely unaffected. We further find that convolutions of the TNTI are characterized by different length scales in the streamwise and wall-normal directions, namely the integral scale ℎ and the shear scale 𝑙𝑆𝑘=𝑘1/2/𝑆 (formed using the mean shear 𝑆 and the turbulent kinetic energy 𝑘 ) respectively. By recognizing that the anisotropy implied by the different scaling relations increases with increasing 𝑅𝑖𝑔 , we are able to model the 𝑅𝑖𝑔 dependence of 𝛽 in good agreement with the data.

Journal article

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