545 results found
Berkelmans GFN, Gudbjörnsdottir S, Visseren FLJ, et al., 2019, Prediction of individual life-years gained without cardiovascular events from lipid, blood pressure, glucose, and aspirin treatment based on data of more than 500 000 patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus., Eur Heart J
Aims: Although group-level effectiveness of lipid, blood pressure, glucose, and aspirin treatment for prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been proven by trials, important differences in absolute effectiveness exist between individuals. We aim to develop and validate a prediction tool for individualizing lifelong CVD prevention in people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) predicting life-years gained without myocardial infarction or stroke. Methods and results: We developed and validated the Diabetes Lifetime-perspective prediction (DIAL) model, consisting of two complementary competing risk adjusted Cox proportional hazards functions using data from people with T2DM registered in the Swedish National Diabetes Registry (n = 389 366). Competing outcomes were (i) CVD events (vascular mortality, myocardial infarction, or stroke) and (ii) non-vascular mortality. Predictors were age, sex, smoking, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, haemoglobin A1c, estimated glomerular filtration rate, non- high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, albuminuria, T2DM duration, insulin treatment, and history of CVD. External validation was performed using data from the ADVANCE, ACCORD, ASCOT and ALLHAT-LLT-trials, the SMART and EPIC-NL cohorts, and the Scottish diabetes register (total n = 197 785). Predicted and observed CVD-free survival showed good agreement in all validation sets. C-statistics for prediction of CVD were 0.83 (95% confidence interval: 0.83-0.84) and 0.64-0.65 for internal and external validation, respectively. We provide an interactive calculator at www.U-Prevent.com that combines model predictions with relative treatment effects from trials to predict individual benefit from preventive treatment. Conclusion: Cardiovascular disease-free life expectancy and effects of lifelong prevention in terms of CVD-free life-years gained can be estimated for people with T2DM using readily available clinical characteristics. Predic
Erzurumluoglu AM, Liu M, Jackson VE, et al., 2019, Meta-analysis of up to 622,409 individuals identifies 40 novel smoking behaviour associated genetic loci., Mol Psychiatry
Smoking is a major heritable and modifiable risk factor for many diseases, including cancer, common respiratory disorders and cardiovascular diseases. Fourteen genetic loci have previously been associated with smoking behaviour-related traits. We tested up to 235,116 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) on the exome-array for association with smoking initiation, cigarettes per day, pack-years, and smoking cessation in a fixed effects meta-analysis of up to 61 studies (up to 346,813 participants). In a subset of 112,811 participants, a further one million SNVs were also genotyped and tested for association with the four smoking behaviour traits. SNV-trait associations with P < 5 × 10-8 in either analysis were taken forward for replication in up to 275,596 independent participants from UK Biobank. Lastly, a meta-analysis of the discovery and replication studies was performed. Sixteen SNVs were associated with at least one of the smoking behaviour traits (P < 5 × 10-8) in the discovery samples. Ten novel SNVs, including rs12616219 near TMEM182, were followed-up and five of them (rs462779 in REV3L, rs12780116 in CNNM2, rs1190736 in GPR101, rs11539157 in PJA1, and rs12616219 near TMEM182) replicated at a Bonferroni significance threshold (P < 4.5 × 10-3) with consistent direction of effect. A further 35 SNVs were associated with smoking behaviour traits in the discovery plus replication meta-analysis (up to 622,409 participants) including a rare SNV, rs150493199, in CCDC141 and two low-frequency SNVs in CEP350 and HDGFRP2. Functional follow-up implied that decreased expression of REV3L may lower the probability of smoking initiation. The novel loci will facilitate understanding the genetic aetiology of smoking behaviour and may lead to the identification of potential drug targets for smoking prevention and/or cessation.
Giri A, Hellwege JN, Keaton JM, et al., 2019, Trans-ethnic association study of blood pressure determinants in over 750,000 individuals, NATURE GENETICS, Vol: 51, Pages: 51-+, ISSN: 1061-4036
Ohkuma T, Jun M, Rodgers A, et al., 2019, Acute Increases in Serum Creatinine After Starting Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor-Based Therapy and Effects of its Continuation on Major Clinical Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus., Hypertension, Vol: 73, Pages: 84-91
Discontinuation of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor is recommended if patients experience ≥30% acute increase in serum creatinine after starting this therapy. However, the long-term effects of its continuation or discontinuation on major clinical outcomes after increases in serum creatinine are unclear. In the ADVANCE trial (Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation), 11 140 diabetes mellitus patients were randomly assigned to perindopril-indapamide or placebo after a 6-week active run-in period. The current study included 11 066 participants with 2 serum creatinine measurements recorded before and during the active run-in period (3 weeks apart). Acute increase in creatinine was determined using these 2 measurements and classified into 4 groups: increases in serum creatinine of <10%, 10% to 19%, 20% to 29%, and ≥30%. The primary study outcome was the composite of major macrovascular events, new or worsening nephropathy, and all-cause mortality. An acute increase in serum creatinine was associated with an elevated risk of the primary outcome ( P for trend <0.001). The hazard ratios were 1.11 (95% CI, 0.97-1.28) for those with an increase of 10% to 19%, 1.34 (1.07-1.66) for 20% to 29%, and 1.44 (1.15-1.81) for ≥30%, compared with <10%. However, there was no evidence of heterogeneity in the benefit of randomized treatment effects on the outcome across subgroups defined by acute serum creatinine increase ( P for heterogeneity=0.94). Acute increases in serum creatinine after starting perindopril-indapamide were associated with greater risks of subsequent major clinical outcomes. However, the continuation of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-based therapy reduced the long-term risk of major clinical outcomes, irrespective of acute increase in creatinine. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT00145925.
