286 results found
Baker CA, Romain C, Long NJ, 2021, Cation-pi interactions enabling hard/soft Ti/Ag heterobimetallic cooperativity in lactide ring-opening polymerisation, CHEMICAL COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 57, Pages: 12524-12527, ISSN: 1359-7345
Teh JH, Braga M, Allott L, et al., 2021, A kit-based aluminium-[F-18]fluoride approach to radiolabelled microbubbles, CHEMICAL COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 57, Pages: 11677-11680, ISSN: 1359-7345
Walter ERH, Cooper SM, Boyle JJ, et al., 2021, Enzyme-activated probes in optical imaging: a focus on atherosclerosis, DALTON TRANSACTIONS, Vol: 50, Pages: 14486-14497, ISSN: 1477-9226
Osborne BE, Yue TTC, Waters ECT, et al., 2021, Synthesis and ex vivo biological evaluation of gallium-68 labelled NODAGA chelates assessing cardiac uptake and retention, DALTON TRANSACTIONS, Vol: 50, Pages: 14695-14705, ISSN: 1477-9226
Wu Y, Chau H, Thor W, et al., 2021, Solid‐Phase Peptide Macrocyclization and Multifunctionalization via Dipyrrin Construction, Angewandte Chemie, Vol: 133, Pages: 20463-20469, ISSN: 0044-8249
Wu Y, Chau H-F, Thor W, et al., 2021, Solid-Phase Peptide Macrocyclization and Multifunctionalization via Dipyrrin Construction, ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE-INTERNATIONAL EDITION, Vol: 60, Pages: 20301-20307, ISSN: 1433-7851
Chau H-F, Wu Y, Fok W-Y, et al., 2021, Lanthanide-Based Peptide-Directed Visible/Near-Infrared Imaging and Inhibition of LMP1, JACS AU, Vol: 1, Pages: 1034-1043
Farleigh M, Pham TT, Yu Z, et al., 2021, New Bifunctional Chelators Incorporating Dibromomaleimide Groups for Radiolabeling of Antibodies with Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Radioisotopes, BIOCONJUGATE CHEMISTRY, Vol: 32, Pages: 1214-1222, ISSN: 1043-1802
Jiang L, Mak H-N, Walter ERH, et al., 2021, A fluorescent probe for the discrimination of oxidation states of palladium, CHEMICAL SCIENCE, Vol: 12, Pages: 9977-9982, ISSN: 2041-6520
Boltersdorf T, Gavins FNE, Long NJ, 2021, Long-lived lanthanide emission via a pH-sensitive and switchable LRET complex, CHEMICAL SCIENCE, ISSN: 2041-6520
Walter E, Ge Y, Mason J, et al., 2021, A coumarin-porphyrin FRET break-apart probe for heme oxygenase-1, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol: 143, Pages: 6460-6469, ISSN: 0002-7863
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a vital enzyme in humans that primarily regulates free heme concentrations. The overexpression of HO-1 is commonly associated with cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases including atherosclerosis and ischemic stroke. Currently, there are no known chemical probes to detect HO-1 activity, limiting its potential as an early diagnostic/prognostic marker in these serious diseases. Reported here are the design, synthesis, and photophysical and biological characterization of a coumarin–porphyrin FRET break-apart probe to detect HO-1 activity, Fe–L1. We designed Fe–L1 to “break-apart” upon HO-1-catalyzed porphyrin degradation, perturbing the efficient FRET mechanism from a coumarin donor to a porphyrin acceptor fluorophore. Analysis of HO-1 activity using Escherichia coli lysates overexpressing hHO-1 found that a 6-fold increase in emission intensity at 383 nm was observed following incubation with NADPH. The identities of the degradation products following catabolism were confirmed by MALDI-MS and LC–MS, showing that porphyrin catabolism was regioselective at the α-position. Finally, through the analysis of Fe–L2, we have shown that close structural analogues of heme are required to maintain HO-1 activity. It is anticipated that this work will act as a foundation to design and develop new probes for HO-1 activity in the future, moving toward applications of live fluorescent imaging.
