Imperial College London

DrMohammedJawad

Faculty of MedicineSchool of Public Health

Honorary Clinical Research Fellow
 
 
 
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Contact

 

mohammed.jawad06

 
 
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Location

 

Reynolds BuildingCharing Cross Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

105 results found

Jawad M, Shihadeh A, Nakkash RT, 2021, Philip Morris patents 'harm reduction' electronic waterpipe, TOBACCO CONTROL, Vol: 30, Pages: 473-473, ISSN: 0964-4563

Journal article

Chalak A, Nakkash R, Abu-Rmeileh NME, Khader YS, Jawad M, Mostafa A, Abla R, Louviere J, Salloum RGet al., 2021, Own-price and cross-price elasticities of demand for cigarettes and waterpipe tobacco in three Eastern Mediterranean countries: a volumetric choice experiment., Tob Control

BACKGROUND: Waterpipe tobacco smoking rates in the Eastern Mediterranean region are among the highest worldwide, yet little evidence exists on its economics. Estimates of demand elasticities for tobacco products are largely limited to cigarettes. This study aimed to estimate own-price and cross-price elasticities of demand for cigarettes and waterpipe tobacco products in Lebanon, Jordan and Palestine. METHODS: A volumetric choice experiment was conducted using nationally representative household surveys. The choice experiment elicited respondents' stated purchases of eight cigarette and waterpipe tobacco product varieties by hypothetically varying prices. Data were analysed using zero-inflated Poisson models that yielded demand elasticity estimates of cigarette and waterpipe tobacco consumption. RESULTS: The study included 1680 participants in Lebanon (50% female), 1925 in Jordan (44.6% female) and 1679 in Palestine (50% female). We found the demand for premium cigarettes to be price elastic (range, -1.0 to -1.2) across all three countries, whereas the demand for discount cigarettes was less elastic than premium cigarettes in Lebanon (-0.6) and Jordan (-0.7) and more elastic in Palestine (-1.2). The demand for premium waterpipe tobacco was highly elastic in Lebanon (-1.9), moderately elastic in Jordan (-0.6) and inelastic in Palestine (0.2). The cross-price elasticity between cigarettes and waterpipe tobacco was near zero, suggesting that the two products are not considered to be close substitutes by consumers. CONCLUSIONS: These results serve as a strong evidence base for developing and implementing fiscal policies for tobacco control in the Eastern Mediterranean region that address cigarettes and waterpipe tobacco products.

Journal article

Jawad M, Millett C, Nakkash R, 2021, Tobacco-control challenges among adolescents in the Eastern Mediterranean region Comment, LANCET CHILD & ADOLESCENT HEALTH, Vol: 5, Pages: 234-235, ISSN: 2352-4642

Journal article

Coley-Grant D, Jawad M, Ashby HL, Cornes MP, Kumar B, Hallin M, Nightingale PG, Ford C, Gama Ret al., 2021, The Relationship between Intact Parathyroid Hormone and 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in United Kingdom Resident South Asians and Whites: A Comparative, Cross-Sectional Observational Study, Hormone and Metabolic Research, ISSN: 0018-5043

Ethnic differences in intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) at similar total 25 hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations have been reported between US resident Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics, but this has not been studied between South Asians and Whites. We, therefore, compared the iPTH relationship to 25(OH)D in UK resident South Asians and Whites. A comparative, cross-sectional observational study in which demographic and laboratory data on South Asian and White residents of Wolverhampton, UK were analyzed. Log-log models measured the association between 25(OH)D and the interaction term of ethnicity and iPTH. Seven hundred and seventy-two patients consisting of 315 white subjects (208 women) and 457 South Asian subjects (331 women) were studied. Compared to South Asians, White subjects were older, had higher serum concentrations of 25(OH)D, creatinine (lower eGFR), adjusted calcium and magnesium, but similar concentrations of iPTH and phosphate. In an adjusted model, variables significantly associated with 25(OH)D included age, creatinine, adjusted calcium and ethnicity; but not iPTH and the interaction term of ethnicity and iPTH (beta coefficient -0.071, 95% CI -0.209, 0.067, p=0.32). In our study cohort, iPTH was not, per se, influenced by 25 (OH)D. We found no ethnic differences in the association between iPTH and 25(OH)D between South Asians and White UK residents.

