Imperial College London

Professor Nick Buenfeld

Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Professor of Concrete Structures



n.buenfeld Website




228BSkempton BuildingSouth Kensington Campus





I am Professor of Concrete Structures (since 2000) and was Head of the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering from 2011 to 2021 and Director of Research from 2001 to 2011. 

My expertise concerns the durability and long-term performance of concrete and concrete structures. My research is aimed at better understanding deterioration processes, developing methods for assessing durability and monitoring deterioration, improving concrete specifications and repair methods and predicting the service life of concrete structures.

More information on my research interests, major grants, members of my research group and the facilities at my disposal can be found via the RESEARCH tab above.

I have supervised over 30 PhDs and 70 MSc research projects and have published around 240 papers (listed under the PUBLICATIONS tab).  

My teaching of undergraduates and MSc students has included the philosophy of design, design and analysis of concrete structures, concrete technology, life cycle assessment, materials selection and materials science.  

I am an elected Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering, a Fellow of the Institution of Civil Engineers and the Institution of Structural Engineers and an Honorary Fellow of the Institute of Concrete Technology. 

My professional work has included providing expert opinion to lawyers and government departments and guidance to the designers and constructors of major infrastructure projects including the Riyadh Metro, Hinkley Point C nuclear power plant, the New Los Angeles Cathedral, the Southern Expressway in Sri Lanka, the Beirut Sea Front Project, the Channel Tunnel, the Great Man-Made River Project in Libya, Jubilee Line Extension, King Salman Park in Riyadh, the new Tyne Tunnel, Tsing Ma and Tsing Lung Bridges in Hong Kong and Belgium's high level nuclear waste repository. More information can be found via the CONSULTING tab above.

Selected Publications

Journal Articles

Zhang K, Yio M, Wong H, et al., 2024, Development of more accurate methods for determining carbonation depth in cement-based materials, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol:175, ISSN:0008-8846

Yio MHN, Ho YW, Abdul Wahid F, et al., 2022, Analysis of cement paste and aggregate content of concrete using micro X-ray fluorescence, Magazine of Concrete Research, Vol:74, ISSN:0024-9831, Pages:889-904

Zhang K, Yio M, Wong H, et al., 2022, Optimising confocal Raman microscopy for spectral mapping of cement-based materials, Materials and Structures, Vol:55, ISSN:1359-5997, Pages:1-18

Zhang K, Yio M, Wong H, et al., 2022, Real-time monitoring of carbonation of hardened cement pastes using Raman microscopy, Journal of Microscopy, Vol:286, ISSN:0022-2720, Pages:126-133

Smith S, Jiang L, Pettitt T, et al., 2022, A critical review of the physiological, ecological, physical and chemical factors influencing the microbial degradation of concrete by fungi, Building and Environment, Vol:214, ISSN:0007-3628

Yio MHN, Mac MJ, Yeow YX, et al., 2021, Effect of autogenous shrinkage on microcracking and mass transport properties of concrete containing supplementary cementitious materials, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol:150, ISSN:0008-8846

Muslim F, Wong H, Choo TH, et al., 2021, Influence of supplementary cementitious materials on microstructure and transport properties of spacer-concrete interface, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol:149, ISSN:0008-8846, Pages:1-14

Muslim F, Wong HS, Chiu TKQ, et al., 2021, Improving bond strength and mass transport properties of spacer-concrete interface with textured spacers, Materials and Structures, Vol:54, ISSN:1359-5997, Pages:1-16

Mac M, Yio MHN, Wong H, et al., 2021, Analysis of autogenous shrinkage-induced microcracks in concrete from 3D images, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol:144, ISSN:0008-8846, Pages:1-15

Mac M, Yio M, Desbois G, et al., 2021, 3D imaging techniques for characterising microcracks in cement-based materials, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol:140, ISSN:0008-8846

Muslim F, Wong H, Cheng G, et al., 2020, Combined effects of vertical spacers and segregation on mass transport properties of reinforced concrete, Materials and Structures, Vol:53, ISSN:1359-5997

Wong H, Poole AB, Wells B, et al., 2020, Microscopy techniques for determining water-cement (w/c) ratio in hardened concrete: A round-robin assessment, Materials and Structures, Vol:53, ISSN:1359-5997