Bennett TLR, Wilkinson L, Lok JMA, et al., 2021, Synthesis, electrochemistry and optical properties of highly conjugated alkynyl-ferrocenes and -biferrocenes, Organometallics, Vol: 40, Pages: 1156-1162, ISSN: 0276-7333
Sonogashira reactions are utilized herein to react iodo-ferrocenes and -biferrocenes with terminal alkyne ligands, functionalized with both pyridine and thioanisole groups. High-yielding reactions generate both monoalkynyl and dialkynyl derivatives, the ratio of which can be altered through changes in the reaction stoichiometry. This methodology allowed us to synthesize a large family of derivatives, comprising four symmetrical derivatives (3xx, where x represents a phenyl-substituted terminal alkyne) and six less-studied asymmetrical derivatives (3xy, where x and y represent two different phenyl-substituted terminal alkynes), as well as a number of their biferrocenyl analogues (6x, 7xx, and 7xy), including the first known examples of asymmetrically disubstituted biferrocenes. We examined the electrochemical behavior of all the systems in solution through the use of cyclic voltammetry and demonstrate that these highly conjugated alkynyl ligands exert delicate redox control over the central ferrocene motif. We also note that these substituents display some control over the mixed-valence character present in biferrocene monocations, with thioanisole substituents imparting almost an order of magnitude higher Kc than their pyridyl analogues, and asymmetric systems displaying rare characteristic properties of mixed-valence isomers. The electronic structure of these systems was further elucidated through a combination of UV/vis spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Our methodology provides a facile and adaptable route toward the isolation of a number of novel ferrocene and biferrocene derivatives. From our perspective, the asymmetric nature of these systems, along with the delicate and predictable redox control that these ligands exert on the central ferrocene unit(s), could lead to applications in molecular electronics, where these properties have previously shown promise in the fabrication of diodes and rectifiers, as well as in the synthesis of donor
Wang X, Ismael A, Almutlg A, et al., 2021, Optimised power harvesting by controlling the pressure applied to molecular junctions, Chemical Science, Vol: 12, Pages: 5230-5235, ISSN: 2041-6520
A major potential advantage of creating thermoelectric devices using self-assembled molecular layers is their mechanical flexibility. Previous reports have discussed the advantage of this flexibility from the perspective of facile skin attachment and the ability to avoid mechanical deformation. In this work, we demonstrate that the thermoelectric properties of such molecular devices can be controlled by taking advantage of their mechanical flexibility. The thermoelectric properties of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) fabricated from thiol terminated molecules were measured with a modified AFM system, and the conformation of the SAMs was controlled by regulating the loading force between the organic thin film and the probe, which changes the tilt angle at the metal-molecule interface. We tracked the thermopower shift vs. the tilt angle of the SAM and showed that changes in both the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient combine to optimize the power factor at a specific angle. This optimization of thermoelectric performance via applied pressure is confirmed through the use of theoretical calculations and is expected to be a general method for optimising the power factor of SAMs.
