98 results found
Liu Y, Zuo Z, Li H, et al., 2023, In-situ advanced oxidation of sediment iron for sulfide control in sewers., Water Res, Vol: 240
Sulfide control is a significant problem in urban sewer management. Although in-sewer dosing of chemicals has been widely applied, it is prone to high chemical consumption and cost. A new approach is proposed in this study for effective sulfide control in sewers. It involves advanced oxidation of ferrous sulfide (FeS) in sewer sediment, to produce hydroxyl radical (·OH) in-situ, leading to simultaneous sulfide oxidation and reduction of microbial sulfate-reducing activity. Long-term operation of three laboratory sewer sediment reactors was used to test the effectiveness of sulfide control. The experimental reactor with the proposed in-situ advanced FeS oxidation substantially reduced sulfide concentration to 3.1 ± 1.8 mg S/L. This compares to 9.2 ± 2.7 mg S/L in a control reactor with sole oxygen supply, and 14.1 ± 4.2 mg S/L in the other control reactor without either iron or oxygen. Mechanistic investigations illustrated the critical role of ·OH, produced from the oxidation of sediment iron, in regulating microbial communities and the chemical sulfide oxidation reaction. Together these results demonstrate that incorporating the advanced FeS oxidation process in sewer sediment enable superior performance of sulfide control at a much lower iron dosage, thereby largely saving chemical use.
Kalian AD, Benfenati E, Osborne OJ, et al., 2023, Exploring Dimensionality Reduction Techniques for Deep Learning Driven QSAR Models of Mutagenicity., Toxics, Vol: 11
Dimensionality reduction techniques are crucial for enabling deep learning driven quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models to navigate higher dimensional toxicological spaces, however the use of specific techniques is often arbitrary and poorly explored. Six dimensionality techniques (both linear and non-linear) were hence applied to a higher dimensionality mutagenicity dataset and compared in their ability to power a simple deep learning driven QSAR model, following grid searches for optimal hyperparameter values. It was found that comparatively simpler linear techniques, such as principal component analysis (PCA), were sufficient for enabling optimal QSAR model performances, which indicated that the original dataset was at least approximately linearly separable (in accordance with Cover's theorem). However certain non-linear techniques such as kernel PCA and autoencoders performed at closely comparable levels, while (especially in the case of autoencoders) being more widely applicable to potentially non-linearly separable datasets. Analysis of the chemical space, in terms of XLogP and molecular weight, uncovered that the vast majority of testing data occurred within the defined applicability domain, as well as that certain regions were measurably more problematic and antagonised performances. It was however indicated that certain dimensionality reduction techniques were able to facilitate uniquely beneficial navigations of the chemical space.
Errington E, Guo M, Heng JYY, 2023, Synthetic amorphous silica: environmental impacts of current industry and the benefit of biomass-derived silica, Green Chemistry, Vol: 25, Pages: 4244-4259, ISSN: 1463-9262
The production of Synthetic Amorphous Silica (SAS) is a billion-dollar industry. However, very little is shared publicly on the environmental impact of SAS production. This work provides the first complete treatment for the environmental impacts of SAS produced via the existing ‘dry’ and ‘wet’ industrial methods using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). To provide a more robust method, this includes an evaluation of 8 environmental impact indicators and consideration for uncertainty during process comparison. Predictions are then used to compare the impact of the existing dry and wet methods as well as theoretical methods in which rice husk (RH) is used as a biomass-derived feedstock alternative. Results highlight cases in which using RH as an alternative feedstock is likely to be beneficial. However, it is demonstrated that these benefits are highly dependent on specifics of the process, region, and feedstock characteristics rather than the inherent “green-ness” of RH alone. Findings are therefore of significance to those interested in the existing SAS industry and the sustainable development of SAS. Moreover, findings also have potential implications for wider policy.
