57 results found
Li S, Marzook MW, Zhang C, et al., 2023, How to enable large format 4680 cylindrical lithium-ion batteries, Applied Energy, Vol: 349, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 0306-2619
The demand for large format lithium-ion batteries is increasing, because they can be integrated and controlled easier at a system level. However, increasing the size leads to increased heat generation risking overheating. 1865 and 2170 cylindrical cells can be both base cooled or side cooled with reasonable efficiency. Large format 4680 cylindrical cells have become popular after Tesla filed a patent. If these cells are to become widely used, then understanding how to thermally manage them is essential. In this work, we create a model of a 4680 cylindrical cell, and use it to study different thermal management options. Our work elucidates the comprehensive mechanisms how the hot topic ‘tabless design’ improves the performance of 4680 cell and makes any larger format cell possible while current commercial cylindrical cells cannot be simply scaled up to satisfy power and thermal performance. As a consequence, the model identifies the reason for the tabless cell's release: the thermal performance of the 4680 tabless cell can be no worse than that of the 2170 cell, while the 4680 tabless tab cell boasts 5.4 times the energy and 6.9 times the power. Finally, via the model, a procedure is proposed for choosing the thermal management for large format cylindrical cell for maximum performance. As an example, we demonstrate that the best cooling approach for the 4680 tabless cell is base cooling, while for the 2170 LG M50T cell it is side cooling. We conclude that any viable large format cylindrical cell must include a continuous tab (or ‘tabless’) design and be cooled through its base when in a pack. The results are of immediate interest to both cell manufacturers and battery pack designers, while the developed modelling and parameterization framework is of wider use for all energy storage system design.
Li S, Zhang C, Zhao Y, et al., 2023, Effect of thermal gradients on inhomogeneous degradation in lithium-ion batteries, Communications Engineering, Vol: 2, ISSN: 2731-3395
Understanding lithium-ion battery degradation is critical to unlocking their full potential. Poor understanding leads to reduced energy and power density due to over-engineering, or conversely to increased safety risks and failure rates. Thermal management is neces-sary for all large battery packs, yet experimental studies have shown that the effect of thermal management on degradation is not understood sufficiently. Here we investigated the effect of thermal gradients on inhomogeneous degradation using a val-idated three-dimensional electro-thermal-degradation model. We have reproduced the effect of thermal gradients on degradation by running a distributed model over hundreds of cycles within hours and reproduced the positive feedback mechanism responsible for the accelerated rate of degradation. Thermal gradients of just 3 °C within the active re-gion of a cell produced sufficient positive feedback to accelerate battery degradation by 300%. Here we show that the effects of inhomogeneous temperature and currents on degradation cannot and should not be ignored. Most attempts to reproduce realistic cell level degradation based upon a lumped model (i.e. no thermal gradients) have suffered from significant overfitting, leading to incorrect conclusions on the rate of degradation.
Zhuo M, Kirkaldy N, Maull T, et al., 2023, Diffusion-aware voltage source: An equivalent circuit network to resolve lithium concentration gradients in active particles, APPLIED ENERGY, Vol: 339, ISSN: 0306-2619
Zhuo M, Offer G, Marinescu M, 2023, Degradation model of high-nickel positive electrodes: Effects of loss of active material and cyclable lithium on capacity fade, Journal of Power Sources, Vol: 556, Pages: 1-16, ISSN: 0378-7753
Nickel-rich layered oxides have been widely used as positive electrode materials for high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries, but the underlying mechanisms of their degradation have not been well understood. Here we present a model at the particle level to describe the structural degradation caused by phase transition in terms of loss of active material (LAM), loss of lithium inventory (LLI), and resistance increase. The particle degradation model is then incorporated into a cell-level P2D model to explore the effects of LAM and LLI on capacity fade in cyclic ageing tests. It is predicted that the loss of cyclable lithium (trapped in the degraded shell) leads to a shift in the stoichiometry range of the negative electrode but does not directly contribute to the capacity loss, and that the loss of positive electrode active materials dominates the fade of usable cell capacity in discharge. The available capacity at a given current rate is further decreased by the additional resistance of the degraded shell layer. The change pattern of the state-of-charge curve provides information of more dimensions than the conventional capacity-fade curve, beneficial to the diagnosis of degradation modes. The model has been implemented into PyBaMM and the source codes are openly available in the GitHub repository https://github.com/mzzhuo/PyBaMM/tree/pe_degradation.