Journal article

Abdul-Khalek R, Kayyal W, Akkawi AR, Almalla M, Arif K, Bou-Karroum L, El-Harakeh A, Elzalabany M, Fadlallah R, Ghaddar F, Kashlan D, Kassas S, Khater T, Mobayed N, Rahme D, Saifi O, Jabbour S, El-Jardali F, Akl E, Jawad Met al., 2020, Health-related articles on Syria before and after the start of armed conflict: a scoping review for The Lancet-American University of Beirut Commission on Syria, Conflict and Health, Vol: 14, ISSN: 1752-1505

IntroductionArmed conflict may influence the size and scope of research in Arab countries. We aimed to assess the impact of the 2011 Syrian conflict on health articles about Syria published in indexed journals.MethodsWe conducted a scoping review on Syrian health-related articles using seven electronic databases. We included clinical, biomedical, public health, or health system topics published between 1991 and 2017. We excluded animal studies and studies conducted on Syrian refugees. We used descriptive and social network analyses to assess the differences in rates, types, topics of articles, and authorship before and after 2011, the start of the Syrian conflict.ResultsOf 1138 articles, 826 (72.6%) were published after 2011. Articles published after 2011 were less likely to be primary research; had a greater proportion reporting on mental health (4.6% vs. 10.0%), accidents and injuries (2.3% vs. 18.8%), and conflict and health (1.7% vs. 7.8%) (all p < 0.05); and a lower proportion reporting on child and maternal health (8.1 to 3.6%, p = 0.019). The proportion of research articles reporting no funding increased from 1.1 to 14.6% (p < 0.01). While international collaborations increased over time, the number of articles with no authors affiliated to Syrian institutions overtook those with at least one author affiliation to a Syrian institution for the first time in 2015.ConclusionTo our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the impact of armed conflict on health scholarship in Syria. The Syrian conflict was associated with a change in the rates, types, and topics of the health-related articles, and authors’ affiliations. Our findings have implications for the prioritization of research funding, development of inclusive research collaborations, and promoting the ethics of conducting research in complex humanitarian settings.

Journal article

Jawad M, Hone T, Vamos E, Roderick P, Sullivan R, Millett Cet al., 2020, Estimating indirect mortality impacts of armed conflict in civilian populations: panel regression analyses of 193 countries, 1990-2017, BMC Medicine, Vol: 266, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 1741-7015

BackgroundArmed conflict can indirectly affect population health through detrimental impacts on political and social institutions and destruction of infrastructure. This study aimed to quantify indirect mortality impacts of armed conflict in civilian populations globally, and explore differential effects by armed conflict characteristics and population groups.Methods We included 193 countries between 1990 and 2017 and constructed fixed effects panel regression models using data from the Uppsala Conflict Data Program and Global Burden of Disease study. Mortality rates were corrected to exclude battle-related deaths. We assessed separately four different armed conflict variables (capturing binary, continuous, categorical and quintile exposures) and ran models by cause-specific mortality stratified by age groups and sex. Post-estimation analyses calculated the number of civilian deaths. ResultsWe identified 1,118 unique armed conflicts. Armed conflict was associated with increases in civilian mortality - driven by conflicts categorised as wars. Wars were associated with an increase in age-standardised all-cause mortality of 81.5 per 100.000 population (β 81.5, 95% CI 14.3-148.8) in adjusted models contributing 29.4 million civilian deaths (95% CI 22.1-36.6) globally over the study period. Mortality rates from communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases (β 51.3, 95% CI 2.6-99.9), non-communicable diseases (β 22.7, 95% CI 0.2-45.2) and injuries (β 7.6, 95% CI 3.4-11.7) associated with war increased, contributing 21.0 million (95% CI 16.3-25.6), 6.0 million (95% CI 4.1-8.0), and 2.4 million deaths (95% CI 1.7-3.1) respectively. War-associated increases in all-cause and cause-specific mortality were found across all age groups and both genders, but children aged 0-5 years had the largest relative increases in mortality. Conclusions Armed conflict, particularly war, is associated with a substantial indirect mortality impact among civilians

