Imperial College London

Professor Nigel Brandon OBE FREng FRS

Faculty of Engineering

Dean of the Faculty of Engineering
 
 
 
//

Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 8600n.brandon Website

 
 
//

Location

 

2.06Faculty BuildingSouth Kensington Campus

//

Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

495 results found

Huang C, Strbac G, Zong Y, You S, Træholt C, Brandon N, Wang J, Ameli Het al., 2024, Modeling and optimal operation of reversible solid oxide cells considering heat recovery and mode switching dynamics in microgrids, Applied Energy, Vol: 357, ISSN: 0306-2619

The reversible solid oxide cell (rSOC) is a promising technology for advancing energy decarbonization by enabling bidirectional conversion between electricity and hydrogen in a single device. However, previous studies have not fully explored the operational flexibility of rSOCs due to inadequate consideration of heat recovery potentials and dynamics of operating mode transitions. To address this research gap, this paper presents a model-based optimal operation method for managing multi-energy transactions in rSOC-based microgrids, aiming to minimize operation costs. The method incorporates detailed operational models of the rSOC, including a lumped thermal model to account for heat recovery capability and modeling of various operating modes and their transitions. Additionally, a linearization process is introduced to address nonlinear and implicit operational constraints, resulting in a computationally efficient mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) formulation for the operation model. Comparative case studies are conducted using modified energy portfolios of a Danish energy island. The results demonstrate that the proposed method effectively captures operating mode transitions within the rSOC and enhances its profitability via waste heat recovery. Notably, the rSOC model contributes to enhanced operational flexibility through heat recovery behaviors and a wider temperature range, resulting in substantial economic savings for the microgrid.

Journal article

Tongsh C, Wu S, Jiao K, Huo W, Du Q, Park JW, Xuan J, Wang H, Brandon NP, Guiver MDet al., 2024, Fuel cell stack redesign and component integration radically increase power density, Joule, Vol: 8, Pages: 175-192

The drawbacks of conventional channel-rib flow fields and gas diffusion layers (GDLs) significantly limit the mass transfer and water management capability of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), impacting volumetric power density. We report a GDL-less design of electrode-flow field integration comprised of graphene-coated Ni foam and ultrathin (9.1 μm) carbon nanofiber film as an alternative to conventional channel-rib flow fields and GDLs, which substantially reduces membrane electrode assembly volume (90%), reactant transport distance (96%), and concentration impedance (88.6%), resulting in a remarkable 50% power density increase. The GDL-less design provides an effective strategy for the rational design of integrated electrode-flow field and will guide the future development of PEMFCs for their practical applications in energy conversion technologies. We estimate that the peak volumetric power density a PEMFC stack employing GDL-less design can achieve is 9.8 kW L−1, representing an increase of more than 80% compared with the state-of-the-art commercial PEMFC stack.

Journal article

Ouyang M, Guo Z, Salinas Farran L, Zhao S, Zhao Y, Titirici M, Brandon Net al., 2023, Co-Electrospin-Electrosprayed High Areal-Loading Sodium-Ion Battery Electrodes, 244th ECS Meeting

Conference paper

Yusoff WNAW, Baharuddin NA, Somalu MR, Muchtar A, Brandon NP, Fan Het al., 2023, Recent advances and influencing parameters in developing electrode materials for symmetrical solid oxide fuel cells, International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy and Materials, Vol: 30, Pages: 1933-1956, ISSN: 1674-4799

This article delivers a robust overview of potential electrode materials for use in symmetrical solid oxide fuel cells (S-SOFCs), a relatively new SOFC technology. To this end, this article provides a comprehensive review of recent advances and progress in electrode materials for S-SOFC, discussing both the selection of materials and the challenges that come with making that choice. This article discussed the relevant factors involved in developing electrodes with nano/microstructure. Nanocomposites, e.g., non-cobalt and lithiated materials, are only a few of the electrode types now being researched. Furthermore, the phase structure and microstructure of the produced materials are heavily influenced by the synthesis procedure. Insights into the possibilities and difficulties of the material are discussed. To achieve the desired microstructural features, this article focuses on a synthesis technique that is either the most recent or a better iteration of an existing process. The portion of this analysis that addresses the risks associated with manufacturing and the challenges posed by materials when fabricating S-SOFCs is the most critical. This article also provides important and useful recommendations for the strategic design of electrode materials researchers.