Lucas E, Guo M, Guillén-Gosálbez G, 2023, Low-carbon diets can reduce global ecological and health costs., Nat Food, Vol: 4, Pages: 394-406
Potential external cost savings associated with the reduction of animal-sourced foods remain poorly understood. Here we combine life cycle assessment principles and monetarization factors to estimate the monetary worth of damage to human health and ecosystems caused by the environmental impacts of food production. We find that, globally, approximately US$2 of production-related external costs were embedded in every dollar of food expenditure in 2018-corresponding to US$14.0 trillion of externalities. A dietary shift away from animal-sourced foods could greatly reduce these 'hidden' costs, saving up to US$7.3 trillion worth of production-related health burden and ecosystem degradation while curbing carbon emissions. By comparing the health effects of dietary change from the consumption versus the production of food, we also show that omitting the latter means underestimating the benefits of more plant-based diets. Our analysis reveals the substantial potential of dietary change, particularly in high and upper-middle-income countries, to deliver socio-economic benefits while mitigating climate change.
Matassa S, Boeckx P, Boere J, et al., 2023, How can we possibly resolve the planet's nitrogen dilemma?, Microb Biotechnol, Vol: 16, Pages: 15-27
Nitrogen is the most crucial element in the production of nutritious feeds and foods. The production of reactive nitrogen by means of fossil fuel has thus far been able to guarantee the protein supply for the world population. Yet, the production and massive use of fertilizer nitrogen constitute a major threat in terms of environmental health and sustainability. It is crucial to promote consumer acceptance and awareness towards proteins produced by highly effective microorganisms, and their potential to replace proteins obtained with poor nitrogen efficiencies from plants and animals. The fact that reactive fertilizer nitrogen, produced by the Haber Bosch process, consumes a significant amount of fossil fuel worldwide is of concern. Moreover, recently, the prices of fossil fuels have increased the cost of reactive nitrogen by a factor of 3 to 5 times, while international policies are fostering the transition towards a more sustainable agro-ecology by reducing mineral fertilizers inputs and increasing organic farming. The combination of these pressures and challenges opens opportunities to use the reactive nitrogen nutrient more carefully. Time has come to effectively recover used nitrogen from secondary resources and to upgrade it to a legal status of fertilizer. Organic nitrogen is a slow-release fertilizer, it has a factor of 2.5 or higher economic value per unit nitrogen as fertilizer and thus adequate technologies to produce it, for instance by implementing photobiological processes, are promising. Finally, it appears wise to start the integration in our overall feed and food supply chains of the exceptional potential of biological nitrogen fixation. Nitrogen produced by the nitrogenase enzyme, either in the soil or in novel biotechnology reactor systems, deserves to have a 'renaissance' in the context of planetary governance in general and the increasing number of people who desire to be fed in a sustainable way in particular.
Piercy E, Verstraete W, Ellis PR, et al., 2022, A sustainable waste-to-protein system to maximise waste resource utilisation for developing food- and feed-grade protein solutions, Green Chemistry, Vol: 25, Pages: 808-832, ISSN: 1463-9262
A waste-to-protein system that integrates a range of waste-to-protein upgrading technologies has the potential to converge innovations on zero-waste and protein security to ensure a sustainable protein future. We present a global overview of food-safe and feed-safe waste resource potential and technologies to sort and transform such waste streams with compositional quality characteristics into food-grade or feed-grade protein. The identified streams are rich in carbon and nutrients and absent of pathogens and hazardous contaminants, including food waste streams, lignocellulosic waste from agricultural residues and forestry, and contaminant-free waste from the food and drink industry. A wide range of chemical, physical, and biological treatments can be applied to extract nutrients and convert waste-carbon to fermentable sugars or other platform chemicals for subsequent conversion to protein. Our quantitative analyses suggest that the waste-to-protein system has the potential to maximise recovery of various low-value resources and catalyse the transformative solutions toward a sustainable protein future. However, novel protein regulation processes remain expensive and resource intensive in many countries, with protracted timelines for approval. This poses a significant barrier to market expansion, despite accelerated research and development in waste-to-protein technologies and novel protein sources. Thus, the waste-to-protein system is an important initiative to promote metabolic health across lifespans and tackle the global hunger crisis.