Journal article

Al Oweini D, Jawad M, Akl EA, 2020, The association of waterpipe tobacco smoking with later initiation of cigarette smoking: a systematic review and meta-analysis exploring the gateway theory, TOBACCO CONTROL, Vol: 29, Pages: 577-584, ISSN: 0964-4563

Journal article

Habib RR, Ziadee M, Abi Younes E, El Asmar K, Jawad Met al., 2020, The association between living conditions and health among Syrian refugee children in informal tented settlements in Lebanon, Journal of Public Health (Oxford), Vol: 42, Pages: e323-e333, ISSN: 1741-3842

BACKGROUND: This cross-sectional study explores the relationship between housing, social wellbeing, access to services and health among a population of Syrian refugee children in Lebanon. METHODS: We surveyed 1902 Syrian refugee households living in informal tented settlements in Lebanon in 2017. Logistic regressions assessed relationships between housing problems, socioeconomic deprivation, social environment and health. RESULTS: Of the 8284 children in the study, 33.0% had at least one health problem. A considerable number of households (43.1%) had > 8 housing problems. Children in these households had higher odds to have three or more health problems compared to children in households with < 6 housing problems (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.39; confidence interval [CI], 1.50-3.81). Nearly three-quarters (74.3%) of households were severely food insecure. Children in these households had higher odds to have one health problem than those in food secure households (AOR, 1.75; CI, 1.11-2.76). There was a significant positive association between households that reported being unhappy with their neighbourhood and the number of children with health problems in those households. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the association between the physical and social living conditions and refugee children's health. Without multidimensional interventions that consider improvements to living conditions, the health of young Syrian refugees will continue to worsen.

Journal article

Jawad M, Blanchet K, Leaning J, 2020, Editorial: Revisiting public health response in times of war, JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH, Vol: 42, Pages: E285-E286, ISSN: 1741-3842

Journal article

Jawad M, Millett C, Sullivan R, Alturki F, Roberts B, Vamos Eet al., 2020, The impact of armed conflict on cancer among civilian populations in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review, Ecancermedicalscience, Vol: 14, ISSN: 1754-6605

Commitee On Publication EthicsecancermedicalscienceSubmit articleArticlesEditorialsSpecial issuesAuthor interviewsCategorySub-categoryArticle typeVolumeKeywordBookmark and ShareArticle metrics: 204 viewshttps://doi.org/10.3332/ecancer.2020.1039Abstract | Full Article | PDFReviewThe impact of armed conflict on cancer among civilian populations in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic reviewMohammed Jawad1, Christopher Millett1, Richard Sullivan2, Fadel Alturki3, Bayard Roberts4 and Eszter P Vamos11Public Health Policy Evaluation Unit, Imperial College London, Hammersmith, London W6 8RP, UK2Institute of Cancer Policy, Cancer Epidemiology, Population and Global Health, King's College London and Guy's & St Thomas' NHS Trust, London, UK3Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Lebanon4Department of Health Services Research and Policy, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1H 9SH, UKAbstractBackground: Armed conflicts are increasingly impacting countries with a high burden of cancer. The aim of this study is to systematically review the literature on the impact of armed conflict on cancer in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).Methods: In November 2019, we searched five medical databases (Embase, Medline, Global Health, PsychINFO and the Web of Science) without date, language or study design restrictions. We included studies assessing the association between armed conflict and any cancer among civilian populations in LMICs. We systematically re-analysed the data from original studies and assessed quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Data were analysed descriptively by cancer site.Results: Of 1,543 citations screened, we included 20 studies assessing 8 armed conflicts and 13 site-specific cancers (total study population: 70,172). Two-thirds of the studies were of low methodological quality (score <5) and their findings were often conflicting. However, among outcomes assessed by three or more studies, we found some evi