Journal article

Cannon CG, Klusener PAA, Brandon NP, Kucernak Aet al., 2023, Aqueous redox flow batteries: small organic molecules for the positive electrolyte species, ChemSusChem: chemistry and sustainability, energy and materials, Vol: 16, ISSN: 1864-5631

There are a number of critical requirements for electrolytes in aqueous redox flow batteries. This paper reviews organic molecules that have been used as the redox-active electrolyte for the positive cell reaction in aqueous redox flow batteries. These organic compounds are centred around different organic redox active moieties such as the aminoxyl radical (TEMPO and N-hydroxyphthalimide), carbonyl (quinones and biphenols), amine (e.g indigo carmine), ether and thioether (e.g. thianthrene) groups. We consider the key metrics that can be used to assess their performance: redox potential, solubility, redox kinetics, diffusivity, operating pH, stability, and cost. We develop a new figure of merit - the theoretical intrinsic power density - which combines the first four of the aforementioned metrics to allow ranking of different redox couples on just one side of the battery. The organic electrolytes show theoretical intrinsic power densities which are 2-100 times larger than that of the VO2+/VO2+ couple, with TEMPO-derivatives showing the highest performance. Finally, we survey organic positive electrolytes in the literature on the basis of their redox-active moieties and the aforementioned figure of merit.

Journal article

Zainon AN, Somalu MR, Bahrain AMK, Muchtar A, Baharuddin NA, Ali SAM, Osman N, Samat AA, Azad AK, Brandon NPet al., 2023, Challenges in using perovskite-based anode materials for solid oxide fuel cells with various fuels: a review, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HYDROGEN ENERGY, Vol: 48, Pages: 20441-20464, ISSN: 0360-3199

Journal article

Norman NW, Somalu MR, Muchtar A, Baharuddin NA, Ali SAM, Azad AK, Raharjo J, Khaerudini DS, Brandon NPet al., 2023, Influence of transition or lanthanide metal doping on the properties of Sr<sub>0.6</sub>Ba<sub>0.4</sub>Ce<sub>0.9</sub>M<sub>0.1</sub>O<sub>3-δ</sub> (M = In, Pr or Ga) electrolytes for proton-conducting solid oxide fuel cells, CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 49, Pages: 17018-17031, ISSN: 0272-8842

Journal article

Dubey L, Speirs J, Balcombe P, Tariq N, Brandon N, Hawkes Aet al., 2023, Future use of natural gas under tightening climate targets, Futures, Vol: 150, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 0016-3287

Natural gas has developed as a prominent energy source across the world over the last century. However, its use in the future will be constrained by evolving climate goals, and an optimal role for natural gas in a future 1.5 °C world is debated. We conduct a systematic review of the literature, and analysis of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change SR1.5 scenarios to understand the role of natural gas in a 1.5 °C world. We also examine key factors that influence the use of gas such as Carbon Capture and Storage and Negative Emissions Technologies. We find that global gas use decreases more considerably under a 1.5 °C target than 2 °C with half of the 1.5 °C scenarios reducing gas use by at least ∼35% by 2050 and ∼70% by 2100 against 2019 consumption. We find there is no correlation between the level of Negative Emissions Technologies and the permitted gas use in Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change scenarios, while there is a strong correlation between gas use and the deployment of Carbon Capture and Storage. Regionally, there are considerable ranges in gas use, with the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development & European Union seeing the greatest decrease in use and Asia increasing use until 2050. Notwithstanding this uncertainty, global natural gas use is likely to decrease in the coming decades in response to climate goals.