Yio MHN, Wong H, Buenfeld N, 2019, 3D pore structure and mass transport properties of blended cementitious materials, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol:117, ISSN:0008-8846, Pages:23-37

Wu Z, Wong H, Chen C, et al., 2019, Anomalous water absorption in cement-based materials caused by drying shrinkage induced microcracks, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol:115, ISSN:0008-8846, Pages:90-104

Lee D, Wong HS, Buenfeld NR, 2018, Effect of alkalinity and calcium concentration of pore solution on the swelling and ionic exchange of superabsorbent polymers in cement paste, Cement & Concrete Composites, Vol:88, ISSN:0958-9465, Pages:150-164

Yio MHN, Wong HS, Buenfeld NR, 2017, Representative elementary volume (REV) of cementitious materials from three-dimensional pore structure analysis, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol:102, ISSN:0008-8846, Pages:187-202

Wu Z, Wong HS, Buenfeld NR, 2017, Transport properties of concrete after drying-wetting regimes to elucidate the effects of moisture content, hysteresis and microcracking, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol:98, ISSN:0008-8846, Pages:136-154

Angst UM, Geiker MR, Michel A, et al., 2017, The steel-concrete interface, Materials and Structures, Vol:50, ISSN:1871-6873

Yio MHN, Wong HS, Buenfeld NR, 2016, 3D Monte Carlo simulation of backscattered electron signal variation across pore-solid boundaries in cement-based materials, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol:89, ISSN:0008-8846, Pages:320-331

Alzyoud S, Wong HS, Buenfeld NR, 2016, Influence of reinforcement spacers on mass transport properties and durability of concrete structures, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol:87, ISSN:1873-3948, Pages:31-44

Abyaneh SD, Wong HS, Buenfeld NR, 2016, Simulating the effect of microcracks on the diffusivity and permeability of concrete using a three-dimensional model, Computational Materials Science, Vol:119, ISSN:0927-0256, Pages:130-143

Lee HXD, Wong HS, Buenfeld NR, 2016, Self-sealing of cracks in concrete using superabsorbent polymers, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol:79, ISSN:1873-3948, Pages:194-208

Yio MHN, Mac MJ, Wong HS, et al., 2015, 3D imaging of cement-based materials at submicron resolution by combining laser scanning confocal microscopy with serial sectioning, Journal of Microscopy, Vol:258, ISSN:0022-2720, Pages:151-169

Wu Z, Wong HS, Buenfeld NR, 2015, Influence of drying-induced microcracking and related size effects on mass transport properties of concrete, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol:68, ISSN:0008-8846, Pages:35-48

Wu Z, Wong HS, Buenfeld NR, 2014, Effect of confining pressure and microcracks on mass transport properties of concrete, Advances in Applied Ceramics, Vol:113, ISSN:1743-6753, Pages:485-495

Abyaneh SD, Wong HS, Buenfeld NR, 2014, Computational investigation of capillary absorption in concrete using a three-dimensional mesoscale approach, Computational Materials Science, Vol:87, ISSN:0927-0256, Pages:54-64

Yio MHN, Phelan JC, Wong HS, et al., 2014, Determining the slag fraction, water/binder ratio and degree of hydration in hardened cement pastes, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol:56, ISSN:0008-8846, Pages:171-181

Wong HS, Buenfeld NR, Matter K, 2013, Estimating the original cement content and water-cement ratio of Portland cement concrete and mortar using backscattered electron microscopy, Magazine of Concrete Research, Vol:65, ISSN:0024-9831, Pages:693-706

Wong HS, Zimmerman RW, Buenfeld NR, 2012, Estimating the permeability of cement pastes and mortars using image analysis and effective medium theory, Cem. Concr. Res., Vol:42, Pages:476-483

Wong HS, Pappas AM, Zimmerman RW, et al., 2011, Effect of entrained air voids on the microstructure and mass transport properties of concrete, Cem. Concr. Res., Vol:41, Pages:1067-1077

Wong HS, Zhao YX, Karimi AR, et al., 2010, On the penetration of rust from reinforcing steel into concrete due to chloride-induced corrosion, Corrosion Science, Vol:52, Pages:2469-2480

Wong HS, Zobel M, Buenfeld NR, et al., 2009, Influence of the interfacial transition zone and microcracking on the diffusivity, permeability and sorptivity of cement-based materials after drying, Mag. Concr. Res., Vol:61, Pages:571-589

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