Tomlin RJJ, Roy T, Kirk TLL, et al., 2022, Impedance Response of Ionic Liquids in Long Slit Pores, JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY, Vol: 169, ISSN: 0013-4651
Kirkaldy N, Samieian MA, Offer GJ, et al., 2022, Lithium-ion battery degradation: measuring rapid loss of active silicon in silicon-graphite composite electrodes, ACS Applied Energy Materials, Vol: 5, Pages: 13367-13376, ISSN: 2574-0962
To increase the specific energy of commercial lithium-ion batteries, silicon is often blended into the graphite negative electrode. However, due to large volumetric expansion of silicon upon lithiation, these silicon–graphite (Si–Gr) composites are prone to faster rates of degradation than conventional graphite electrodes. Understanding the effect of this difference is key to controlling degradation and improving cell lifetimes. Here, the effects of state-of-charge and temperature on the aging of a commercial cylindrical cell with a Si–Gr electrode (LG M50T) are investigated. The use of degradation mode analysis enables quantification of separate rates of degradation for silicon and graphite and requires only simple in situ electrochemical data, removing the need for destructive cell teardown analyses. Loss of active silicon is shown to be worse than graphite under all operating conditions, especially at low state-of-charge and high temperature. Cycling the cell over 0–30% state-of-charge at 40 °C resulted in an 80% loss in silicon capacity after 4 kA h of charge throughput (∼400 equiv full cycles) compared to just a 10% loss in graphite capacity. The results indicate that the additional capacity conferred by silicon comes at the expense of reduced lifetime. Conversely, reducing the utilization of silicon by limiting the depth-of-discharge of cells containing Si–Gr will extend their lifetime. The degradation mode analysis methods described here provide valuable insight into the causes of cell aging by separately quantifying capacity loss for the two active materials in the composite electrode. These methods provide a suitable framework for any experimental investigations involving composite electrodes.
Marzook MW, Hales A, Patel Y, et al., 2022, Thermal evaluation of lithium-ion batteries: Defining the cylindrical cell cooling coefficient, Journal of Energy Storage, Vol: 54, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 2352-152X
Managing temperatures of lithium-ion cells in battery packs is crucial to ensuring their safe operation. However, thermal information provided on typical cell datasheets is insufficient to identify which cells can be easily thermally managed. The Cell Cooling Coefficient (CCC) aims to fill this gap, as a metric that defines the thermal dissipation from a cell when rejecting its own heat. While the CCC has been defined and used for pouch cells, no similar measure has been proven for cylindrical cells. This work successfully defines and measures the CCC for cylindrical cells under base cooling (CCCBase), defined as the heat rejected through the base divided by the temperature difference from the base to positive cap. Using a non-standard, electrically optimised connection, the maxima for CCCBase of an LG M50T (21700) and Samsung 30Q (18650) cell are successfully measured to be 0.139 and 0.115 W K−1, respectively. Even though the 21700 has a higher CCCBase, indicating that the cell can be cooled more efficiently, comparing the CCCBase per area the 18650 can reject 13 % more heat for a given cooled area. A worked example demonstrates the equal importance of understanding heat generation alongside the CCC, for both cell design and down selecting cells.
Planella FB, Ai W, Boyce AM, et al., 2022, A continuum of physics-based lithium-ion battery models reviewed, PROGRESS IN ENERGY, Vol: 4
Zhang C, Amietszajew T, Li S, et al., 2022, Real-time estimation of negative electrode potential and state of charge of lithium-ion battery based on a half-cell-level equivalent circuit model, JOURNAL OF ENERGY STORAGE, Vol: 51, ISSN: 2352-152X
Li R, O'Kane S, Marinescu M, et al., 2022, Modelling solvent consumption from SEI layer growth in lithium-ion batteries, Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol: 169, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 0013-4651
Predicting lithium-ion battery (LIB) lifetime is one of the most important challenges holding back the electrification of vehicles,aviation, and the grid. The continuous growth of the solid-electrolyte interface (SEI) is widely accepted as the dominantdegradation mechanism for LIBs. SEI growth consumes cyclable lithium and leads to capacity fade and power fade via severalpathways. However, SEI growth also consumes electrolyte solvent and may lead to electrolyte dry-out, which has only beenmodelled in a few papers. These papers showed that the electrolyte dry-out induced a positive feedback loop between loss of activematerial (LAM) and SEI growth due to the increased interfacial current density, which resulted in capacity drop. This work,however, shows a negative feedback loop between LAM and SEI growth due to the reduced solvent concentration (in our case,EC), which slows down SEI growth. We also show that adding extra electrolyte into LIBs at the beginning of life can greatlyimprove their service life. This study provides new insights into the degradation of LIBs and a tool for cell developers to designlonger lasting batteries.