Journal article

Stettler MEJ, Woo M, Ainalis D, Achurra-Gonzalez P, Speirs J, Cooper J, Lim D-H, Brandon N, Hawkes Aet al., 2023, Review of Well-to-Wheel lifecycle emissions of liquefied natural gas heavy goods vehicles, APPLIED ENERGY, Vol: 333, ISSN: 0306-2619

Journal article

Wang A, Tan R, Liu D, Lu J, Wei X, Alvarez-Fernandez A, Ye C, Breakwell C, Guldin S, Kucernak AR, Jelfs KE, Brandon NP, McKeown NB, Song Qet al., 2023, Ion-selective microporous polymer membranes with hydrogen-bond and salt-bridge networks for aqueous organic redox flow batteries, Advanced Materials, Vol: 35, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 0935-9648

Redox flow batteries (RFBs) have great potential for long-duration grid-scale energy storage. Ion conducting membranes are a crucial component in RFBs, allowing charge-carrying ions to transport while preventing the cross-mixing of redox couples. Commercial Nafion membranes are widely used in RFBs, but their unsatisfactory ionic and molecular selectivity as well as high costs limit the performance and the widespread deployment of this technology. To extend the longevity and reduce the cost of RFB systems, inexpensive ion-selective membranes are highly desired that concurrently deliver low ionic resistance and high selectivity towards redox-active species. In this work, high-performance RFB membranes are fabricated from blends of carboxylate- and amidoxime-functionalized polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) that exploit the beneficial properties of both polymers. The enthalpy-driven formation of cohesive interchain interactions, including hydrogen bonds and salt bridges, facilitates the microscopic miscibility of the blends, while ionizable functional groups within the sub-nanometer pores allow optimization of membrane ion transport functions. The resulting microporous membranes demonstrate fast cation conduction with low crossover of redox-active molecular species, enabling improved power ratings and reduced capacity fade in aqueous RFBs using anthraquinone and ferrocyanide as redox couples. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Journal article

Rubio-Garcia J, Kucernak A, Chakrabarti BK, Zhao D, Li D, Tang Y, Ouyang M, Low CTJ, Brandon Net al., 2023, High performance H2-Mn regenerative fuel cells through an improved positive electrode morphology, Batteries, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2313-0105

The effective scaling-up of redox flow batteries (RFBs) can be facilitated upon lowering the capital costs. The application of ubiquitous manganese along with hydrogen (known as H2−Mn regenerative fuel cells (RFC)) is seen as an effective solution for this purpose. Here, we aim to evaluate different positive electrodes so as to improve the key performance metrics of the H2/Mn RFC, namely electrolyte utilization, energy efficiency, and peak power densities. Commercially available carbon paper and graphite felt are used to show that the latter provides better key performance indicators (KPIs), which is consistent with the results reported for standard all-vanadium RFBs in the literature. Even better KPIs are obtained when an in-house carbon catalyst layer (CCL) is employed in combination with graphite felt electrodes (e.g., more than 80% energy efficiency, >0.5 W cm−2 peak power density and electrolyte utilization of 20 Ah L−1 for felt and carbon metal fabric (CMF), prepared by means of electrospinning and carbonization, in comparison with about 75% energy efficiency 0.45 W cm−2 peak power density and 11 Ah L−1 electrolyte utilization for felt on its own). It is envisaged that if the electrochemical performance of CCLs can be optimized then it could open up new opportunities for the commercial exploitation of H2−Mn systems.