Omoruyi U, Page SJ, Apps S, et al., 2021, Synthesis and characterisation of a range of Fe, Co, Ru and Rh triphos complexes and investigations into the catalytic hydrogenation of levulinic acid, Journal of Organometallic Chemistry, Vol: 935, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 0022-328X
The coordination chemistry of the N-triphos ligand (NP3Ph, 1b) has been investigated with range of Fe, Co and Rh precursors and found to form either tridentate or bidentate complexes. Reaction of NP3Ph with [Rh(COD)(CH3CN)2]BF4 resulted in the formation of the tridentate complex [Rh(COD)(κ3 NP3Ph)]BF4 (3) in the solid state, however, in solution a bidentate complex predominates in more polar solvents. Reaction of NP3Ph with Fe carbonyl precursors revealed the formation of the bidentate complexes [Fe(CO)3(κ2-NP3Ph)Fe(CO)4] (4) and [Fe(CO)3(κ2-NP3Ph)] (5), while reaction with FeBr2 resulted in the paramagnetic bidentate complex [Fe(Br)2(κ2-NP3Ph)] (6). Reaction of NP3Ph with CoCl2 gave a dimeric Co species [(κ2-NP3Ph)CoCl(κ1,κ2-NP3Ph)CoCl3] (7), while Zn powder reduction of NP3Ph Co halides resulted in the formation of the tridentate complexes of the type: [Co(X)(k3-NP3Ph)]. The related triphos Ru complex, [Ru(CO3)(CO)(κ3-CP3Ph)] (2), has also been isolated and characterised. Preliminary catalytic hydrogenation of levulinic acid (LA) was conducted with 2 and 3. The Ru complex was found to be catalytically active, giving high conversions of LA to form gamma valerolactone (GVL) and 1,4-pentandiol (1,4-PDO), while 3 was found to be catalytically inactive. In situ catalytic testing with 1b and Fe(BF4)2.6H2O resulted in low conversions of LA while a combination of 1b and Co(BF4)2.6H2O gave higher conversions 75% yields of GVL.
Wang C, Sun W, Zhang J, et al., 2021, An electric-field-responsive paramagnetic contrast agent enhances the visualization of epileptic foci in mouse models of drug-resistant epilepsy, NATURE BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, Vol: 5, Pages: 278-289, ISSN: 2157-846X
Ismael A, Al-Jobory A, Wang X, et al., 2021, Molecular-scale thermoelectricity: as simple as 'ABC' (vol 2, pg 5329, 2020), NANOSCALE ADVANCES, Vol: 3, Pages: 619-619, ISSN: 2516-0230
Braga M, Leow CH, Gil JH, et al., 2021, Investigating CXCR4 expression of tumor cells and the vascular compartment: A multimodal approach., PLoS One, Vol: 16
The C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is G protein-coupled receptor that upon binding to its cognate ligand, can lead to tumor progression. Several CXCR4-targeted therapies are currently under investigation, and with it comes the need for imaging agents capable of accurate depiction of CXCR4 for therapeutic stratification and monitoring. PET agents enjoy the most success, but more cost-effective and radiation-free approaches such as ultrasound (US) imaging could represent an attractive alternative. In this work, we developed a targeted microbubble (MB) for imaging of vascular CXCR4 expression in cancer. A CXCR4-targeted MB was developed through incorporation of the T140 peptide into the MB shell. Binding properties of the T140-MB and control, non-targeted MB (NT-MB) were evaluated in MDA-MB-231 cells where CXCR4 expression was knocked-down (via shRNA) through optical imaging, and in the lymphoma tumor models U2932 and SuDHL8 (high and low CXCR4 expression, respectively) by US imaging. PET imaging of [18F]MCFB, a tumor-penetrating CXCR4-targeted small molecule, was used to provide whole-tumor CXCR4 readouts. CXCR4 expression and microvessel density were performed by immunohistochemistry analysis and western blot. T140-MB were formed with similar properties to NT-MB and accumulated sensitively and specifically in cells according to their CXCR4 expression. In NOD SCID mice, T140-MB persisted longer in tumors than NT-MB, indicative of target interaction, but showed no difference between U2932 and SuDHL8. In contrast, PET imaging with [18F]MCFB showed a marked difference in tumor uptake at 40-60 min post-injection between the two tumor models (p<0.05). Ex vivo analysis revealed that the large differences in CXCR4 expression between the two models are not reflected in the vascular compartment, where the MB are restricted; in fact, microvessel density and CXCR4 expression in the vasculature was comparable between U2932 and SuDHL8 tumors. In conclusion, we successfully
Boyle J, Long NJ, Walter ERH, et al., 2020, COMPOUNDS FOR THE DETECTION OF HEME OXYGENASE 1 (HO-1), AND METHODS AND USES INVOLVING THE SAME, 2017871.1
The present invention relates to compounds for the detection of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), in particular porphyrin, chlorin, bacteriochlorin or isobacteriochlorin compounds having a tetrapyrrole or reduced tetrapyrrole backbone and a fluorophore. Such compounds can be used in the detection of HO-1 in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro, and can also be used in methods of diagnosis and as research reagents.