Cornish M, Marinescu M, 2022, Toward Rigorous Validation of Li-S Battery Models, JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY, Vol: 169, ISSN: 0013-4651
O'Kane SEJ, Ai W, Madabattula G, et al., 2022, Lithium-ion battery degradation: how to model it, Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
Predicting lithium-ion battery degradation is worth billions to the globalautomotive, aviation and energy storage industries, to improve performance andsafety and reduce warranty liabilities. However, very few published models ofbattery degradation explicitly consider the interactions between more than twodegradation mechanisms, and none do so within a single electrode. In thispaper, the first published attempt to directly couple more than two degradationmechanisms in the negative electrode is reported. The results are used to mapdifferent pathways through the complicated path dependent and non-lineardegradation space. Four degradation mechanisms are coupled in PyBaMM, an opensource modelling environment uniquely developed to allow new physics to beimplemented and explored quickly and easily. Crucially it is possible to see'inside' the model and observe the consequences of the different patterns ofdegradation, such as loss of lithium inventory and loss of active material. Forthe same cell, five different pathways that can result in end-of-life havealready been found, depending on how the cell is used. Such information wouldenable a product designer to either extend life or predict life based upon theusage pattern. However, parameterization of the degradation models remains as amajor challenge, and requires the attention of the international batterycommunity.
Morgan LM, Islam MM, Yang H, et al., 2022, From Atoms to Cells: Multiscale Modeling of a LiNi<i><sub>x</sub></i>Mn<i><sub>y</sub></i>Co<i><sub>z</sub></i>O<sub>2</sub> Cathodes for Li-Ion Batteries, ACS ENERGY LETTERS, Vol: 7, Pages: 108-122, ISSN: 2380-8195
Pang M-C, Marinescu M, Wang H, et al., 2021, Mechanical behaviour of inorganic solid-state batteries: can we model the ionic mobility in the electrolyte with Nernst-Einstein's relation?, PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS, Vol: 23, Pages: 27159-27170, ISSN: 1463-9076
Pang M-C, Yang K, Brugge R, et al., 2021, Interactions are important: Linking multi-physics mechanisms to the performance and degradation of solid-state batteries, MATERIALS TODAY, Vol: 49, Pages: 145-183, ISSN: 1369-7021
Li S, Kirkaldy N, Zhang C, et al., 2021, Optimal cell tab design and cooling strategy for cylindrical lithium-ion batteries, Journal of Power Sources, Vol: 492, Pages: 1-16, ISSN: 0378-7753
The ability to correctly predict the behavior of lithium ion batteries is critical for safety, performance, cost and lifetime. Particularly important for this purpose is the prediction of the internal temperature of cells, because of the positive feedback between heat generation and current distribution. In this work, a comprehensive electro-thermal model is developed for a cylindrical lithium-ion cell. The model is comprehensively parameterized and validated with experimental data for 2170 cylindrical cells (LG M50T, NMC811), including direct core temperature measurements. The validated model is used to study different cell designs and cooling approaches and their effects on the internal temperature of the cell. Increasing the number of tabs connecting the jellyroll to the base of the cylindrical-can reduces the internal thermal gradient by up to 25.41%. On its own, side cooling is more effective than base cooling at removing heat, yet both result in thermal gradients within the cell of a similar magnitude, irrespective of the number of cell tabs. The results are of immediate interest to both cell manufacturers and battery pack designers, while the modelling and parameterization framework created is an essential tool for energy storage system design.
Batteries that extend performance beyond the intrinsic limits of Li-ion batteries are among the most important developments required to continue the revolution promised by electrochemical devices. Of these next-generation batteries, lithium sulfur (Li–S) chemistry is among the most commercially mature, with cells offering a substantial increase in gravimetric energy density, reduced costs and improved safety prospects. However, there remain outstanding issues to advance the commercial prospects of the technology and benefit from the economies of scale felt by Li-ion cells, including improving both the rate performance and longevity of cells. To address these challenges, the Faraday Institution, the UK's independent institute for electrochemical energy storage science and technology, launched the Lithium Sulfur Technology Accelerator (LiSTAR) programme in October 2019. This Roadmap, authored by researchers and partners of the LiSTAR programme, is intended to highlight the outstanding issues that must be addressed and provide an insight into the pathways towards solving them adopted by the LiSTAR consortium. In compiling this Roadmap we hope to aid the development of the wider Li–S research community, providing a guide for academia, industry, government and funding agencies in this important and rapidly developing research space.