Journal article

He R, Xie W, Wu B, Brandon NP, Liu X, Li X, Yang Set al., 2023, Towards interactional management for power batteries of electric vehicles, RSC Advances: an international journal to further the chemical sciences, Vol: 13, Pages: 2036-2056, ISSN: 2046-2069

With the ever-growing digitalization and mobility of electric transportation, lithium-ion batteries are facing performance and safety issues with the appearance of new materials and the advance of manufacturing techniques. This paper presents a systematic review of burgeoning multi-scale modelling and design for battery efficiency and safety management. The rise of cloud computing provides a tactical solution on how to efficiently achieve the interactional management and control of power batteries based on the battery system and traffic big data. The potential of selecting adaptive strategies in emerging digital management is covered systematically from principles and modelling, to machine learning. Specifically, multi-scale optimization is expounded in terms of materials, structures, manufacturing and grouping. The progress on modelling, state estimation and management methods is summarized and discussed in detail. Moreover, this review demonstrates the innovative progress of machine learning based data analysis in battery research so far, laying the foundation for future cloud and digital battery management to develop reliable onboard applications.

Journal article

Wanyusoff WNA, Baharuddin NA, Somalu MR, Brandon NPet al., 2023, Preliminary Assessment of Ru-Doped LiNiO<inf>2</inf> as a Dual-Functioning Electrode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, Pages: 337-341

Durability constraints with electrode materials have become a rising focus of study in the development of electrode materials. A brand-new breakthrough configuration has come to the forefront in the advancing SOFC application. This novel form, known as symmetrical SOFC (S-SOFC), is a major topic in fuel cell development. By integrating lithiated nickel oxide-based materials that are typically used in lithium-ion battery applications and making them applicable for S-SOFC applications. The sol gel technique was used to synthesize the precursor lithiated nickel oxide with ruthenium as a dopant. This approach was deemed the most appropriate for handling lithiated materials in terms of effort, cost, and timeliness. As a result, the focus of these studies will be on initial work, especially the characterization and chemical performance of lithiated nickel doped ruthenium, abbreviated as LN1-xRx O2(x=0.4 and 0.5) with various dopant compositions. The LNRO-based powder was analyzed in both oxidizing and reducing conditions to imitate the operating environment of a dual-functioning electrode. The symmetrical cell with the configuration LNRx / SDC / LNRx was screen-printed and heat treated for 2 hours at 800°C. As this electrode material has two functions, just one heat treatment step is necessary to assure the electrode is effectively attached to the electrolyte substrate (SDC). The samples were next examined for electrical conductivity of the electrode and, finally, EIS analysis. In a reduced environment (mixed gas of H2: N2), the activation energies for LNR4 and LNR5 are 0.13 and 0.14 eV respectively. Meanwhile, the ASR values derived from the EIS analysis of the best sample LNR4 measured in air and reduced environment at 800°C are 2.467 Ω cm2 and 0.030 Ω cm2, respectively. The morphological behavior of these components will be thoroughly examined. The findings indicated that the LNR4 dopant has a great potential as an electrode for the S-SOFC applicati

Conference paper

Brandon NP, Brandon JJ, 2023, Hydrogen for a Net-Zero Carbon World, Engineering, ISSN: 2095-8099

Journal article

Wan Yusoff WNA, Baharuddin NA, Somalu MR, Brandon NP, Muhammed Ali SA, Muchtar Aet al., 2023, Dual electrode functioning lithiated nickel based for solid oxide fuel cell, Materials Today: Proceedings

