Imperial College London

Dr Nikzad Oraee

Faculty of Natural SciencesCentre for Environmental Policy

Visiting Research Fellow



n.oraee Website




Weeks BuildingSouth Kensington Campus





Publication Type

9 results found


“Human Rights” pertaining to safety at work is sometimes used by mining trade unions for political purposes and to gain leverage and bargaining power. It is in fact a technically oriented legal term which has a distinct meaning depending on one’s geographical location, their nationality and the location of the accident. The legal scope and definition of Human Rights has clear boundaries and is not open to interpretation by individuals or other entities alike. Unlike Human Rights, sustainability benefits from a wide range of possible components. Sustainability, a distinctly important economic criterion, is traditionally understood to comprise of three broad pillars of economic, environmental and social sustainability. The three pillar model of business sustainability applies to mining as well as many other industries. Human Rights are fundamental to sustainability in a firm. This paper examines the true meaning of these terms in the context of coal mining companies globally. To do so, the first step is to embed Human Rights within the ambit of a sustainable business strategy. This will be done through a thorough examination of the academic and practical definitions of both terms. Examples of large and multinational mining companies who have embraced this idea through good practice are provided. This will help in understanding the practical aspects of Human Rights as a form of sustainable business strategy. After explaining the value of human capital and providing a statistical analysis of such accidents, the paper takes account of the Human Rights perspective in the determination of sustainability in such firms. Evidence of good practice will follow examples of mismanagement, resulting in ground control failures leading to the loss of human capital. The paper concludes by providing a demonstration of the economic importance of adhering to Human Rights laws in all underground coal mines where accidents caused by rock falls can potentially happen.

Conference paper

Oraee K, Oraee-Mirzamani N, Goodarzi A, 2013, The Effect of Legislation on the Development of Coal Mining Industry, Mining Metallurgy and Exploration Annual Meeting 2013

Proven and probable coal reserves in Iran are estimated to be in excess of 5 Billion tons while the annual coal production is a mere 2 Million tons. Underdevelopment of the industry has proved higher production levels to be impossible, despite growing demand for energy supplies. The existences of numerous legislation are thought to have a detrimental effect on coal mining activities to the extent that some business entities have become uneconomical in many areas.This paper provides an analysis of the prevailing mining laws, policy making, legal frameworks and obstacles. It also outlines some other obstacles enshrined in the law and also highlights areas where foreign direct investment should be encouraged. The costs of lost opportunities are then estimated.The paper concludes by demonstrating that deregulations, amendments and in some cases complete abolishment of the incumbent legislations governing the coal mining industry will greatly enhance development of the industry. The analysis provided in this paper together with the results obtained, can prove useful to macro-economic policy makers both at local and national levels.

Conference paper

Oraee K, Oraee-Mirzamani N, Goodarzi A, 2012, A Management System to Develop Occupational Health & Safety in Ground Control Operations of Underground Mines, 31st International Conference on Ground Control in Mining

Conference paper

Makuch Z, Oraee-Mirzamani N, 2012, Corporate Law and the Aarhus Convention, Environmental and Energy Law, Editors: Makuch, Pereira, Publisher: Wiley Blackwell Publishing

Book chapter

Oraee K, Goodarzi A, Oraee-Mirzamani N, 2011, Economic Analysis of the Copper Mining Industry of Iran., Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration Annual Meeting

Mining of copper ore and the related industries play an important role in Iran’s economy. Copper ore production in Iran accounts for 75% of the total production in the Middle East. All activities related to copper, that is, exploration, production, refinement etc are owned and managed by state owned companies. Decisions have been made to privatize all these activities. To assess the success of this privatization process, different components of the industry must be subject to economic analysis. In this paper, the cost estimation of all operations has been carried out. The total potential and attainable revenues have also been estimated using historical data available from the industry. Risk is a major factor in all mining activities and the copper industry of Iran has been subject to risk factors arising from many internal and external variables. These variables have been recognized and their effects evaluated. The effect of risk on the economic feasibility of the operations in the industry has also been analyzed.