Banks M, Johnson R, Giver L, et al., 2022, Industrial production of microbial protein products, CURRENT OPINION IN BIOTECHNOLOGY, Vol: 75, ISSN: 0958-1669
Durkin A, Guo M, Wuertz S, et al., 2022, Resource recovery from food-processing wastewaters in a circular economy: a methodology for the future, CURRENT OPINION IN BIOTECHNOLOGY, Vol: 76, ISSN: 0958-1669
Uma VS, Usmani Z, Sharma M, et al., 2022, Valorisation of algal biomass to value-added metabolites: emerging trends and opportunities., Phytochem Rev, Pages: 1-26, ISSN: 1568-7767
Algal biomass is a promising feedstock for sustainable production of a range of value-added compounds and products including food, feed, fuel. To further augment the commercial value of algal metabolites, efficient valorization methods and biorefining channels are essential. Algal extracts are ideal sources of biotechnologically viable compounds loaded with anti-microbial, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancerous and several therapeutic and restorative properties. Emerging technologies in biomass valorisation tend to reduce the significant cost burden in large scale operations precisely associated with the pre-treatment, downstream processing and waste management processes. In order to enhance the economic feasibility of algal products in the global market, comprehensive extraction of multi-algal product biorefinery is envisaged as an assuring strategy. Algal biorefinery has inspired the technologists with novel prospectives especially in waste recovery, carbon concentration/sequestration and complete utilisation of the value-added products in a sustainable closed-loop methodology. This review critically examines the latest trends in the algal biomass valorisation and the expansive feedstock potentials in a biorefinery perspective. The recent scope dynamics of algal biomass utilisation such as bio-surfactants, oleochemicals, bio-stimulants and carbon mitigation have also been discussed. The existing challenges in algal biomass valorisation, current knowledge gaps and bottlenecks towards commercialisation of algal technologies are discussed. This review is a comprehensive presentation of the road map of algal biomass valorisation techniques towards biorefinery technology. The global market view of the algal products, future research directions and emerging opportunities are reviewed.
Durkin A, Millan-Agorio M, Guo M, 2022, Gaussian Processes for Simulation-Based Optimization and Robust Design, Computer Aided Chemical Engineering, Pages: 1243-1248
Gaussian Processes present a versatile surrogate modeling toolbox to address simulation-based optimization and uncertainties arising from non-converged simulations. In this work we present a black-box optimization methodology framework in which Gaussian Process Regression is used to model complex underlying process performance models and Gaussian Process Classification is used to model feasibility constraints based on converged and non-converged simulations. Additionally, we present a conservativeness parameter to enable tuning of the feasible region based on the trade-off between process performance and the risk of infeasibility due to non-converged simulations.
Durkin A, Finnigan T, Johnson R, et al., 2022, Can closed-loop microbial protein provide sustainable protein security against the hunger pandemic?, Current Research in Biotechnology, Vol: 4, Pages: 365-376
Increasing demand for animal-sourced protein is a major driver of the food system's transgression of the safe environmental operating limits known as planetary boundaries. Microbial proteins are being explored as an alternative to provide sustainable protein security within the planetary boundaries. Here, a design and optimization framework was developed for a closed-loop process in which bioenergy and nutrients are recovered from microbial protein production wastewater. The environmental benefits of a global transition from animal-sourced beef protein toward closed-loop microbial protein with integrated resource recovery was analysed. Microbial protein has a shorter production life cycle than animal-sourced beef protein, thus offering a scalable technology solution to protein security with substantially mitigated environmental impacts. Our results demonstrate the value of environmentally favourable closed-loop food systems to meet projected 2050 protein demand while maintaining food system operations within the safe environmental limits.