Research into producing electrode materials has increasingly focused on addressing the issues of durability experienced by electrode materials. There is a new configuration developing for the growing SOFC market. Symmetrical solid oxide fuel cells (S-SOFC) are a very new and innovative kind of fuel cell. S-SOFCs may be made practical by integrating lithiated nickel oxide-based materials, which are often used for lithium-ion battery applications. Accordingly, the focus of these studies will be on fundamental research, in particular the characterisation and chemical performance of lithiated nickel doped ruthenium (abbreviated as LN1-xRxO2 (x = 0.1,0.2, and 0.3). The LNRO-based powder was analysed in both oxidising and reducing environments to replicate the operating conditions of a dual-functioning electrode. The screen-printed LNRO/SDC/LNRO symmetrical cell was then subjected to 2 h of heat treatment at 800 °C. Additionally, the electrode's electrical conductivity and EIS analysis were performed on the samples. In a oxidised environment (H2:N2 gas mixture), LNR1, LNR2, and LNR3 have activation energies of 0.08, 0.07, and 0.09 eV, respectively; in a reduced environment (humidified air), these values are 0.22, 0.13, and 0.18 eV. Meanwhile, the best sample LNR2's ASR value, determined by EIS analysis, is 6.123 Ω cm2 in air and 2.250 Ω cm2 in a reduced environment at 800 °C. This result proved that the dopant used in LNR2 has great promise as an electrode for the S-SOFC application, which is more than merely a means to enhance SOFC performance.

Journal article

Song Y, Shahidehpour M, Rahman S, Brandon N, Strunz K, Lin J, Zhao Yet al., 2023, Utilization of Energy Storage and Hydrogen in Power and Energy Systems: Viewpoints from Five Aspects, CSEE JOURNAL OF POWER AND ENERGY SYSTEMS, Vol: 9, Pages: 1-7, ISSN: 2096-0042

Journal article

Pan Y, Wang H, Brandon NP, 2022, A fast two-phase non-isothermal reduced-order model for accelerating PEM fuel cell design development, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol: 47, Pages: 38774-38792, ISSN: 0360-3199

A reduced-order model (ROM) is developed for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) considering the non-isothermal two-phase effects, with the goal of enhancing computational efficiency and thus accelerating fuel cell design development. Using analytical order reduction and approximation methods, the fluxes and source terms in conventional 1D conservation equations are reduced to six computing nodes at the interfaces between each cell component. The errors associated with order reduction are minimized by introducing new approximation methods for the potential distribution, the transport properties, and the membrane hydration status. The trade-off between model accuracy and computational efficiency is studied by comparing the simulation results and computational times of the new model with a full 1D model. The new model is nearly two orders of magnitude faster without sacrificing too much accuracy (<4% difference) compared to the 1D model. The new model is then used to analyze the influence of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) design on cell performance and internal state distributions, offering insights into MEA structural optimization. The model can be readily extended to account for more detailed physico-chemical processes, such as Knudsen diffusion or the influence of micro-porous layers, and it can be an effective tool for understanding and designing PEMFCs.

Journal article

Yang S, Zhou C, Wang Q, Chen B, Zhao Y, Guo B, Zhang Z, Gao X, Chowdhury R, Wang H, Lai C, Brandon NP, Wu B, Liu Xet al., 2022, Highly‐aligned ultra‐thick gel‐based cathodes unlocking ultra‐high energy density batteries, Energy & Environmental Materials, Vol: 5, Pages: 1332-1339, ISSN: 2575-0356

Increasing electrode thickness can substantially enhance the specific energy of lithium-ion batteries, however ionic transport, electronic conductivity and ink rheology are current barriers to adoption. Here a novel approach using a mixed xanthan gum and locust bean gum binder to construct ultra-thick electrodes is proposed to address above issues. After combining aqueous binder with single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), active material (LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2) and subsequent vacuum freeze drying, highly-aligned and low tortuosity structures with a porosity of ca. 50% can be achieved with an average pore size of 10 μm, whereby the gum binder-SWCNT-NMC811 forms vertical structures supported by tissue-like binder/SWCNT networks allowing for excellent electronic conducting phase percolation. As a result, ultra-thick electrodes with a mass loading of about 511 mg·cm-2 and 99.5 wt% active materials have been demonstrated with a remarkable areal capacity of 79.3 mAh·cm−2, which is the highest value reported so far. This represents a >25x improvement compared to conventional electrodes with an areal capacity of about 3 mAh·cm-2. This route also can be expanded to other electrode materials, such as LiFePO4 and Li4Ti5O12, and thus opens the possibility for low-cost and sustainable ultra-thick electrodes with increased specific energy for future lithium-ion batteries.