Ismael A, Al-Jobory A, Wang X, et al., 2020, Molecular-scale thermoelectricity: as simple as 'ABC', NANOSCALE ADVANCES, Vol: 2, Pages: 5329-5334, ISSN: 2516-0230
Morse SV, Boltersdorf T, Chan TG, et al., 2020, In vivo delivery of a fluorescent FPR2/ALX-targeted probe using focused ultrasound and microbubbles to image activated microglia, RSC Chemical Biology, Vol: 1, Pages: 385-389, ISSN: 2633-0679
To image activated microglia, a small-molecule FPR2/ALX-targeted fluorescent probe was locally delivered into the brain using focused ultrasound and microbubbles. The probe did not co-localise with neurons or astrocytes but accumulated in activated microglia, making this a potential imaging tool for future drug discovery programs focused on neurological disorders.
Seneviratne A, Han Y, Wong E, et al., 2020, Hematoma resolution in vivo is directed by Activating Transcription Factor 1, Circulation Research, Vol: 127, Pages: 928-944, ISSN: 0009-7330
Rationale: The efficient resolution of tissue hemorrhage is an important homeostatic function. In human macrophages in vitro, heme activates an adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase / activating transcription factor 1 (AMPK/ATF1) pathway that directs Mhem macrophages through coregulation of heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1, HO-1) and lipid homeostasis genes.Objective: We asked whether this pathway had an in vivo role in mice.Methods and Results: Perifemoral hematomas were used as a model of hematoma resolution. In mouse bone marrow derived macrophages (mBMM), heme induced HO-1, lipid regulatory genes including LXR, the growth factor IGF1, and the splenic red pulp macrophage gene Spic. This response was lost in mBMM from mice deficient in AMPK (Prkab1-/-) or ATF1 (Atf1-/-). In vivo, femoral hematomas resolved completely between day 8 and day 9 in littermate control mice (n=12), but were still present at day 9 in mice deficient in either AMPK (Prkab1-/-) or ATF1 (Atf1-/-) (n=6 each). Residual hematomas were accompanied by increased macrophage infiltration, inflammatory activation and oxidative stress. We also found that fluorescent lipids and a fluorescent iron-analog were trafficked to lipid-laden and iron-laden macrophages respectively. Moreover erythrocyte iron and lipid abnormally colocalized in the same macrophages in Atf1-/- mice. Therefore, iron-lipid separation was Atf1-dependent.Conclusions: Taken together, these data demonstrate that both AMPK and ATF1 are required for normal hematoma resolution.
