Imperial College London

Professor Mark Wilson

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Surgery & Cancer

Professor of Practice
 
 
 
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m.wilson

 
 
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Location

 

Cambridge WingSt Mary's Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

174 results found

Mahmood A, Needham K, Shakur-Still H, Harris T, Jamaluddin SF, Davies D, Belli A, Mohamed FL, Leech C, Lotfi HM, Moss P, Lecky F, Hopkins P, Wong D, Boyle A, Wilson M, Darwent M, Roberts Iet al., 2021, Effect of tranexamic acid on intracranial haemorrhage and infarction in patients with traumatic brain injury: a pre-planned substudy in a sample of CRASH-3 trial patients, EMERGENCY MEDICINE JOURNAL, Vol: 38, Pages: 270-278, ISSN: 1472-0205

Journal article

Calzolari E, Chepisheva M, Smith RM, Hellyer PJ, Tahtis V, Arshad Q, Jolly A, Mahmud M, Wilson M, Rust H, Sharp DJ, Seemungal BMet al., 2021, Vestibular agnosia in traumatic brain injury and its link to imbalance, Brain, Vol: 144, Pages: 128-143, ISSN: 0006-8950

Vestibular dysfunction, causing dizziness and imbalance, is a common yet poorly understoodfeature in traumatic brain injury patients. Damage to the inner ear, nerve, brainstem, cerebellumand cerebral hemispheres may all affect vestibular functioning, hence, a multi-level assessment– from reflex to perception – is required. In a previous report, postural instability was thecommonest neurological feature in ambulating acute traumatic brain injury patients. We alsofrequently observe, during ward assessment of acute traumatic brain injury patients withcommon inner ear conditions and a related vigorous vestibular-ocular reflex nystagmus, a lossof vertigo sensation, suggesting a “vestibular agnosia”. Vestibular agnosia patients were alsomore unbalanced, however the link between vestibular agnosia and imbalance was confoundedby the presence of inner ear conditions. We investigated the brain mechanisms of imbalance inacute traumatic brain injury, its link with vestibular agnosia, and potential clinical impact, byprospective laboratory assessment of vestibular function, from reflex to perception, in patientswith preserved peripheral vestibular function. Assessment included vestibular-reflex function;vestibular-perception by participants’ report of their passive yaw rotations in the dark;objective balance via posturography; subjective symptoms via questionnaires; and structuralneuroimaging. We prospectively screened 918 acute admissions, assessed 146 and recruited37. Compared to 37 matched controls, patients showed elevated vestibular-perceptualthresholds (patients 12.92°/s vs. 3.87°/s) but normal vestibular-ocular reflex thresholds(patients 2.52°/s vs. 1.78°/s). Patients with elevated vestibular-perceptual thresholds (3standard deviations above controls’ average), were designated as having vestibular agnosia,and displayed worse posturography than non-vestibular-agnosia patients, despite no differencein vestibular symptom sc

Journal article

Kolias AG, Horner D, Menon DK, Wilson M, Hutchinson PJet al., 2020, Tranexamic acid for traumatic brain injury, LANCET, Vol: 396, Pages: 163-164, ISSN: 0140-6736

Journal article

Mahmood A, Needham K, Shakur-Still H, Davies D, Belli A, Jamaluddin SF, Harris T, Mohamed FL, Leech C, Lotfi H, Moss P, Hopkins P, Wong D, Kendall J, Boyle A, Wilson M, Darwent M, Roberts Iet al., 2020, Tranexamic acid in traumatic brain injury: an explanatory study nested within the CRASH-3 trial, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF TRAUMA AND EMERGENCY SURGERY, Vol: 47, Pages: 261-268, ISSN: 1863-9933

Journal article

Kontojannis V, Hostettler I, Brogan RJ, Raza M, Harper-Payne A, Kareem H, Boutelle M, Wilson Met al., 2019, Detection of intracranial hematomas in the emergency department using near infrared spectroscopy., Brain Inj, Vol: 33, Pages: 875-883