Journal article

Ye C, Tan R, Wang A, Chen J, Comesaña Gándara B, Breakwell C, Alvarez-Fernandez A, Fan Z, Weng J, Bezzu CG, Guldin S, Brandon N, Kucernak A, Jelfs K, McKeown N, Song Qet al., 2022, Long-life aqueous organic redox flow batteries enabled by amidoxime-functionalized ion-selective polymer membranes, Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol: 61, ISSN: 1433-7851

Redox flow batteries (RFBs) based on aqueous organic electrolytes are a promising technology for safe and cost-effective large-scale electrical energy storage. Membrane separators are a key component in RFBs, allowing fast conduction of charge-carrier ions but minimizing the cross-over of redox-active species. Here, we report the molecular engineering of amidoxime-functionalized polymers of intrinsic microporosity (AO-PIMs) by tuning their polymer chain topology and pore architecture to optimize membrane ion transport selectivity. AO-PIM membranes are integrated with three emerging aqueous organic flow battery chemistries, and the synergetic integration of ion-selective membranes with molecular engineered organic molecules in neutral-pH electrolytes leads to significantly enhanced cycling stability.

Journal article

Liu X, Zhang L, Yu H, Wang J, Li J, Yang K, Zhao Y, Wang H, Wu B, Brandon N, Yang Set al., 2022, Bridging multiscale characterization technologies and digital modeling to evaluate lithium battery full lifecycle, Advanced Energy Materials, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1614-6832

The safety, durability and power density of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are currently inadequate to satisfy the continuously growing demand of the emerging battery markets. Rapid progress has been made from material engineering to system design, combining experimental results and simulations to enhance LIB performance. Limited by spatial and temporal resolution, state-of-the-art advanced characterization techniques fail to fully reveal the complex multi-scale degradation mechanism in LIBs. Strengthening interaction and iteration between characterization and modeling improves the understanding of reaction mechanisms as well as design and management of LIBs. Herein, a seed cyber hierarchy and interactional network framework is demonstrated to evaluate the overall lifecycle of LIBs. The typical examples of bridging the characterization techniques and modeling are discussed. The critical parameters extracted from multi-scale characterization can serve as digital inputs for modeling. Furthermore, advanced computational techniques including cloud computing, big data, machine learning, and artificial intelligence can also promote the comprehensive understanding and precise control of the whole battery lifecycle. Digital twins techniques will be introduced enabling the real-time monitoring and control of LIBs, autonomous computer-assisted characterizations and intelligent manufacturing. It is anticipated that this work will provide a roadmap for further intensive research on developing high-performance LIBs and intelligent battery management.

Journal article

Qiu K, Trudgeon D, Li X, Yufit V, Chakrabarti B, Brandon N, Shah Aet al., 2022, Study of Quaternary Ammonium Additives towards High-Rate Zinc Deposition and Dissolution Cycling for Application in Zinc-Based Rechargeable Batteries, BATTERIES-BASEL, Vol: 8

Journal article

Zhao Y, Ouyang M, Wang Y, Qin R, Zhang H, Pan W, Leung DYC, Wu B, Liu X, Brandon N, Xuan J, Pan F, Wang Het al., 2022, Biomimetic lipid-bilayer anode protection for long lifetime aqueous zinc-metal batteries, Advanced Functional Materials, Vol: 32, ISSN: 1616-301X