Mann JFE, Fonseca V, Mosenzon O, et al., 2018, Effects of Liraglutide Versus Placebo on Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Chronic Kidney Disease., Circulation, Vol: 138, Pages: 2908-2918
BACKGROUND: LEADER trial (Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of CV Outcome Results) results demonstrated cardiovascular benefits for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at high cardiovascular risk on standard of care randomized to liraglutide versus placebo. The effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide on cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease is unknown. Liraglutide's treatment effects in patients with and without kidney disease were analyzed post hoc. METHODS: Patients were randomized (1:1) to liraglutide or placebo, both in addition to standard of care. These analyses assessed outcomes stratified by baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; <60 versus ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2) and baseline albuminuria. The primary outcome (composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke) and secondary outcomes, including all-cause mortality and individual components of the primary composite outcome, were analyzed using Cox regression. RESULTS: Overall, 2158 and 7182 patients had baseline eGFR <60 or ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. In patients with eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, risk reduction for the primary composite cardiovascular outcome with liraglutide was greater (hazard ratio [HR], 0.69; 95% CI, 0.57-0.85) versus those with eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.83-1.07; interaction P=0.01). There was no consistent effect modification with liraglutide across finer eGFR subgroups (interaction P=0.13) and when analyzing eGFR as a continuous variable (interaction P=0.61). Risk reductions in those with eGFR <60 versus ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2 were as follows: for nonfatal myocardial infarction, HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.55-0.99 versus HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.77-1.13; for nonfatal stroke, HR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.33-0.80 versus HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.84-1.37; for cardiovascular death, HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.50-0.90 ver
Verma S, Poulter NR, Bhatt DL, et al., 2018, Effects of Liraglutide on Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus With or Without History of Myocardial Infarction or Stroke., Circulation, Vol: 138, Pages: 2884-2894
BACKGROUND: The glucagon-like peptide-1 analog liraglutide reduced cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the LEADER trial (Liraglutide and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes). In a post hoc analysis, we evaluated the efficacy of liraglutide in those with and without a history of myocardial infarction (MI) and/or stroke. METHODS: LEADER was a randomized trial of liraglutide (1.8 mg or maximum tolerated dose) versus placebo in 9340 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and high cardiovascular risk, with a median follow-up of 3.8 years. The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal MI, or nonfatal stroke (major adverse cardiovascular events). Risk groups in this post hoc analysis were defined by history of MI/stroke, established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease without MI/stroke, or cardiovascular risk factors alone. RESULTS: Of the 9340 patients, 3692 (39.5%) had a history of MI/stroke, 3083 (33.0%) had established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease without MI/stroke, and 2565 (27.5%) had risk factors alone. Major adverse cardiovascular events occurred in 18.8% of patients with a history of MI/stroke (incidence rate, 5.0 per 100 patient-years), 11.6% of patients with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease without MI/stroke (incidence rate, 3.0 per 100 patient-years), and 9.8% of patients with cardiovascular risk factors alone (incidence rate, 2.6 per 100 patient-years). Liraglutide reduced major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with a history of MI/stroke (322 of 1865 [17.3%] versus 372 of 1827 patients [20.4%]; hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.73-0.99) and in those with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease without MI/stroke (158 of 1538 [10.3%] versus 199 of 1545 patients [12.9%]; hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.62-0.94) compared with placebo. In patients with risk factors alone, the hazard ratio for liraglutide versus placebo was 1.08 (95% CI, 0.84-1.3
Evangelou E, Warren HR, Mosen-Ansorena D, et al., 2018, Genetic analysis of over 1 million people identifies 535 new loci associated with blood pressure traits (vol 50, pg 1412, 2018), NATURE GENETICS, Vol: 50, Pages: 1755-1755, ISSN: 1061-4036
Mentz RJ, Bethel MA, Merrill P, et al., 2018, Effect of Once-Weekly Exenatide on Clinical Outcomes According to Baseline Risk in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Insights From the EXSCEL Trial., J Am Heart Assoc, Vol: 7