Journal article

Jawad M, Dogar O, Kanaan M, Ahluwalia J, Siddiqi Ket al., 2020, Factors associated with dual use of waterpipe tobacco and cigarettes among adults in Pakistan, EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN HEALTH JOURNAL, Vol: 26, Pages: 47-54, ISSN: 1020-3397

Journal article

Singh N, Jawad M, Darzi A, Lotfi T, Nakkash R, Hawkins B, Akl EAet al., 2019, Features of the waterpipe tobacco industry: A qualitative study of the third International Hookah Fair [version 2; peer review: 2 approved; 1 approved with reservations], F1000Research, Vol: 7, Pages: 247-247, ISSN: 2046-1402

Background: Little research has been done to uncover the features of the waterpipe tobacco industry, which makes designing effective interventions and policies to counter this growing trend challenging. The objective of this study is to describe the features of the waterpipe industry. Methods: In 2015, we randomly sampled and conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 representatives of waterpipe companies participating in a trade exhibition in Germany. We used an inductive approach to identify emerging themes. Results: We interviewed representatives and four themes emerged: industry globalisation, cross-industry overlap, customer-product relationship, and attitude towards policy. The industry was described as transnational, generally decentralized, non-cartelized, with ad hoc relationships between suppliers, distributors and retailers. Ties with the cigarette industry were apparent. The waterpipe industry appeared to be in an early growth phase, encroaching on new markets, and comprising of mainly small family-run businesses. Customer loyalty appears stronger towards the waterpipe apparatus than tobacco. There was a notable absence of trade unionism and evidence of deliberate breaches of tobacco control laws. Conclusion: The waterpipe industry appears fragmented but is slowly growing into a mature, globalized, and customer-focused industry with ties to the cigarette industry. Now is an ideal window of opportunity to strengthen public health policy towards the waterpipe industry, which should include a specific legislative waterpipe framework.

Journal article

Jawad M, Vamos E, Najim M, Roberts B, Millett Cet al., 2019, Impact of armed conflict on cardiovascular disease risk: a systematic review, Heart, Vol: 105, Pages: 1388-1394, ISSN: 1355-6037

ObjectivesProlonged armed conflict may constrain efforts to address non-communicable disease in some settings. We assessed the impact of armed conflict on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among civilians in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).MethodsIn February 2019 we performed a systematic review (Prospero ID: CRD42017065722) searching Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, Global Health, and Web of Science without language or date restrictions. We included adult, civilian populations in LMICs. Outcomes included CVDs and diabetes, and eight clinical and behavioural factors (blood pressure, blood glucose, lipids, tobacco, alcohol, body mass index, nutrition, physical activity). We systematically re-analysed data from original papers and presented them descriptively.ResultsSixty-five studies analysed 23 conflicts, and 66% were of low quality. We found some evidence that armed conflict is associated with an increased coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular, and endocrine diseases, in addition to increased blood pressure, lipids, alcohol, and tobacco use. These associations were more consistent for mortality from chronic ischaemic heart disease or unspecified heart disease, systolic blood pressure, and tobacco use. Associations between armed conflict and other outcomes showed no change, or had mixed or uncertain evidence. We found no clear patterning by conflict type, length of follow up, and study quality, nor strong evidence for publication bias.ConclusionsArmed conflict may exacerbate CVDs and their risk factors, but the current literature is somewhat inconsistent. Post-conflict reconstruction efforts should deliver low resource preventative interventions through primary care to prevent excess CVD-related morbidity and mortality.