Ghosh A, Foster JM, Offer G, et al., 2021, A Shrinking-Core Model for the Degradation of High-Nickel Cathodes (NMC811) in Li-Ion Batteries: Passivation Layer Growth and Oxygen Evolution, JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY, Vol: 168, ISSN: 0013-4651
Hua X, Heckel C, Modrow N, et al., 2021, The prismatic surface cell cooling coefficient: A novel cell design optimisation tool & thermal parameterization method for a 3D discretised electro-thermal equivalent-circuit model, eTransportation, Vol: 7, Pages: 1-15, ISSN: 2590-1168
Thermal management of large format prismatic lithium ion batteries is challenging due to significant heat generation rates, long thermal ‘distances’ from the core to the surfaces and subsequent thermal gradients across the cell. The cell cooling coefficient (CCC) has been previously introduced to quantify how easy or hard it is to thermally manage a cell. Here we introduce its application to prismatic cells with a 90 Ah prismatic lithium iron phosphate cell with aluminium alloy casing. Further, a parameterised and discretised three-dimensional electro-thermal equivalent circuit model is developed in a commercially available software environment. The model is thermally and electrically validated experimentally against data including drive cycle noisy load and constant current CCC square wave load, with particular attention paid to the thermal boundary conditions. A quantitative study of the trade-off between cell energy density and surface CCC, and into casing material selection has been conducted here. The CCC enables comparison between cells, and the model enables a cell manufacturer to optimise the cell design and a systems developer to optimise the pack design. We recommend this is operated together holistically. This paper offers a cost-effective, time-efficient, convenient and quantitative way to achieve better and safer battery designs for multiple applications.
Pang M-C, Wei Y, Wang H, et al., 2021, Large-format bipolar and parallel solid-state lithium-metal cell stacks: a thermally coupled model-based comparative study, Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol: 167, Pages: 1-23, ISSN: 0013-4651
Despite the potential of solid electrolytes in replacing liquid electrolytes, solid-state lithium-metal batteries have not been commercialised for large-scale applications due to manufacturing constraints. In this study, we demonstrate that the desired energy and power output for large-format solid-state lithium-metal batteries can be achieved by scaling and stacking unit cells. Two stack configurations, a bipolar and a parallel stack are modelled and compared. With 63 cells stacked in series, we show that a bipolar stack could reach a stack voltage up to 265 V. In contrast, a parallel stack with 32 double-coated cells could achieve a nominal capacity of 4 Ah. We also demonstrate that the choice of current collectors is critical in determining the gravimetric power and energy density of both stacks. By coupling the electrochemical stack model thermally, we show that the Joule heating effects are negligible for bipolar stacks but become dominant for parallel stacks. Bipolar stacks are better due to their higher power and energy densities and lower heat generation, but a lower Coulombic stack capacity limits their performance. In contrast, parallel stacks generate more heat and require more advanced thermal management. These thermally-coupled stack models can be used as prototypes to aid the future development of large-format solid-state batteries.
Jiang Y, Offer GJ, Jiang J, et al., 2020, Voltage hysteresis model for silicon electrodes for lithium ion batteries, including multi-step phase transformations, crystallization and amorphization, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, Vol: 167, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 0013-4651
Silicon has been an attractive alternative to graphite as an anode material in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The development of better silicon electrodes and the optimization of their operating conditions for longer cycle life require a quantitative understanding of the lithiation/delithiation mechanisms of silicon and how they are linked to the electrode behaviors. Herein we present a zero-dimensional mechanistic model of silicon anodes in LIBs. The model, for the first time, quantitatively accounts for the multi-step phase transformations, crystallization and amorphization of different lithium-silicon phases during cycling while being able to capture the electrode behaviors under different lithiation depths. Based on the model, a linkage between the underlying reaction processes and electrochemical performance is established. In particular, the two sloping voltage plateaus at low lithiation depth are correlated with two electrochemical phase transformations and the emergence of the single broad plateau at high lithiation depth is correlated with the amorphization of c-Li15Si4. The model is then used to study the effects of crystallization rate and surface energy barriers, which clarifies the role of surface energy and particle size in determining the performance behaviors of silicon. The model is a necessary tool for future design and development of high-energy-density, longer-life silicon-based LIBs.