The practical application of rechargeable aqueous zinc batteries is impeded by dendrite growth, especially at high areal capacities and high current densities. Here, this challenge is addressed by proposing zinc perfluoro(2-ethoxyethane)sulfonic (Zn(PES)2) as a zinc battery electrolyte. This new amphipathic zinc salt, with a hydrophobic perfluorinated tail, can form an anode protecting layer, in situ, with a biomimetic lipid-bilayer structure. The layer limits the anode contact with free H2O and offers fast Zn2+ transport pathways, thereby effectively suppressing dendrite growth while maintaining high rate capability. A stable, Zn2+-conductive fluorinated solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is also formed, further enhancing zinc reversibility. The electrolyte enables unprecedented cycling stability with dendrite-free zinc plating/stripping over 1600 h at 1 mA cm−2 at 2 mAh cm−2, and over 380 h under an even harsher condition of 2.5 mA cm−2 and 5 mAh cm−2. Full cell tests with a high-loading VS2 cathode demonstrate good capacity retention of 78% after 1000 cycles at 1.5 mA cm−2. The idea of in situ formation of a biomimetic lipid-bilayer anode protecting layer and fluorinated SEI opens a new route for engineering the electrode–electrolyte interface toward next-generation aqueous zinc batteries with long lifetime and high areal capacities.

Journal article

Fan L, Li C, Aravind PV, Cai W, Han M, Brandon Net al., 2022, Methane reforming in solid oxide fuel cells: Challenges and strategies, JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES, Vol: 538, ISSN: 0378-7753

Journal article

Romano MC, Antonini C, Bardow A, Bertsch V, Brandon NP, Brouwer J, Campanari S, Crema L, Dodds PE, Gardarsdottir S, Gazzani M, Kramer GJ, Lund PD, Mac Dowell N, Martelli E, Mastropasqua L, McKenna RC, Monteiro JGM-S, Paltrinieri N, Pollet BG, Reed JG, Schmidt TJ, Vente J, Wiley Det al., 2022, Comment on "How green is blue hydrogen?", ENERGY SCIENCE & ENGINEERING, Vol: 10, Pages: 1944-1954

Journal article

Long X, Boldrin P, Zhang Y, Brandon N, Paterson N, Millan Met al., 2022, Towards integrated gasification and fuel cell operation with carbon capture: Impact of fuel gas on anode materials, Fuel, Vol: 318, ISSN: 0016-2361

Integrated gasification fuel cell technology is a promising option for processing solid fuels, which would enable high efficiencies to be reached in small-scale power generation. Among the different fuel cell types, solid oxide fuel cells present a good temperature match with fluidised bed gasification as well as greater versatility in terms of the fuel gas composition they can handle. However, their resistance to impurities in the gas needs to be addressed. The main objective of this work is to assess the impact on typical materials used in fuel cell anodes of the gases produced from a gasifier operating with a N2-free gasification agent, which would make the system carbon-capture ready. A laboratory scale continuous pressurised fluidised bed reactor has been modified to study CO2 and steam (concentration up to 40 mol%.) gasification of lignite at 850 °C. A second stage fixed bed reactor has been specially designed and constructed to study degradation of two SOFC anode materials (nickel/yttrium–stabilised zirconium oxide (Ni/YSZ) and nickel/gadolinium-doped ceria (Ni/CGO)) after exposure to real fuel gas at 765 °C. Under these conditions, which did not involve any gas cleaning/conditioning between stages, carbon deposition on the surface of anode materials was much smaller than in previous studies that used model tar compounds as feeds. Fuel gas from CO2/H2O gasification tended to deposit less carbon and sulphur on tested anode materials, particularly on Ni/CGO, than that from CO2 gasification. The anode materials converted a significant fraction of the fed tar to gas.