Journal article

Arshad A, Matharoo J, Arshad E, Sadhra SS, Norton-Wangford R, Jawad Met al., 2019, Knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions towards waterpipe tobacco smoking amongst college or university students: a systematic review, BMC Public Health, Vol: 19, ISSN: 1471-2458

BackgroundDespite evidence for the harms of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS), its use is increasing amongst college and university students worldwide. This systematic review aims to assess the knowledge of, attitudes towards and perceptions of WTS among college or university students.MethodsWe electronically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PSYCHINFO and ISI the Web of Science in October 2018, restricting our search to studies published since January 1990. We included studies among university or college students that used qualitative or quantitative methods, and addressed either knowledge, attitudes, or perceptions towards WTS. We excluded studies where WTS could not be distinguished from other forms of tobacco use and studies reported as abstracts where the full text could not be identified. Data were synthesised qualitatively and analysed data by region (global north/ south), and by reasons for use, knowledge of health hazards, how knowledge influences use, perceptions towards dependence, and policy knowledge.ResultsEighty-six studies were included; 45 from the global north and 41 from the global south. Socio-cultural and peer influences were major contributing factors that encouraged students to initiate WTS. Furthermore, WTS dependence had two components: psychological and social. This was compounded by the general perception that WTS is a less harmful, less addictive and more sociable alternative to cigarette smoking. Knowledge of WTS harms failed to correlate with a reduced risk of WTS use, and some students reported symptoms of WTS addiction. A large proportion of students believed that quitting WTS was easy, yet few were able to do so successfully. Finally, students believed current public health campaigns to educate on WTS harms were inadequate and, particularly in the global north, were not required.ConclusionReasons for WTS amongst university students are multi-faceted. Overall, interventions at both the individual and community level, but also policy mea

Journal article

Jawad M, Al-Houqani M, Ali R, El Sayed Y, ElShahawy O, Weitzman M, Sherman SEet al., 2019, Prevalence, attitudes, behaviours and policy evaluation of midwakh smoking among young people in the United Arab Emirates: Cross-sectional analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey, PLOS ONE, Vol: 14, ISSN: 1932-6203

Journal article

Filippidis FT, Jawad M, Vardavas CI, 2019, Trends and correlates of waterpipe use in the European Union: analysis of selected Eurobarometer surveys (2009-2017)., Nicotine and Tobacco Research, Vol: 21, Pages: 469-474, ISSN: 1462-2203

Introduction: To assess the trends and correlates of waterpipe use between 2009 and 2017 in the 28 European Union (EU) member states. Methods: We analysed data from wave 72.3 (2009, n=27,788); wave 77.1 (2012, n=26,751); wave 82.4 (2014, n=27,801); and wave 87.1 (2017, n=27,901) of the Eurobarometer survey. Representative samples of EU residents aged ≥15 years were asked to report ever use of waterpipe. Regular waterpipe use, i.e. at least once a month was also assessed in 2017. Associations of ever and current use with sociodemographic factors were assessed with multi-level logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of ever waterpipe use in the EU increased from 11.6% in 2009 to 16.3% in 2014 before dropping to 12.9% in 2017, but there was wide variation between EU member states, ranging from 2.3% (Croatia, 2009) to 41.7% (Latvia, 2017). Regular waterpipe use was highest in Austria (3.6%), Latvia (2.5%) and Belgium (2.0%) in 2017. Respondents aged 15-24 years were 11.43 times more likely (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 10.71-12.21) to have ever used waterpipe compared to those 55 years and older. Regular and ever waterpipe use were also more likely among current and former cigarette smokers. Males (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR]=1.64; 95% CI: 1.58-1.70) and those living in urban areas (aOR=1.36; 95% CI: 1.30-1.42) were more likely to have ever used waterpipe. Conclusion: A substantial proportion of EU citizens, especially young men, have tried waterpipe. Regular use is relatively limited, but more systematic surveillance is required to monitor trends across the EU. Implications: Data on waterpipe use in the European Union (EU) are scarce. The prevalence of ever waterpipe use in the EU increased from 11.6% in 2009 to 16.3% in 2014 before dropping to 12.9% in 2017, with wide variation between EU member states. Males, those living in urban areas, younger respondents and current or former cigarette smokers were more likely to be ever or regular users of waterpipe.