Hypothesis: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in our society. The development of near infrared technology for the detection of intracranial hematomas may assist earlier diagnosis of TBI. This in turn may enable earlier targeted treatments minimizing the harm and subsequent social and economic effects of TBI. Methods: A handheld, noninvasive Near Infrared Spectroscopy device, Infrascanner 2000, (Infrascan Inc., Philadelphia, PA, USA) was used in a major trauma center to screen for traumatic intracranial hematomas. The Infrascanner was used successfully in 205 patients on their arrival in the emergency department prior to CT head. Results: In the whole cohort, sensitivity was 75%, specificity was 50.43%, with negative predictive value 72.84%, and positive predictive value 53.23%. In 45 patients, where the volume of blood was >3.5mL, the sensitivity was 89.36%, specificity 48.73% with negative predictive value 93.9% and positive predictive value 34.15%. Conclusions: The Infrascanner has a relatively high specificity and negative predictive value; therefore, it could in association with the Neurological examination, help in the triage of the trauma patient with potential brain injury. Further investigation is necessary to determine the use of Infrascanner 2000 as a diagnostic method in TBI.

Journal article

Marcus HJ, Paine H, Sargeant M, Wolstenholme S, Collins K, Marroney N, Arshad Q, Tsang K, Jones B, Smith R, Wilson MH, Rust HM, Seemungal BMet al., 2019, Vestibular dysfunction in acute traumatic brain injury, Journal of Neurology, Vol: 266, Pages: 2430-2433, ISSN: 0340-5354

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the commonest cause of disability in under-40-year-olds. Vestibular features of dizziness (illusory self-motion) or imbalance which affects 50% of TBI patients at 5 years, increases unemployment threefold in TBI survivors. Unfortunately, vestibular diagnoses are cryptogenic in 25% of chronic TBI cases, impeding therapy. We hypothesized that chronic adaptive brain mechanisms uncouple vestibular symptoms from signs. This predicts a masking of vestibular diagnoses chronically but not acutely. Hence, defining the spectrum of vestibular diagnoses in acute TBI should clarify vestibular diagnoses in chronic TBI. There are, however, no relevant acute TBI data. Of 111 Major Trauma Ward adult admissions screened (median 38-years-old), 96 patients (87%) had subjective dizziness (illusory self-motion) and/or objective imbalance were referred to the senior author (BMS). Symptoms included: feeling unbalanced (58%), headache (50%) and dizziness (40%). In the 47 cases assessed by BMS, gait ataxia was the commonest sign (62%) with half of these cases denying imbalance when asked. Diagnoses included BPPV (38%), acute peripheral unilateral vestibular loss (19%), and migraine phenotype headache (34%), another potential source of vestibular symptoms. In acute TBI, vestibular signs are common, with gait ataxia being the most frequent one. However, patients underreport symptoms. The uncoupling of symptoms from signs likely arises from TBI affecting perceptual mechanisms. Hence, the cryptogenic nature of vestibular symptoms in TBI (acute or chronic) relates to a complex interaction between injury (to peripheral and central vestibular structures and perceptual mechanisms) and brain-adaptation, emphasizing the need for acute prospective, mechanistic studies.

Journal article

Christopher E, Poon MTC, Glancz LJ, Hutchinson PJ, Kolias AG, Brennan PM, British Neurosurgical Trainee Research Collaborative BNTRCet al., 2019, Outcomes following surgery in subgroups of comatose and very elderly patients with chronic subdural hematoma., Neurosurg Rev, Vol: 42, Pages: 427-431

Increasing age and lower pre-operative Glasgow coma score (GCS) are associated with worse outcome after surgery for chronic subdural haematoma (CSDH). Only few studies have quantified outcomes specific to the very elderly or comatose patients. We aim to examine surgical outcomes in these patient groups. We analysed data from a prospective multicentre cohort study, assessing the risk of recurrence, death, and unfavourable functional outcome of very elderly (≥ 90 years) patients and comatose (pre-operative GCS ≤ 8) patients following surgical treatment of CSDH. Seven hundred eighty-five patients were included in the study. Thirty-two (4.1%) patients had pre-operative GCS ≤ 8 and 70 (8.9%) patients were aged ≥ 90 years. A higher proportion of comatose patients had an unfavourable functional outcome (38.7 vs 21.7%; p = 0.03), although similar proportion of comatose (64.5%) and non-comatose patients (61.8%) functionally improved after surgery (p = 0.96). Compared to patients aged < 90 years, a higher proportion of patients aged ≥ 90 years had unfavourable functional outcome (41.2 vs 20.5%; p < 0.01), although approximately half had functional improvement following surgery. Mortality risk was higher in both comatose (6.3 vs 1.9%; p = 0.05) and very elderly (8.8 vs 1.1%; p < 0.01) groups. There was a trend towards a higher recurrence risk in the comatose group (19.4 vs 9.5%; p = 0.07). Surgery can still provide considerable benefit to very elderly and comatose patients despite their higher risk of morbidity and mortality. Further research would be needed to better identify those most likely to benefit from surgery in these groups.