Chen L, Upcraft T, Piercy E, et al., 2022, Spatially-explicit projection of future microbial protein from lignocellulosic waste, Current Research in Biotechnology, Vol: 4, Pages: 544-563
Plant- and animal-sourced proteins are carbon-intensive and vulnerable to extreme events. This combined with increasing protein demands highlight the challenge on providing sustainable protein derived from alternative sources. Microbial protein derived from microorganisms offers potential solutions. Notably, some microbial strains e.g. Fusarium venenatum could efficiently convert carbon sources from food-safe agricultural lignocellulosic ‘waste’ (e.g. food crop residues such as wheat straw) to microbial protein. Our study is underpinned by data-driven approach and presents a modelling framework and analyses to predict spatially-explicit yields of staple crop lignocellulosic residues in response to spatial variation and climate change and highlight their potential for microbial protein production. Five food crops residues have been modelled including barley, wheat, maize, sorghum and rice straws worldwide (around 227 countries) to show future potential for microbial protein production. This study predicts crop residue yields using the data set collection and data pre-processing of crop residues and other environmental factors like temperature. Then, global autocorrelation is used to identify crop residues’ worldwide distribution patterns, and local autocorrelation is used to identify hot and cold spots. Feature selection and four models including ordinary least squares (OLS), multilayer perceptron (MLP), lasso regression and spatial error model are applied in prediction. With the updated independent factor ‘future temperature’ obtained from the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model, the selected model is used to predict crop residues in 2030, 2040 and visualizations are created to show the projection outcomes. Our quantitative projection suggests that the future lignocellulosic microbial protein supply in different scenarios would sufficiently satisfy the global protein demands considering the average adult daily protein
Errington E, Guo M, Heng JYY, 2022, Environmental Impacts of Rice Husk-Derived Silica under Uncertainty: Is “Bio” better?, Computer Aided Chemical Engineering, Pages: 1615-1620
Millions of tonnes of rice husk (RH) are produced annually as an agricultural waste. One area of interest for RH valorisation is to use rice husk ash (RHA, a by-product of RH combustion) as a replacement for mineral-derived synthetic amorphous silica (M-SAS). However, little information is available on the environmental benefit of this approach. This study details the first evaluation of the environmental benefits of producing RH-derived synthetic amorphous silica (RH-SAS). This is done by describing the life cycle of RH-SAS in terms of stages for which existing life cycle inventories can be linked and aggregated in a modular way. It is then shown how the physical meaning of linkages between modules are governed by both the characteristics of the RH feedstock and efficiencies of processes across the life cycle. To provide more robust findings, the sensitivity of predictions to model uncertainty are also considered. Finally, a case is provided for the benefit of RH-SAS production within the Asia-Pacific (APAC) SAS market.
Lucas E, Guo M, Guillen-Gosalbez G, 2021, Optimising diets to reach absolute planetary environmental sustainability through consumers, Sustainable Production and Consumption, Vol: 28, Pages: 877-892, ISSN: 2352-5509
The environmental impacts of food are currently at unsustainable levels. Consumers undoubtedly play a central role in reducing the impacts of the food system to more sustainable levels via dietary changes and food waste reduction. Mathematical optimisation is one approach to identifying less environmentally impactful dietary patterns. A limited number of studies, however, have assessed whether impact reductions offered by optimised diets are enough to remain within planetary boundaries (i.e. attain ‘absolute’ environmental sustainability). Using UK food consumption as a case study, here we employ linear programming to identify nutritionally adequate diets that meet sociocultural acceptability criteria whilst minimising (a) environmental impact transgressions of their allocated share of the safe operating space (SoSOS) for nine planetary boundaries (PBs), (b) cost, or (c) deviation from the current diet. We show that the current diet is unsustainable as it transgresses six or seven PBs, depending on the SoSOS allocation principle. Optimising for minimum SoSOS transgressions yields diets offering significant impact reductions (66 - 95% reduction across all PBs) compared to the current average dietary pattern, but whether they completely mitigate SoSOS transgressions depends on the sharing principle adopted to assign the SoSOS to national food consumption. Additionally, by comparing least-cost and least-transgression solutions, we find a trade-off between cost and environmental sustainability indicating that more sustainable dietary patterns are not currently incentivised by the relative prices of food items in the UK. Our work demonstrates the value in embedding ‘absolute’ sustainability in diet optimisation so that solutions inherently provide a more clear-cut understanding of their broad implications on the environment.
Cai W, Zhao M, Kong J, et al., 2021, The linkage between community composition and function over the short-term response period in anaerobic digestion systems with food-fermentation industrial wastewater, iScience, Vol: 24, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 2589-0042
We investigated the short-term dynamics of microbial composition and function in bioreactorswith inocula collected from full-scale and lab-based AD (anaerobic digestion) systems. TheBray-Curtis dissimilarity of both inocula was approximately 10% of the predicted KEGGpathway and 40% of the taxonomic composition, and yet resulted in a similar performance inmethane production, implying the variation of community composition may be decoupled fromperformance. However, the significant correlation of VFAs with taxonomic variation suggestedthat the pathways of anaerobic digestion could be different due to the varying genus. Thepredicted function of the significantly varying genus was mostly related to fermentation, whichstrengthened the conclusion that most microbial variation occurred within the fermentativespecies and led to alternative routes to result in similar methane production in methanogenicbioreactors. This finding sheds a light on the understanding of AD community regulation,which depends on the aims to recover intermediates or methane.