Evans RJ, Lavin B, Phinikaridou A, et al., 2020, Targeted molecular iron oxide contrast agents for imaging atherosclerotic plaque, Nanotheranostics, Vol: 4, Pages: 184-194, ISSN: 2206-7418
Overview: Cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of death worldwide, with vulnerable plaque rupture the underlying cause of many heart attacks and strokes. Much research is focused on identifying an imaging biomarker to differentiate stable and vulnerable plaque. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-ionising and non-invasive imaging modality with excellent soft tissue contrast. However, MRI has relatively low sensitivity (micromolar) for contrast agent detection compared to nuclear imaging techniques. There is also an increasing emphasis on developing MRI probes that are not based on gadolinium chelates because of increasing concerns over associated systemic toxicity and deposits1. To address the sensitivity and safety concerns of gadolinium this project focused on the development of a high relaxivity probe based on superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for the imaging of atherosclerotic plaque with MRI. With development, this may facilitate differentiating stable and vulnerable plaque in vivo.Aim: To develop a range of MRI contrast agents based on superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), and test them in a murine model of advanced atherosclerosis.Methods: Nanoparticles of four core sizes were synthesised by thermal decomposition and coated with poly(maleicanhydride-alt-1-octadecene) (PMAO), poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) or alendronate, then characterised for core size, hydrodynamic size, surface potential and relaxivity. On the basis of these results, one candidate was selected for further studies. In vivo studies using 10 nm PMAO-coated SPIONs were performed in ApoE-/- mice fed a western diet and instrumented with a perivascular cuff on the left carotid artery. Control ApoE-/- mice were fed a normal chow diet and were not instrumented. Mice were scanned on a 3T MR scanner (Philips Achieva) with the novel SPION contrast agent, and an elastin-targeted gadolinium agent that was shown previously to enable visualisation of plaque burden. Histo
Cohen L, 2020, Tuning the thermoelectrical properties of anthracene-based self-assembled monolayers, Chemical Science, Vol: 11, Pages: 6836-6841, ISSN: 2041-6520
It is known that the electrical conductance of single molecules can be controlled in a deterministic manner by chemically varying their anchor groups to external electrodes. Here, by employing synthetic methodologies to vary the terminal anchor groups around aromatic anthracene cores, and by forming self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of the resulting molecules, we demonstrate that this method of control can be translated into cross-plane SAM-on-gold molecular films. The cross-plane conductance of SAMs formed from anthracene-based molecules with four different combinations of anchors are measured to differ by a factor of approximately 3 in agreement with theoretical predictions. We also demonstrate that the Seebeck coefficient of such films can be boosted by more than an order of magnitude by an appropriate choice of anchor groups and that both positive and negative Seebeck coefficients can be realised. This demonstration that the thermoelectric properties of SAMs are controlled by their anchor groups represents a critical step towards functional ultra-thin-film devices for future molecular-scale electronics.
Long NJ, 2020, Inorganic chemistry for PET radiolabelling: Ga-68- and F-18-based probes for mitochondria imaging, Publisher: WILEY, Pages: 359-359, ISSN: 0362-4803
Boltersdorf T, Ansari J, Senchenkova EY, et al., 2020, Targeting of formyl peptide receptor 2 for in vivo imaging of acute vascular inflammation, Theranostics, Vol: 10, Pages: 6599-6614, ISSN: 1838-7640
Inflammatory conditions are associated with a variety of diseases and can significantly contribute to their pathophysiology. Neutrophils are recognised as key players in driving vascular inflammation and promoting inflammation resolution. As a result, neutrophils, and specifically their surface formyl peptide receptors (FPRs), are attractive targets for non-invasive visualization of inflammatory disease states and studying mechanistic details of the process.Methods: A small-molecule Formyl Peptide Receptor 2 (FPR2/ALX)-targeted compound was combined with two rhodamine-derived fluorescent tags to form firstly, a targeted probe (Rho-pip-C1) and secondly a targeted, pH-responsive probe (Rho-NH-C1) for in vivo applications. We tested internalization, toxicity and functional interactions with neutrophils in vitro for both compounds, as well as the fluorescence switching response of Rho-NH-C1 to neutrophil activation. Finally, in vivo imaging (fluorescent intravital microscopy [IVM]) and therapeutic efficacy studies were performed in an inflammatory mouse model.Results: In vitro studies showed that the compounds bound to human neutrophils via FPR2/ALX without causing internalization at relevant concentrations. Additionally, the compounds did not cause toxicity or affect neutrophil functional responses (e.g. chemotaxis or transmigration). In vivo studies using IVM showed Rho-pip-C1 bound to activated neutrophils in a model of vascular inflammation. The pH-sensitive (“switchable”) version termed Rho-NH-C1 validated these findings, showing fluorescent activity only in inflammatory conditions.Conclusions: These results indicate a viable design of fluorescent probes that have the ability to detect inflammatory events by targeting activated neutrophils.