Bravo Diaz L, He X, Hu Z, et al., 2020, Review—meta-review of fire safety of lithium-ion batteries: industry challenges and research contributions, Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol: 167, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 0013-4651
The Lithium-ion battery (LIB) is an important technology for the present and future of energy storage, transport, and consumer electronics. However, many LIB types display a tendency to ignite or release gases. Although statistically rare, LIB fires pose hazards which are significantly different to other fire hazards in terms of initiation route, rate of spread, duration, toxicity, and suppression. For the first time, this paper collects and analyses the safety challenges faced by LIB industries across sectors, and compares them to the research contributions found in all the review papers in the field. The comparison identifies knowledge gaps and opportunities going forward. Industry and research efforts agree on the importance of understanding thermal runaway at the component and cell scales, and on the importance of developing prevention technologies. But much less research attention has been given to safety at the module and pack scales, or to other fire protection layers, such as compartmentation, detection or suppression. In order to close the gaps found and accelerate the arrival of new LIB safety solutions, we recommend closer collaborations between the battery and fire safety communities, which, supported by the major industries, could drive improvements, integration and harmonization of LIB safety across sectors.
O'Kane SEJ, Campbell ID, Marzook MWJ, et al., 2020, Physical origin of the differential voltage minimum associated with lithium plating in Li-Ion batteries, Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol: 167, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 0013-4651
The main barrier to fast charging of Li-ion batteries at low temperatures is the risk of short-circuiting due to lithium plating. In-situ detection of Li plating is highly sought after in order to develop fast charging strategies that avoid plating. It is widely believed that Li plating after a single fast charge can be detected and quantified by using a minimum in the differential voltage (DV) signal during the subsequent discharge, which indicates how much lithium has been stripped. In this work, a pseudo-2D physics-based model is used to investigate the effect on Li plating and stripping of concentration-dependent diffusion coefficients in the active electrode materials. A new modelling protocol is also proposed, in order to distinguish the effects of fast charging, slow charging and Li plating/stripping. The model predicts that the DV minimum associated with Li stripping is in fact a shifted and more abrupt version of a minimum caused by the stage II-stage III transition in the graphite negative electrode. Therefore, the minimum cannot be used to quantify stripping. Using concentration-dependent diffusion coefficients yields qualitatively different results to previous work. This knowledge casts doubt on the utility of DV analysis for detecting Li plating.
Madabattula G, Wu B, Marinescu M, et al., 2020, Degradation diagnostics for Li4Ti5O12-based lithium ion capacitors: insights from a physics-based model, Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol: 167, ISSN: 0013-4651
Lithium ion capacitors are an important energy storage technology, providing the optimum combination of power, energy and cycle life for high power applications. However, there has been minimal work on understanding how they degrade and how this should influence their design. In this work, a 1D electrochemical model of a lithium ion capacitor with activated carbon (AC) as the positive electrode and lithium titanium oxide (LTO) as the negative electrode is used to simulate the consequences of different degradation mechanisms in order to explore how the capacity ratio of the two electrodes affects degradation. The model is used to identify and differentiate capacity loss due to loss of active material (LAM) in the lithiated and de-lithiated state and loss of lithium inventory (LLI). The model shows that, with lower capacity ratios (AC/LTO), LAM in the de-lithiated state cannot be identified as the excess LTO in the cell balances the capacity loss. Cells with balanced electrode capacity ratios are therefore necessary to differentiate LAM in lithiated and de-lithiated states and LLI from each other. We also propose in situ diagnostic techniques which will be useful to optimize a LIC's design. The model, built in COMSOL, is available online.
Madabattula G, Wu B, Marinescu M, et al., 2020, How to design lithium ion capacitors: modelling, mass ratio ofelectrodes and pre-lithiation, Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol: 167, ISSN: 0013-4651
Lithium ion capacitors (LICs) store energy using double layer capacitance at the positive electrode and intercalation at the negative electrode. LICs offer the optimum power and energy density with longer cycle life for applications requiring short pulses of high power. However, the effect of electrode balancing and pre-lithiation on usable energy is rarely studied. In this work, a set of guidelines for optimum design of LICs with activated carbon (AC) as positive electrode and lithium titanium oxide (LTO) as negative electrode was proposed. A physics-based model has been developed and used to study the relationship between usable energy at different effective C rates and the mass ratio of the electrodes. The model was validated against experimental data from literature. The model was then extended to analyze the need for pre-lithiation of LTO. The limits for pre-lithiation in LTO and use of negative polarization of the AC electrode to improve the cell capacity have been analyzed using the model. Furthermore, the model was used to relate the electrolyte depletion effects to poorer power performance in a cell with higher mass ratio. The open-source model can be re-parameterised for other LIC electrode combinations, and should be of interest to cell designers.