Upcraft T, Tu W-C, Johnson R, et al., 2021, Protein from renewable resources: mycoprotein production from agricultural residues, GREEN CHEMISTRY, Vol: 23, Pages: 5150-5165, ISSN: 1463-9262
Pasha MK, Dai L, Liu D, et al., 2021, An overview to process design, simulation and sustainability evaluation of biodiesel production, BIOTECHNOLOGY FOR BIOFUELS, Vol: 14
Pasha MK, Dai L, Liu D, et al., 2021, Biodiesel production with enzymatic technology: progress and perspectives, BIOFUELS BIOPRODUCTS & BIOREFINING-BIOFPR, Vol: 15, Pages: 1526-1548, ISSN: 1932-104X
Jing R, Li Y, Wang M, et al., 2021, Coupling biogeochemical simulation and mathematical optimisation towards eco-industrial energy systems design, APPLIED ENERGY, Vol: 290, ISSN: 0306-2619
Jing R, Wang J, Shah N, et al., 2021, Emerging supply chain of utilising electrical vehicle retired batteries in distributed energy systems, Advances in Applied Energy, Vol: 1
Increasing electric vehicles (EV) penetration leads to significant challenges in EV battery disposal. Reusing retired batteries in distributed energy systems (DES) offers resource-circular solutions. We propose an optimisation framework to model the emerging supply chains and design strategies for reusing the retired EV batteries in DES. Coupling a supply chain profit-allocation model with a DES design optimisation model, the framework maximises the whole chain profit and enables fair profit distribution between three interactive sectors, i.e., EV, DES, dismantling and recycle (D&R) sectors. Our research highlights the system implications of retired batteries on DES design and new modelling insights into incentive policy effectiveness. Our case study suggests significant potential value chain profits (2.65 million US$) achieved by deploying 10.7 MWh of retired batteries in the DES application with optimal retired battery price of 138 US$/kWh. The revenue support on D&R sector is suggested as a promising incentive scheme than tariff support.
Lucas E, Galan-Martin A, Pozo C, et al., 2021, Global environmental and nutritional assessment of national food supply patterns: Insights from a data envelopment analysis approach, Science of the Total Environment, Vol: 755, ISSN: 0048-9697
Environmental impactsThe global food system inextricably connects human health and environmental integrity. It holds the transforma-tive capability to significantly reduce levels of environmental degradation, caused by current food productionpractices, and alleviate the ‘triple burden’ of malnutrition, existing due to food consumption patterns. System-wide transitions are therefore paramount to tackling environmental and nutritional challenges that are exacer-bated by a rapidly growing population. This work presents a novel application of Data Envelopment Analysis(DEA) to study the sustainability of food supply patterns around the world and appraise the potential to lowerenvironmental pressure without compromising the supply of calories and nutritional quality. By relating envi-ronmental impacts to caloric availability and nutritional adequacy, DEA computes a relative performance scorefor 139 countries and identifies only 18 countries with per capita food supplies that are ‘efficient’ in transformingfive environmental inputs (land use, greenhouse gas emissions, acidification potential, eutrophication potentialand freshwater withdrawals) into calories and nutrition. The widespread extent of ‘inefficiency’ stresses thatthe significant opportunity and need to reduce environmental impacts from food is truly global and extensive.Results of this analysis also provide quantitative information on the varying degrees of potential to improvethe ways in which each nation's population is fed and therefore offers country-specific insight for decision-makers into the integration of environmental and nutritional outcomes for sustainable development.