Wang X, Bennett TLR, Ismael A, et al., 2020, Scale-up of room-temperature constructive quantum interference from single molecules to self-assembled molecular-electronic films, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol: 142, Pages: 8555-8560, ISSN: 0002-7863
The realization of self-assembled molecular-electronic films, whose room-temperature transport properties are controlled by quantum interference (QI), is an essential step in the scale-up of QI effects from single molecules to parallel arrays of molecules. Recently, the effect of destructive QI (DQI) on the electrical conductance of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) has been investigated. Here, through a combined experimental and theoretical investigation, we demonstrate chemical control of different forms of constructive QI (CQI) in cross-plane transport through SAMs and assess its influence on cross-plane thermoelectricity in SAMs. It is known that the electrical conductance of single molecules can be controlled in a deterministic manner, by chemically varying their connectivity to external electrodes. Here, by employing synthetic methodologies to vary the connectivity of terminal anchor groups around aromatic anthracene cores, and by forming SAMs of the resulting molecules, we clearly demonstrate that this signature of CQI can be translated into SAM-on-gold molecular films. We show that the conductance of vertical molecular junctions formed from anthracene-based molecules with two different connectivities differ by a factor of approximately 16, in agreement with theoretical predictions for their conductance ratio based on CQI effects within the core. We also demonstrate that for molecules with thioether anchor groups, the Seebeck coefficient of such films is connectivity dependent and with an appropriate choice of connectivity can be boosted by ∼50%. This demonstration of QI and its influence on thermoelectricity in SAMs represents a critical step toward functional ultra-thin-film devices for future thermoelectric and molecular-scale electronics applications.
Clough TJ, Baxan N, Coakley EJ, et al., 2020, Synthesis and in vivo behaviour of an exendin-4-based MRI probe capable of beta-cell-dependent contrast enhancement in the pancreas, Dalton Transactions: an international journal of inorganic chemistry, Vol: 49, Pages: 4732-4740, ISSN: 1477-9226
Global rates of diabetes mellitus are increasing, and treatment of the disease consumes a growing proportion of healthcare spending across the world. Pancreatic β-cells, responsible for insulin production, decline in mass in type 1 and, to a more limited degree, in type 2 diabetes. However, the extent and rate of loss in both diseases differs between patients resulting in the need for the development of novel diagnostic tools, which could quantitatively assess changes in mass of β-cells over time and potentially lead to earlier diagnosis and improved treatments. Exendin-4, a potent analogue of glucagon-like-peptide 1 (GLP-1), binds to the receptor GLP-1R, whose expression is enriched in β-cells. GLP-1R has thus been used in the past as a means of targeting probes for a wide variety of imaging modalities to the endocrine pancreas. However, exendin-4 conjugates designed specifically for MRI contrast agents are an under-explored area. In the present work, the synthesis and characterization of an exendin-4-dota(ga)-Gd(III) complex, GdEx, is reported, along with its in vivo behaviour in healthy and in β-cell-depleted C57BL/6J mice. Compared to the ubiquitous probe, [Gd(dota)]−, GdEx shows selective uptake by the pancreas with a marked decrease in accumulation observed after the loss of β-cells elicited by deleting the microRNA processing enzyme, DICER. These results open up pathways towards the development of other targeted MRI contrast agents based on similar chemistry methodology.