Madabattula G, Wu B, Marinescu M, et al., 2019, 1D Electrochemical Model for Lithium Ion Capacitors in Comsol
Lithium ion capacitor is an electrochemical energy storage device with optimum energy density, power density and longer cycle life. A 1D-electrochemical model for activated carbon (AC)/ lithium titanium oxide (LTO) based lithium ion capacitor was built in COMSOL multiphyisics, v5.3a. The model was used to generate the data in an open-access paper: How to Design Lithium Ion Capacitor: Modelling, Mass Ratio of Electrodes and Pre-lithiation, Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 2020, 167. (http://jes.ecsdl.org/content/167/1/013527.abstract) The model can be used to optimize the mass ratio of electrodes and pre-lithiation level. It can be extended to study the capacity fade in the devices.
Propp K, Auger DJ, Fotouhi A, et al., 2019, Improved state of charge estimation for lithium-sulfur batteries, JOURNAL OF ENERGY STORAGE, Vol: 26, ISSN: 2352-152X
Pang M-C, Hao Y, Marinescu M, et al., 2019, Experimental and numerical analysis to identify the performance limiting mechanisms in solid-state lithium cells under pulse operating conditions., Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol: 21, Pages: 22740-22755, ISSN: 1463-9076
Solid-state lithium batteries could reduce the safety concern due to thermal runaway while improving the gravimetric and volumetric energy density beyond the existing practical limits of lithium-ion batteries. The successful commercialisation of solid-state lithium batteries depends on understanding and addressing the bottlenecks limiting the cell performance under realistic operational conditions such as dynamic current profiles of different pulse amplitudes. This study focuses on experimental analysis and continuum modelling of cell behaviour under pulse operating conditions, with most model parameters estimated from experimental measurements. By using a combined impedance and distribution of relaxation times analysis, we show that charge transfer at both interfaces occurs between the microseconds and milliseconds timescale. We also demonstrate that a simplified set of governing equations, rather than the conventional Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations, are sufficient to reproduce the experimentally observed behaviour during pulse discharge, pulse charging and dynamic pulse. Our simulation results suggest that solid diffusion in bulk LiCoO2 is the performance limiting mechanism under pulse operating conditions, with increasing voltage loss for lower states of charge. If bulk electrode forms the positive electrode, improvement in the ionic conductivity of the solid electrolyte beyond 10-4 S cm-1 yields marginal overall performance gains due to this solid diffusion limitation. Instead of further increasing the electrode thickness or improving the ionic conductivity on their own, we propose a holistic model-based approach to cell design, in order to achieve optimum performance for known operating conditions.
In the recent years, lithium-ion batteries have become the battery technology of choice for portable devices, electric vehicles and grid storage. While increasing numbers of car manufacturers are introducing electrified models into their offering, range anxiety and the length of time required to recharge the batteries are still a common concern. The high currents needed to accelerate the charging process have been known to reduce energy efficiency and cause accelerated capacity and power fade. Fast charging is a multiscale problem, therefore insights from atomic to system level are required to understand and improve fast charging performance. The present paper reviews the literature on the physical phenomena that limit battery charging speeds, the degradation mechanisms that commonly result from charging at high currents, and the approaches that have been proposed to address these issues. Special attention is paid to low temperature charging. Alternative fast charging protocols are presented and critically assessed. Safety implications are explored, including the potential influence of fast charging on thermal runaway characteristics. Finally, knowledge gaps are identified and recommendations are made for the direction of future research. The need to develop reliable in operando methods to detect lithium plating and mechanical degradation is highlighted. Robust model-based charging optimisation strategies are identified as key to enabling fast charging in all conditions. Thermal management strategies to both cool batteries during charging and preheat them in cold weather are acknowledged as critical, with a particular focus on techniques capable of achieving high speeds and good temperature homogeneities.
Pang M-C, Hao Y, Wang H, et al., 2019, What is the rate-limiting mechanism in solid-state lithium cells at different pulse operating conditions?, 236th ECS Meeting
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