Conference paper

Oraee K, Goodarzi A, Oraee-Mirzamani N, 2011, Assessment of the Dynamic Loads Effect on Underground Mines Supports, 30th International Conference on Ground Control in Mining

Blasting operations generate seismic effects in underground mines. These effects apply additional dynamic loads on the support system, which should bear both static and dynamic loads. The static loads are caused by the weight of the superincumbent strata while the dynamic loads occur as a result of blasting in the mining area. Identification of the origin and determination of the support system behavior in natural frequencies is crucial in assessing the stability of underground mines. This is because resonance occurs when a support is vibrated with its natural frequencies which can cause a vibration with the maximum amplitude and subsequently cause extreme deformations. The mechanism of support system deformation during dynamic load displacement has been studied and numerical simulation for the impact of the dynamic loads on stability of supports is carried out using finite element method.Finally, the paper introduces a simple technique for improving stability and safety of mining operations. Results obtained and the methodology adopted in this research, can help the mining design engineer to decide on adequate support for active mining operations.

Conference paper

Oraee-Mirzamani N, Makuch Z, 2011, Corporate Environmental Disclosure Law, Fiduciary Duties and the Aarhus Convention, European Energy and Environmental Law Review, Vol: 20, Pages: 18-29, ISSN: 0966-1646

Journal article

Oraee-Mirzamani N, 2010, Are Mergers and Acquisitions advisable in Iran’s cement industry?

Extensive literature has been written on the effects of Mergers and Acquisitions, theoperation of the global cement industry and the global politics surrounding Iran’s foreignpolicies. The objective of this dissertation is to bridge the gaps in academic research inthese areas.Mergers and acquisitions are shown to have generally positive effects on the acquiringor newly merged firms. These benefits include increasing profitability, efficiency andmarket power above the level of the amalgamated pre-merger firms. Therefore M&Aactivities are a popular method for firm expansion.The global cement industry is vast and has been growing recently in Iran and manyother countries. Iran’s government has implemented a scheme in order to develop thedomestic production capacity of cement. Also numerous economic incentives forgrowing firms such as tax exemptions have been developed. However political changeand instability may inhibit investment in Iran’s cement industry.By examining Iran’s political and economic outlooks alongside literature on M&A andthe cement market characteristics, it is concluded that conducting M&A activities inIran’s cement industry will produce the same fruitful results as they do elsewhere inspite of political instabilities.

Thesis dissertation

Oraee K, Oraee N, Goodarzi A, 2010, Analysis of Ground Control Codes in the International Codes of the International Labour Organisation, 29th International Conference on Ground Control in Mining Proceedings, Pages: 1-4

Unexpected movement of ground can potentially endanger lives, damage equipment or destroy property. Occupational acci-dents frequently occur with fatal consequences in developing countries with significant economic dependence on industries such as mining. There is therefore increasing need for miners’ protection against such hazards. Slope stability and roof support accidents are two of the major causes of fatalities at surface and underground mining operations respectively. According to Na-tional Codes employers are obligated to protect workers against accidents; however these rules fall foul of the standards in devel-oped countries. National safety regulations should clearly specify support systems. The International Labour Organization (ILO) prepared two Codes of practice, aiming to guide those responsi-ble for improving standards of safety and to provide guidelines for the drafting of safety regulations for the coal mine industry and quarry open cast mines. The practical recommendations of these Codes in the ground control section have been analysed and the advantages and disadvantages of ILO Codes concerning ground control summarized.

Conference paper

This data is extracted from the Web of Science and reproduced under a licence from Thomson Reuters. You may not copy or re-distribute this data in whole or in part without the written consent of the Science business of Thomson Reuters.

Request URL: Request URI: /respub/WEB-INF/jsp/search-html.jsp Query String: respub-action=search.html&id=00607660&limit=30&person=true