Gawne PJ, Clarke F, Turjeman K, et al., 2020, PET imaging of liposomal glucocorticoids using Zr-89-oxine: theranostic applications in inflammatory arthritis, Theranostics, Vol: 10, Pages: 3867-3879, ISSN: 1838-7640
The encapsulation of Glucocorticoids (GCs) into long-circulating liposomes (LCLs) is a proven strategy to reduce the side effects of glucocorticoids and improve the treatment of inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). With the aim of supporting the development of GC-loaded LCLs, and potentially predict patient response to therapy clinically, we evaluated a direct PET imaging radiolabelling approach for preformed GC-LCLs in an animal model of human inflammatory arthritis.Methods: A preformed PEGylated liposomal methylprednisolone hemisuccinate (NSSL-MPS) nanomedicine was radiolabelled using [89Zr]Zr(oxinate)4 (89Zr-oxine), characterised and tracked in vivo using PET imaging in a K/BxN serum-transfer arthritis (STA) mouse model of inflammatory arthritis and non-inflamed controls. Histology and joint size measurements were used to confirm inflammation. The biodistribution of 89Zr-NSSL-MPS was compared to that of free 89Zr in the same model. A therapeutic study using NSSL-MPS using the same time points as the PET/CT imaging was carried out.Results: The radiolabelling efficiency of NSSL-MPS with [89Zr]Zr(oxinate)4 was 69 ± 8 %. PET/CT imaging of 89Zr-NSSL-MPS showed high uptake (3.6 ± 1.5 % ID; 17.4 ± 9.3 % ID/mL) at inflamed joints, with low activity present in non-inflamed joints (0.5 ± 0.1 % ID; 2.7 ± 1.1 % ID/mL). Importantly, a clear correlation between joint swelling and high 89Zr-NSSL-MPS uptake was observed, which was not observed with free 89Zr. STA mice receiving a therapeutic dose of NSSL-MPS showed a reduction in inflammation at the time points used for the PET/CT imaging compared with the control group.Conclusions: PET imaging was used for the first time to track a liposomal glucocorticoid, showing high uptake at visible and occult inflamed sites and a good correlation with the degree of inflammation. A subsequent therapeutic response matching imaging time points in the same model demonstrated the potentia
Morse SV, Boltersdorf T, Harriss BI, et al., 2020, Neuron labeling with rhodamine-conjugated Gd-based MRI contrast agents delivered to the brain via focused ultrasound, Theranostics, Vol: 10, Pages: 2659-2674, ISSN: 1838-7640
Gadolinium-based magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents can provide information regarding neuronal function, provided that these agents can cross the neuronal cell membrane. Such contrast agents are normally restricted to extracellular domains, however, by attaching cationic fluorescent dyes, they can be made cell-permeable and allow for both optical and magnetic resonance detection. To reach neurons, these agents also need to cross the blood-brain barrier. Focused ultrasound combined with microbubbles has been shown to enhance the permeability of this barrier, allowing molecules into the brain non-invasively, locally and transiently. The goal of this study was to investigate whether combining fluorescent rhodamine with a gadolinium complex would form a dual-modal contrast agent that could label neurons in vivo when delivered to the mouse brain with focused ultrasound and microbubbles.Methods: Gadolinium complexes were combined with a fluorescent, cationic rhodamine unit to form probes with fluorescence and relaxivity properties suitable for in vivo applications. The left hemisphere of female C57bl/6 mice (8-10 weeks old; 19.07 ± 1.56 g; n = 16) was treated with ultrasound (centre frequency: 1 MHz, peak-negative pressure: 0.35 MPa, pulse length: 10 ms, repetition frequency: 0.5 Hz) while intravenously injecting SonoVue microbubbles and either the 1 kDa Gd(rhodamine-pip-DO3A) complex or a conventionally-used lysine-fixable Texas Red® 3 kDa dextran. The opposite right hemisphere was used as a non-treated control region. Brains were then extracted and either sectioned and imaged via fluorescence or confocal microscopy or imaged using a 9.4 T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Brain slices were stained for neurons (NeuN), microglia (Iba1) and astrocytes (GFAP) to investigate the cellular localization of the probes.Results: Rhodamine fluorescence was detected in the left hemisphere of all ultrasound treated mice, while none was detected in the right contr
Smith AJ, Osborne BE, Keeling GP, et al., 2020, DO2A-based ligands for gallium-68 chelation: synthesis, radiochemistry and ex vivo cardiac uptake, DALTON TRANSACTIONS, Vol: 49, Pages: 1097-1106, ISSN: 1477-9226
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