Journal article

Jawad M, Eissenberg T, Salman R, Soule E, Alzoubi KH, Khabour OF, Karaoghlanian N, Baalbaki R, El Hage R, Saliba NA, Shihadeh Aet al., 2019, Toxicant inhalation among singleton waterpipe tobacco users in natural settings, TOBACCO CONTROL, Vol: 28, Pages: 181-188, ISSN: 0964-4563

Journal article

Habib RR, Ziadee M, Younes EA, Harastani H, Hamdar L, Jawad M, El Asmar Ket al., 2019, Displacement, deprivation and hard work among Syrian refugee children in Lebanon, BMJ GLOBAL HEALTH, Vol: 4, ISSN: 2059-7908

Journal article

Jawad M, Millett C, 2019, Waterpipe tobacco smoking: prevalence, health effects and interventions to reduce use, WHO STUDY GROUP ON TOBACCO PRODUCT REGULATION: REPORT ON THE SCIENTIFIC BASIS OF TOBACCO PRODUCT REGULATION: SEVENTH REPORT OF A WHO STUDY GROUP, Publisher: WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, Pages: 233-255

Book chapter

Hussain Z, van Schalkwyk MC, Alkateb L, Vu N, Al-Ansare F, Alkateb Z, Jawad A, Jawad Met al., 2018, Assessing the advertisement of waterpipe tobacco on eBay in the UK, Tobacco Control, Vol: 29, ISSN: 0964-4563

Journal article

Dogar O, Zahid R, Mansoor S, Kanaan M, Ahluwalia JS, Jawad M, Siddiqi Ket al., 2018, Varenicline versus placebo for waterpipe smoking cessation: a double-blind randomized controlled trial, ADDICTION, Vol: 113, Pages: 2290-2299, ISSN: 0965-2140

Journal article

Basu S, Yudkin JS, Berkowitz SA, Jawad M, Millett Cet al., 2018, Reducing chronic disease through changes in food aid: A microsimulation of nutrition and cardiometabolic disease among Palestinian refugees in the Middle East, PLOS Medicine, Vol: 15

BackgroundType 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease and have become leading causes of morbidity and mortality among Palestinian refugees in the Middle East, many of whom live in long-term settlements and receive grain-based food aid. The objective of this study was to estimate changes in type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality attributable to a transition from traditional food aid to either (i) a debit card restricted to food purchases, (ii) cash, or (iii) an alternative food parcel with less grain and more fruits and vegetables, each valued at $30/person/month.Methods and findingsAn individual-level microsimulation was created to estimate relationships between food aid delivery method, food consumption, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality using demographic data from the United Nations (UN; 2017) on 5,340,443 registered Palestinian refugees in Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Gaza, and the West Bank, food consumption data (2011–2017) from households receiving traditional food parcel delivery of food aid (n = 1,507 households) and electronic debit card delivery of food aid (n = 1,047 households), and health data from a random 10% sample of refugees receiving medical care through the UN (2012–2015; n = 516,386). Outcome metrics included incidence per 1,000 person-years of hypertension, type 2 diabetes, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease events, microvascular events (end-stage renal disease, diabetic neuropathy, and proliferative diabetic retinopathy), and all-cause mortality. The model estimated changes in total calories, sodium and potassium intake, fatty acid intake, and overall dietary quality (Mediterranean Dietary Score [MDS]) as mediators to each outcome metric. We did not observe that a change from food parcel to electronic debit card delivery of food aid or to cash aid led to a meaningful change in consumption, biomarkers, or disease outcomes. By contrast, a shift to an alternative foo

Journal article

Cornes MR, Danks G, Elgaddal S, Jawad M, Tonks J, Ries E, Ford C, Gama Ret al., 2018, Early availability of laboratory results increases same day ward discharge rates, CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND LABORATORY MEDICINE, Vol: 56, Pages: 1864-1869, ISSN: 1434-6621

Journal article

Jawad M, Lee JT, Glantz S, Millett Cet al., 2018, Price elasticity of demand of non-cigarette tobacco products: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Tobacco Control, Vol: 27, Pages: 689-695, ISSN: 0964-4563

OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the price elasticity of demand of non-cigarette tobacco products. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, EconLit and the Web of Science without language or time restrictions. STUDY SELECTION: Two reviewers screened title and abstracts, then full texts, independently and in duplicate. We based eligibility criteria on study design (interventional or observational), population (individuals or communities without geographic restrictions), intervention (price change) and outcome (change in demand). DATA EXTRACTION: We abstracted data on study features, outcome measures, statistical approach, and single best own- and cross-price elasticity estimates with respect to cigarettes. We conducted a random effects meta-analysis for estimates of similar product, outcome and country income level. For other studies we reported median elasticities by product and country income level. DATA SYNTHESIS: We analysed 36 studies from 15 countries yielding 125 elasticity estimates. A 10% price increase would reduce demand by: 8.3% for cigars (95% CI 2.9 to 13.8), 6.4% for roll your owns (95% CI 4.3 to 8.4), 5.7% for bidis (95% CI 4.3 to 7.1) and 2.1% for smokeless tobacco (95% CI -0.6 to 4.8). Median price elasticities for all ten products were also negative. Results from few studies that examined cross-price elasticity suggested a positive substitution effect between cigarette and non-cigarette tobacco products. CONCLUSIONS: There is sufficient evidence in support of the effectiveness of price increases to reduce consumption of non-cigarette tobacco products as it is for cigarettes. Positive substitutability between cigarette and non-cigarette tobacco products suggest that tax and price increases need to be simultaneous and comparable across all tobacco products.

Journal article

Mughal F, Rashid A, Jawad M, 2018, Tobacco and electronic cigarette products: awareness, cessation attitudes, and behaviours among general practitioners, PRIMARY HEALTH CARE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, Vol: 19, Pages: 605-609, ISSN: 1463-4236

Journal article

Singh N, Jawad M, Darzi A, Lotfi T, Nakkash R, Hawkins B, Akl Eet al., 2018, Features of the waterpipe tobacco industry: A qualitative study of the third International Hookah Fair [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 1 approved with reservations], F1000Research, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2046-1402

Background: Little research has been done to uncover the features of the waterpipe tobacco industry, which makes designing effective interventions and policies to counter this growing trend challenging. The objective of this study is to describe the features of the waterpipe industry. Methods: In 2015, we randomly sampled and conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 representatives of waterpipe companies participating in a trade exhibition in Germany. We used an inductive approach to identify emerging themes. Results: We interviewed representatives and four themes emerged: industry globalisation, cross-industry overlap, customer-product relationship, and attitude towards policy. The industry was described as transnational, generally decentralized, non-cartelized, with ad hoc relationships between suppliers, distributors and retailers. Ties with the cigarette industry were apparent. The waterpipe industry appeared to be in an early growth phase, encroaching on new markets, and comprising of mainly small family-run businesses. Customer loyalty appears stronger towards the waterpipe apparatus than tobacco. There was a notable absence of trade unionism and evidence of deliberate breaches of tobacco control laws. Conclusion: The waterpipe industry appears fragmented but is slowly growing into a mature, globalized, and customer-focused industry with ties to the cigarette industry. Now is an ideal window of opportunity to strengthen public health policy towards the waterpipe industry, which should include a specific legislative waterpipe framework.

Journal article

Jawad M, Cheeseman H, Brose LS, 2018, Waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence among young people in Great Britain, 2013-2016, European Journal of Public Health, Vol: 28, Pages: 548-552, ISSN: 1101-1262