Journal article

ter Avest E, Lambert E, de Coverly R, Tucker H, Griggs J, Wilson MH, Ghorbangholi A, Williams J, Lyon RMet al., 2019, Live video footage from scene to aid helicopter emergency medical service dispatch: a feasibility study, SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF TRAUMA RESUSCITATION & EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Vol: 27, ISSN: 1757-7241

Journal article

Hostettler IC, Murahari S, Raza MH, Kontojannis V, Tsang K, Kareem H, Jones B, Wilson Met al., 2018, Case report on the spontaneous resolution of a traumatic intracranial acute subdural haematoma: evaluation of the guidelines, ACTA NEUROCHIRURGICA, Vol: 160, Pages: 1311-1314, ISSN: 0001-6268

Journal article

Wilson MH, Hargens AR, Imray CH, 2018, Effects of Spaceflight on Astronaut Brain Structure, NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, Vol: 378, Pages: 581-581, ISSN: 0028-4793

Journal article

Harvey D, Butler J, Groves J, Manara A, Menon D, Thomas E, Wilson Met al., 2018, Management of perceived devastating brain injury after hospital admission: a consensus statement from stakeholder professional organizations, BRITISH JOURNAL OF ANAESTHESIA, Vol: 120, Pages: 138-145, ISSN: 0007-0912

Journal article

Smith CM, Wilson MH, Ghorbangholi A, Hartley-Sharpe C, Gwinnutt C, Dicker B, Perkins GDet al., 2017, The use of trained volunteers in the response to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest - the GoodSAM experience, RESUSCITATION, Vol: 121, Pages: 123-126, ISSN: 0300-9572

Journal article

Veljanoski D, Grier G, Wilson MH, 2017, Counting the Cost of Cervical Collars., Prehosp Disaster Med, Vol: 32, Pages: 701-702

Veljanoski D , Grier G , Wilson MH . Counting the cost of cervical collars. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(6):701-702.

Journal article

Smith CM, Keung SNLC, Khan MO, Arvanitis TN, Fothergill R, Hartley-Sharpe C, Wilson MH, Perkins GDet al., 2017, Barriers and facilitators to public access defibrillation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a systematic review, EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL-QUALITY OF CARE AND CLINICAL OUTCOMES, Vol: 3, Pages: 264-273, ISSN: 2058-5225

Journal article

Wilson MH, Forbes AE, Schutzer-Weissmann J, Menassa DAet al., 2017, Head injury patterns in helmeted and non-helmeted cyclists admitted to a London Major Trauma Centre with serious head injury., PLoS ONE, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1932-6203

BackgroundCycle use across London and the UK has increased considerably over the last 10 years. With this there has been an increased interest in cycle safety and injury prevention. Head injuries are an important cause of mortality and morbidity in cyclists. This study aimed to ascertain the frequency of different head injury types in cyclists and whether wearing a bicycle helmet affords protection against specific types of head injury.MethodsA retrospective observational study of all cyclists older than 16 years admitted to a London Major Trauma Centre between 1st January 2011 and 31st December 2015 was completed. A cohort of patients who had serious head injury was identified (n = 129). Of these, data on helmet use was available for 97. Comparison was made between type of injury frequency in helmeted and non-helmeted cyclists within this group of patients who suffered serious head injury.ResultsHelmet use was shown to be protective against intracranial injury in general (OR 0.2, CI 0.07–0.55, p = 0.002). A protective effect against subdural haematoma was demonstrated (OR 0.14, CI 0.03–0.72, p = 0.02). Wearing a helmet was also protective against skull fractures (OR 0.12, CI 0.04–0.39, p<0.0001) but not any other specific extracranial injuries. This suggests that bicycle helmets are protective against those injuries caused by direct impact to the head. Further research is required to clarify their role against injuries caused by shearing forces.ConclusionsIn a largely urban environment, the use of cycle helmets appears to be protective for certain types of serious intra and extracranial head injuries. This may help to inform future helmet design.