Narine K, Mahabir J, Koylass N, et al., 2021, Climate smart process design for current and future methanol production, JOURNAL OF CO2 UTILIZATION, Vol: 44, ISSN: 2212-9820
Mahabir J, Bhagaloo K, Koylass N, et al., 2021, What is required for resource-circular CO2 utilization within Mega-Methanol (MM) production?, JOURNAL OF CO2 UTILIZATION, Vol: 45, ISSN: 2212-9820
Robles I, Durkin A, Guo M, 2021, Stochastic optimisation of organic waste-to-resource value chain, ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION, Vol: 273, ISSN: 0269-7491
Li Y, Cheng S, Li Z, et al., 2021, Using system dynamics to assess the complexity of rural toilet retrofitting: Case in eastern China, JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, Vol: 280, ISSN: 0301-4797
Guo M, Shah N, 2021, Chapter 7. Life Cycle Assessment of Sustainable Polymer Packaging, Life Cycle Assessment, Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry, Pages: 153-177
Feng B, van Dam KH, Guo M, et al., 2020, Planning of Food-Energy-Water-Waste (FEW2) nexus for sustainable development, BMC Chemical Engineering, Vol: 2
<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:p>It is critical for reliable infrastructure planning to address the Food-Energy-Water-Waste (FEW2) nexus at system level. This paper presents the applicability of resilience.io platform across water, energy and waste sectors (including food and agricultural waste) with focus on waste-to-energy pathway, aiming to establish the optimal FEW2 nexus based on economic and environmental indicators. A rich array of technology options, including water production facilities, clean energy technologies and waste-to-energy conversions are evaluated to meet the demand of water and energy (mainly gas and electricity), and the treatment requirement of waste and wastewater. A case study of Hunter Region, the largest region in Australia, is presented in this study, featuring the supply and demand context of developed countries. A full set of scenarios, including business-as-usual (BAU), water and wastewater, power plant decommission, waste-to-energy and policy intervention, is created to present FEW2 nexus from the perspective of individual nodes and the whole system. The results signal the benefits of biogas and syngas generation from anaerobic digestion and gasification for waste-to-energy pathway, alongside findings in water and energy sectors. The outcome of this analysis can then form the foundation of regional planning involving relevant stakeholders, with the modelling tools supporting scenario evaluation and collaborative learning to reach consensus in view of different performance indicators including financial and environmental metrics.</jats:p>
Jing R, Hastings A, Guo M, 2020, Sustainable design of urban rooftop food-energy-land nexus, iScience, Vol: 23, Pages: 1-34, ISSN: 2589-0042
Urban rooftop functional design offers a promising option to enable multi-function urban land-use to deliver multiple ecosystem services, e.g., food production by rooftop agriculture and energy supply by installing photovoltaic (PV) panels. To identify the best rooftop utilization strategy considering multiple decision criteria and understand the impact of rooftop solution on the design of urban energy systems, we propose a whole system modeling framework that integrates biogeochemical simulation and multi-objective energy system optimization. We apply the framework to evaluate three rooftop agriculture options, namely, basic rooftop farming, unconditioned greenhouse, and conditioned greenhouse, and one rooftop energy supply option, i.e., PV panels, for an urban energy eco-design case in Shanghai, China. Enabling rooftop agriculture options brings more flexibility to the design and operation of energy systems. PV panels provide cost-optimal solutions, whereas conditioned greenhouse potentially delivers environmentally sustainable land-use by contributing to climate regulation ecosystem services.
Samaroo N, Koylass N, Guo M, et al., 2020, Achieving absolute sustainability across integrated industrial networks - a case study on the ammonia process, GREEN CHEMISTRY, Vol: 22, Pages: 6547-6559, ISSN: 1463-9262
Jing R, Wang J, Shah N, et al., 2020, Emerging supply chain of utilising electrical vehicle retired batteries in distributed energy systems
<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title> <jats:p>Increasing electric vehicles (EV) penetration leads to significant challenges in EV battery disposal. Reusing retired batteries in distributed energy systems (DES) offers resource-circular solutions. We propose an optimisation framework to model the emerging supply chains and design strategies for reusing the retired EV batteries in DES. Coupling a supply chain profit-allocation model with a DES design optimisation model, the framework maximises the whole chain profit and enables fair profit distribution between three interactive sectors, i.e., EV, DES, dismantling and recycle (D&R) sectors. Our research highlights the system implications of retired batteries on DES design and new modelling insights into incentive policy effectiveness. Our case study suggests significant potential value chain profits (2.65 million US$) achieved by deploying 10.7 MWh of retired batteries in the DES application with optimal retired battery price of 138 US$/kWh. The revenue support on D&R sector is suggested as a promising incentive scheme than tariff support.</jats:p>
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