Imperial College London


Faculty of MedicineSchool of Public Health

Chair in Global Environmental Health



+44 (0)20 7594 0767majid.ezzati Website




Norfolk PlaceSt Mary's Campus






BibTex format

author = {Carter, E and Yan, L and Fu, Y and Robinson, B and Kelly, F and Elliott, P and Wu, Y and Zhao, L and Ezzati, M and Yang, X and Chan, Q and Baumgartner, J},
doi = {10.1038/s41893-019-0432-x},
journal = {Nature Sustainability},
pages = {42--50},
title = {Household transitions to clean energy in a multi-provincial cohort study in China},
url = {},
volume = {3},
year = {2020}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Household solid fuel (biomass, coal) burning contributes to climate change and is a leading health risk factor. How and why households stop using solid fuel stoves after adopting clean fuels has not been studied. We assessed trends in the uptake, use, and suspension of household stoves and fuels in a multi-provincial cohort study of 753 Chinese adults and evaluated determinants of clean fuel uptake and solid fuel suspension. Over one-third (35%) and one-fifth (17%) of participants suspended use of solid fuel for cooking and heating, respectively, during the past 20 years. Determinants of solid fuel suspension (younger age, widowed) and of earlier suspension (younger age, higher education, and poor self-reported health status) differed from the determinants of clean fuel uptake (younger age, higher income, smaller households, and retired) and of earlier adoption (higher income). Clean fuel adoption and solid fuel suspension warrant joint consideration as indicators of household energy transition. Household energy research and planning efforts that more closely examine solid fuel suspension may accelerate household energy transitions that benefit climate and human health.
AU - Carter,E
AU - Yan,L
AU - Fu,Y
AU - Robinson,B
AU - Kelly,F
AU - Elliott,P
AU - Wu,Y
AU - Zhao,L
AU - Ezzati,M
AU - Yang,X
AU - Chan,Q
AU - Baumgartner,J
DO - 10.1038/s41893-019-0432-x
EP - 50
PY - 2020///
SN - 2398-9629
SP - 42
TI - Household transitions to clean energy in a multi-provincial cohort study in China
T2 - Nature Sustainability
UR -
UR -
UR -
VL - 3
ER -