Background: One percent of adults in Great Britain use waterpipe tobacco at least monthly, however national epidemiological evidence among young people is absent. This study aims to assess waterpipe tobacco prevalence and correlates among young people in Great Britain. Methods: Data were analyzed from online surveys conducted annually from 2013 to 2016 with weighted national samples of 11 to 18-year olds in Great Britain (annual n = 1936-2059). Primary outcome measures were at least monthly waterpipe tobacco use and lifetime waterpipe tobacco use. Binary logistic regression models tested the association between these outcomes and age, sex, country of residence and other tobacco consumption. Results: Between 2013 and 2016, 1.7% (95% CI 1.5-2.1%) used waterpipe tobacco at least monthly and 9.9% (95% CI 9.2-10.7%) used waterpipe in their lifetime. There were no changes in prevalence over time. At least monthly use was associated with older age groups [16-18 years vs. 11-15 years, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.63, 95% CI 1.55-4.46], male sex (AOR 1.82, 95% CI 1.23-2.71) and other tobacco consumption (e.g. lifetime cigarette use AOR 10.30, 95% CI 5.22-20.29). Lifetime use had similar correlates, but was not associated with male sex (AOR 0.97, 95% CI 0.80-1.17). Conclusions: One in 10 young people in Great Britain have tried waterpipe tobacco, though more frequent use appears low. We found no evidence of increasing or decreasing prevalence of waterpipe use between 2013 and 2016. Being male, older and a concurrent user of other tobacco products were correlated with waterpipe tobacco use.

Journal article

Yang Y, Jawad M, Filippidis F, 2018, Prevalence and correlates of waterpipe use among adolescents in 60 countries, 17th World Conference on Tobacco or Health, Publisher: International Society for the Prevention of Tobacco Induced Diseases, Pages: 309-309, ISSN: 1617-9625

Conference paper

El-Shahawy O, Nicksic NE, Ramôa C, Jawad M, Niaura R, Abrams D, Sherman SEet al., 2018, Linking Global Youth Tobacco Survey Data to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: the Case for Egypt, Current Addiction Reports, Vol: 5, Pages: 54-64

Purpose: Limited publications from Egypt have focused on prevalence of tobacco use and tobacco control policy. We used four waves of the Egypt Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) between 2001 and 2014 and a cigarette affordability measure, to evaluate the implementation of the World Health Organization’s MPOWER recommendations. Findings: Despite Egypt’s implementation of several MPOWER recommendations, the enforcement of laws and regulations may be limited, and therefore had little to no impact on youth current smoking prevalence through 2014. Notably, experimentation with cigarette smoking has significantly increased between waves 2001 and 2014. Summary: There is a missed opportunity for implementing evidence-based interventions for youth tobacco control in Egypt. There is a strong need for initiatives aiming at meaningful taxation, enforcement of smoking bans in public places, promoting smoke-free homes, appropriate mass media counter-advertising, and effective cessation activities.

Journal article

Singh N, Jawad M, Darzi A, Lotfi T, Nakkash R, Hawkins B, Akl Eet al., 2018, Features of the waterpipe tobacco industry: A qualitative study of the third International Hookah Fair [version 1; referees: 1 approved, 1 approved with reservations], F1000Research, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2046-1402

Background: Little research has been done to uncover the features of the waterpipe tobacco industry, which makes designing effective interventions and policies to counter this growing trend challenging. The objective of this study is to describe the features of the waterpipe industry.Methods: In 2015, we randomly sampled and conducted semi-structured interviews with representatives of waterpipe companies participating in a trade exhibition in Germany. We used an inductive approach to identify emerging themes.Results: We interviewed 20 representatives and four themes emerged: industry growth, cross-industry overlap, customer-product relationship, and attitude towards policy. The industry was described as transnational, generally decentralized, non-cartelized, with ad hoc relationships between suppliers, distributors and retailers. Ties with the cigarette industry were apparent. The waterpipe industry appeared to be in an early growth phase, encroaching on new markets, and comprising of mainly small family-run businesses. Customer loyalty appears stronger towards the waterpipe apparatus than tobacco. There was a notable absence of trade unionism and evidence of deliberate breaches of tobacco control laws.Conclusion: The waterpipe industry appears fragmented but is slowly growing into a mature, globalized, and customer-focused industry with ties to the cigarette industry. Now is an ideal window of opportunity to strengthen public health policy towards the waterpipe industry, which should include a specific legislative waterpipe framework.

Journal article

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