Journal article

Griva K, Stygall J, Wilson MH, Martin D, Levett D, Mitchell K, Mythen M, Montgomery HE, Grocott MP, Aref-Adib G, Edsell M, Plant T, Imray C, Cooke D, Harrington J, Khosravi M, Newman SPet al., 2017, Caudwell Xtreme Everest: A prospective study of the effects of environmental hypoxia on cognitive functioning, PLOS ONE, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1932-6203

Journal article

Hutchinson PJ, Kolias AG, Timofeev IS, Corteen EA, Czosnyka M, Timothy J, Anderson I, Bulters DO, Belli A, Eynon CA, Wadley J, Mendelow AD, Mitchell PM, Wilson MH, Critchley G, Sahuquillo J, Unterberg A, Servadei F, Teasdale GM, Pickard JD, Menon DK, Murray GD, Kirkpatrick PJet al., 2017, Trial of decompressive craniectomy for traumatic intracranial hypertension, Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, Vol: 29, Pages: 175-176, ISSN: 0898-4921

Journal article

Brogan RJ, Kontojannis V, Garara B, Marcus HJ, Wilson MHet al., 2017, Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to detect traumatic intracranial haematoma: A systematic review and meta-analysis, BRAIN INJURY, Vol: 31, Pages: 581-588, ISSN: 0269-9052

Journal article

, 2017, GoodSAM - how digital networks can revolutionise care in life-threatening emergencies., Perspect Public Health, Vol: 137, Pages: 23-24

Journal article

Wilson MH, 2016, Traumatic brain injury: an underappreciated public health issue, LANCET PUBLIC HEALTH, Vol: 1, Pages: E44-E44, ISSN: 2468-2667

Journal article

Brennan PM, Kolias AG, Joannides AJ, Shapey J, Marcus HJ, Gregson BA, Grover PJ, Hutchinson PJ, Coulter ICet al., 2016, The management and outcome for patients with chronic subdural hematoma: a prospective, multicenter, observational cohort study in the United Kingdom, Journal of Neurosurgery, ISSN: 1933-0693

Journal article

De Simoni S, Grover PJ, Jenkins PO, Honeyfield L, Quest R, Scott G, Wilson WH, Majewska P, Waldman AD, Patel MC, Sharp DJet al., 2016, Disconnection between the default mode network and medial temporal lobes in post-traumatic amnesia, Brain, Vol: 139, Pages: 3137-3150, ISSN: 0006-8950

Post-traumatic amnesia is very common immediately after traumatic brain injury. It is characterised by a confused, agitated state and a pronounced inability to encode new memories and sustain attention. Clinically, post-traumatic amnesia is an important predictor of functional outcome. However, despite its prevalence and functional importance, the pathophysiology of post-traumatic amnesia is not understood. Memory processing relies on limbic structures such as the hippocampus, parahippocampus and parts of the cingulate cortex. These structures are connected within an intrinsic connectivity network, the Default Mode Network. Interactions within the Default Mode Network can be assessed using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging, which can be acquired in confused patients unable to perform tasks in the scanner. Here we used this approach to test the hypothesis that the mnemonic symptoms of post-traumatic amnesia are caused by functional disconnection within the Default Mode Network. We assessed whether the hippocampus and parahippocampus showed evidence of transient disconnection from cortical brain regions involved in memory processing. 19 traumatic brain injury patients were classified into post-traumatic amnesia and traumatic brain injury control groups, based on their performance on a paired associates learning task. Cognitive function was also assessed with a detailed neuropsychological test battery. Functional interactions between brain regions were investigated using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Together with impairments in associative memory patients in post-traumatic amnesia demonstrated impairments in information processing speed and spatial working memory. Patients in post-traumatic amnesia showed abnormal functional connectivity between the parahippocampal gyrus and posterior cingulate cortex. The strength of this functional connection correlated with both associative memory and information processing speed and normal