Journal article

Ye C, Wang A, Breakwell C, Tan R, Bezzu G, Hunter-Sellars E, Williams D, Brandon N, Klusener P, Kucernak A, Jelfs K, McKeown N, Song Qet al., 2022, Development of efficient aqueous organic redox flow batteries using ion-sieving sulfonated polymer membranes, Nature Communications, Vol: 13, ISSN: 2041-1723

Redox flow batteries using aqueous organic-based electrolytes are promising candidates for developing cost-effective grid-scale energy storage devices. However, a significant drawback of these batteries is the cross-mixing of active species through the membrane, which causes battery performance degradation. To overcome this issue, here we report size-selective ion-exchange membranes prepared by sulfonation of a spirobifluorene-based microporous polymer and demonstrate their efficient ion sieving functions in flow batteries. The spirobifluorene unit allows control over the degree of sulfonation to optimize the transport of cations, whilst the microporous structure inhibits the crossover of organic molecules via molecular sieving. Furthermore, the enhanced membrane selectivity mitigates the crossover-induced capacity decay whilst maintaining good ionic conductivity for aqueous electrolyte solution at pH 9, where the redox-active organic molecules show long-term stability. We also prove the boosting effect of the membranes on the energy efficiency and peak power density of the aqueous redox flow battery, which shows stable operation for about 120 h (i.e., 2100 charge-discharge cycles at 100 mA cm−2) in a laboratory-scale cell.

Journal article

Li F-F, Gao J-F, He Z-H, Brandon N, Li X, Kong L-Bet al., 2022, Engineering novel Ni<sub>2-X</sub>Co<sub>x</sub>P structures for high performance lithium-ion storage, ENERGY STORAGE MATERIALS, Vol: 48, Pages: 20-34, ISSN: 2405-8297

Journal article

Xia Y, Ouyang M, Yufit V, Tan R, Regoutz A, Wang A, Mao W, Chakrabarti B, Kavei A, Song Q, Kucernak A, Brandon Net al., 2022, A cost-effective alkaline polysulfide-air redox flow battery enabled by a dual-membrane cell architecture, Nature Communications, Vol: 13, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 2041-1723

With the rapid development of renewable energy harvesting technologies, there is a significant demand for long-duration energy storage technologies that can be deployed at grid scale. In this regard, polysulfide-air redox flow batteries demonstrated great potential. However, the crossover of polysulfide is one significant challenge. Here, we report a stable and cost-effective alkaline-based hybrid polysulfide-air redox flow battery where a dual-membrane-structured flow cell design mitigates the sulfur crossover issue. Moreover, combining manganese/carbon catalysed air electrodes with sulfidised Ni foam polysulfide electrodes, the redox flow battery achieves a maximum power density of 5.8 mW cm-2 at 50% state of charge and 55 °C. An average round-trip energy efficiency of 40% is also achieved over 80 cycles at 1 mA cm-2. Based on the performance reported, techno-economic analyses suggested that energy and power costs of about 2.5 US$/kWh and 1600 US$/kW, respectively, has be achieved for this type of alkaline polysulfide-air redox flow battery, with significant scope for further reduction.

Journal article

Huang Y, Kang J, Liu L, Zhong X, Lin J, Xie S, Zeng Y, Shah N, Brandon N, Zhao Y, Meng Cet al., 2022, A hierarchical coupled optimization approach for dynamic simulation of building thermal environment and integrated planning of energy systems with supply and demand synergy, ENERGY CONVERSION AND MANAGEMENT, Vol: 258, ISSN: 0196-8904

Journal article

Li L, Wang J, Zhong X, Lin J, Wu N, Zhang Z, Meng C, Wang X, Shah N, Brandon N, Xie S, Zhao Yet al., 2022, Combined multi-objective optimization and agent-based modeling for a 100% renewable island energy system considering power-to-gas technology and extreme weather conditions, APPLIED ENERGY, Vol: 308, ISSN: 0306-2619

Journal article

This data is extracted from the Web of Science and reproduced under a licence from Thomson Reuters. You may not copy or re-distribute this data in whole or in part without the written consent of the Science business of Thomson Reuters.

Request URL: http://wlsprd.imperial.ac.uk:80/respub/WEB-INF/jsp/search-html.jsp Request URI: /respub/WEB-INF/jsp/search-html.jsp Query String: respub-action=search.html&id=00170077&limit=30&person=true