Journal article

Quah BL, Low HL, Wilson MH, Bimpis A, Nga VDW, Lwin S, Zainuddin NH, Abd Wahab N, Salek MAAet al., 2016, Is There An Optimal Time for Performing Cranioplasties? Results from a Prospective Multinational Study, WORLD NEUROSURGERY, Vol: 94, Pages: 13-17, ISSN: 1878-8750

Journal article

Hutchinson PJ, Kolias AG, Timofeev IS, Corteen EA, Czosnyka M, Timothy J, Anderson I, Bulters DO, Belli A, Eynon CA, Wadley J, Mendelow AD, Mitchell PM, Wilson MH, Critchley G, Sahuquillo J, Unterberg A, Servadei F, Teasdale GM, Pickard JD, Menon DK, Murray GD, Kirkpatrick PJet al., 2016, Trial of Decompressive Craniectomy for Traumatic Intracranial Hypertension, NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, Vol: 375, Pages: 1119-1130, ISSN: 0028-4793

Journal article

Wilson MH, 2016, Monro-Kellie 2.0: The dynamic vascular and venous pathophysiological components of intracranial pressure, Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism, Vol: 36, Pages: 1338-1350, ISSN: 0271-678X

For 200 years, the ‘closed box’ analogy of intracranial pressure (ICP) has underpinned neurosurgery and neuro-critical care. Cushing conceptualised the Monro-Kellie doctrine stating that a change in blood, brain or CSF volume resulted in reciprocal changes in one or both of the other two. When not possible, attempts to increase a volume further increase ICP. On this doctrine’s “truth or relative untruth” depends many of the critical procedures in the surgery of the central nervous system. However, each volume component may not deserve the equal weighting this static concept implies. The slow production of CSF (0.35 ml/min) is dwarfed by the dynamic blood in and outflow (∼700 ml/min). Neuro-critical care practice focusing on arterial and ICP regulation has been questioned. Failure of venous efferent flow to precisely match arterial afferent flow will yield immediate and dramatic changes in intracranial blood volume and pressure. Interpreting ICP without interrogating its core drivers may be misleading. Multiple clinical conditions and the cerebral effects of altitude and microgravity relate to imbalances in this dynamic rather than ICP per se. This article reviews the Monro-Kellie doctrine, categorises venous outflow limitation conditions, relates physiological mechanisms to clinical conditions and suggests specific management options.

Journal article

Chaudery M, Clark J, Morrison JJ, Wilson MH, Bew D, Darzi Aet al., 2016, Can contrast-enhanced ultrasonography improve Zone III REBOA placement for prehospital care?, Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, Vol: 80, Pages: 89-94, ISSN: 2163-0755

BACKGROUND: Torso hemorrhage is the primary cause of potentially preventable mortality in trauma. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) has been advocated as an adjunct to bridge patients to definitive hemorrhage control. The primary aim of this study was to assess whether contrast-enhanced ultrasonography can improve the accuracy of REBOA placement in the infrarenal aorta (Zone III).METHODS: A fluoroscopy-free “enhanced” Zone III REBOA technique was developed using a porcine cadaver model. A “standard” over-the-wire Seldinger technique was used, which was enhanced with the addition of a microbubble contrast medium to inflate the balloon, observed with ultrasonography. Following this, attending- and resident-level physicians were randomized into two groups. They were taught either the enhanced with ultrasonography guidance (Group A) or the standard measuring length of catheter insertion (Group B) technique as part of a human cadaver trauma skills course. Outcomes assessed included time (seconds) from insertion to inflation, accuracy, and missed targets. All results were benchmarked against three endovascular experts.RESULTS: There were 20 participants who performed REBOA with Group A (51 [31]) being significantly faster than Group B (90 [63]) (p = 0.003) and more accurate (p = 0.023) with no missed targets. Group B had five missed targets, the most common error being inflation within Zone II.CONCLUSION: For Zone III REBOA, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography technique is faster and more accurate than the standard technique. This may have value in time-critical and austere environments. Clinical studies are now required to evaluate this approach further.

Journal article

Wilson MH, Imray CHE, 2016, The cerebral venous system and hypoxia, JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY, Vol: 120, Pages: 244-250, ISSN: 8750-7587

Journal article

Garara B, Wood A, Marcus HJ, Tsang K, Wilson MH, Khan Met al., 2016, INTRAMUSCULAR DIAPHRAGMATIC STIMULATION FOR PATIENTS WITH TRAUMATIC HIGH CERVICAL INJURIES AND VENTILATOR DEPENDENT RESPIRATORY FAILURE: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF SAFETY AND EFFECTIVENESS, Injury, Vol: 47, Pages: 539-544, ISSN: 0020-1383

BackgroundIntramuscular diaphragmatic stimulation using an abdominal laparoscopic approach has been proposed as a safer alternative to traditional phrenic nerve stimulation. It has also been suggested that early implementation of diaphragmatic pacing may prevent diaphragm atrophy and lead to earlier ventilator independence. The aim of this study was therefore to systematically review the safety and effectiveness of intramuscular diaphragmatic stimulators in the treatment of patients with traumatic high cervical injuries resulting in long-term ventilator dependence, with particular emphasis on the affect of timing of insertion of such stimulators.MethodsThe Cochrane database and PubMed were searched between January 2000 and June 2015. Reference lists of selected papers were also reviewed. The inclusion criteria used to select from the pool of eligible studies were: (1) reported on adult patients with traumatic high cervical injury, who were ventilator-dependant, (2) patients underwent intramuscular diaphragmatic stimulation, and (3) commented on safety and/or effectiveness.Results12 articles were included in the review. Reported safety issues post insertion of intramuscular electrodes included pneumothorax, infection, and interaction with pre-existing cardiac pacemaker. Only one procedural failure was reported. The percentage of patients reported as independent of ventilatory support post procedure ranged between 40% and 72.2%. The mean delay of insertion ranged from 40 days to 9.7 years; of note the study with the average shortest delay in insertion reported the greatest percentage of fully weaned patients.ConclusionsAlthough evidence for intramuscular diaphragmatic stimulation in patients with high cervical injuries and ventilator dependent respiratory failure is currently limited, the technique appears to be safe and effective. Earlier implantation of such devices does not appear to be associated with greater surgical risk, and may be more effective. Further high

Journal article

Sagoo RS, Hutchinson CE, Wright A, Handford C, Parsons H, Sherwood V, Wayte S, Nagaraja S, Ng Andwe E, Wilson MH, otherset al., 2016, Magnetic Resonance investigation into the mechanisms involved in the development of high-altitude cerebral edema, Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism, Vol: 37, Pages: 319-331, ISSN: 0271-678X

Rapid ascent to high altitude commonly results in acute mountain sickness, and on occasion potentially fatal high-altitudecerebral edema. The exact pathophysiological mechanisms behind these syndromes remain to be determined. We report astudy in which 12 subjects were exposed to a FiO2¼ 0.12 for 22 h and underwent serial magnetic resonance imaging sequencesto enable measurement of middle cerebral artery velocity, flow and diameter, and brain parenchymal, cerebrospinal fluid andcerebral venous volumes. Ten subjects completed 22 h and most developed symptoms of acute mountain sickness (mean LakeLouise Score 5.4; p< 0.001 vs. baseline). Cerebral oxygen delivery was maintained by an increase in middle cerebral arteryvelocity and diameter (first 6 h). There appeared to be venocompression at the level of the small, deep cerebral veins (116 cm3at 2 h to 97 cm3 at 22 h; p< 0.05). Brain white matter volume increased over the 22-h period (574 ml to 587 ml; p < 0.001) andcorrelated with cumulative Lake Louise scores at 22 h (p< 0.05).We conclude that cerebral oxygen delivery was maintained byincreased arterial inflow and this preceded the development of cerebral edema. Venous outflow restriction appeared to play acontributory role in the formation of cerebral edema, a novel feature that has not been observed previously

Journal article

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