Background In the EXSCEL (Exenatide Study of Cardiovascular Event Lowering), exenatide once-weekly resulted in a nonsignificant reduction in major adverse cardiovascular events ( MACEs ) and a nominal 14% reduction in all-cause mortality in 14 752 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2 DM ) with and without cardiovascular disease. Whether patients at increased risk for events experienced a comparatively greater treatment benefit with exenatide is unknown. Methods and Results In the EXSCEL population, we created risk scores for MACEs and all-cause mortality using step-wise selection of baseline characteristics. A risk score was calculated for each patient, and a time-to-event model for each end point was developed including the risk score, treatment assignment, and risk-treatment interaction. Interaction P values evaluating for a differential treatment effect by baseline risk were reported. Over a median follow-up of 3.2 years (interquartile range, 2.2, 4.4), 1091 (7.4%) patients died and 1744 (11.8%) experienced a MACE . Independent predictors of MACEs and all-cause mortality included age, sex, comorbidities (eg, previous cardiovascular event), body mass index, blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. The all-cause mortality and MACE risk models had modest discrimination with optimism-corrected c-indices of 0.73 and 0.71, respectively. No interaction was observed between treatment effect and risk profile for either end point (both interactions, P>0.1). Conclusions Baseline characteristics (eg, age, previous cardiovascular events) and routine laboratory values (eg, hemoglobin A1c, estimated glomerular filtration rate) provided modest prognostic value for mortality and MACEs in a broad population of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Exenatide's effects on mortality and MACEs were consistent across the spectrum of baseline risk. Clinical Trial Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: N
Evangelou E, Warren HR, Mosen-Ansorena D, et al., 2018, Genetic analysis of over 1 million people identifies 535 new loci associated with blood pressure traits, NATURE GENETICS, Vol: 50, Pages: 1412-+, ISSN: 1061-4036
Poulter NR, Savopoulos C, Anjum A, et al., 2018, Randomized Crossover Trial of the Impact of Morning or Evening Dosing of Antihypertensive Agents on 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure: The HARMONY Trial, HYPERTENSION, Vol: 72, Pages: 870-873, ISSN: 0194-911X
Gupta A, Mackay J, Whitehouse A, et al., 2018, Long-term mortality after blood pressure-lowering and lipid-lowering treatment in patients with hypertension in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial (ASCOT) Legacy study: 16-year follow-up results of a randomised factorial trial, LANCET, Vol: 392, Pages: 1127-1137, ISSN: 0140-6736
Laurent S, Mancia G, Poulter N, 2018, Perindopril 3.5 mg/amlodipine 2.5 mg versus renin-angiotensin system inhibitor monotherapy as first-line treatment in hypertension: a combined analysis., J Hypertens, Vol: 36, Pages: 1915-1920
BACKGROUND: Many patients are diagnosed with hypertension each year, making rapid and effective control of blood pressure (BP) crucial. Appropriate first-line treatment is important, and special attention should be paid to the positive effects of lowering BP early. Perindopril 3.5 mg/amlodipine 2.5 mg (P3.5/A2.5) is a single-pill combination suitable for first-line use. The doses of each component of the single-pill combination were selected for a first-line setting. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of the P3.5/A2.5 combination at lowering BP compared with renin-angiotensin system (RAS)-inhibitor monotherapies, after 1 month of treatment. METHODS: Individual patient data from three randomized controlled trials were used to evaluate the efficacy of P3.5/A2.5 versus RAS-inhibitor monotherapies after 1 month in 5496 patients with hypertension, in a combined analysis. RESULTS: P3.5/A2.5 was well tolerated and significantly more effective at reducing BP after 1 month than RAS-inhibitor monotherapies (perindopril 5 mg, irbesartan 150 mg or valsartan 80 mg). P3.5/A2.5 was associated with a significantly lower SBP (P = 0.002) and DBP (P = 0.005) after 1 month of treatment compared with RAS-inhibitor monotherapies. CONCLUSION: In a large patient population, early administration of P3.5/A2.5 resulted in a significantly greater BP-lowering effect than perindopril, irbesartan or valsartan monotherapies after 1 month. Reducing BP levels within a month of treatment may reasonably be expected to lead to a reduced risk of cardiovascular events.
Rådholm K, Chalmers J, Ohkuma T, et al., 2018, Use of the waist-to-height ratio to predict cardiovascular risk in patients with diabetes: Results from the ADVANCE-ON study., Diabetes Obes Metab, Vol: 20, Pages: 1903-1910
AIMS: Patients with type 2 diabetes have a high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Central obesity has been particularly associated with this risk relationship. We aimed to evaluate waist to height ratio (WHtR) as a predictor of risk in such patients. METHODS: WHtR was evaluated as a predictor of the risk of CVD and mortality amongst 11 125 participants with type 2 diabetes in the ADVANCE and ADVANCE-ON studies, and was compared with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and waist hip ratio (WHR). Primary outcome was a composite of death from CVD, non-fatal myocardial infarction or non-fatal stroke. Secondary outcomes were myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiovascular death and death from any cause. Cox models were used, with bootstrapping to compare associations between anthropometric measures for the primary outcome. RESULTS: Median follow-up time was 9.0 years. There was a positive association between WHtR and adverse outcomes. The hazard ratio (HR) (confidence interval), per SD higher WHtR, was 1.16 (1.11-1.22) for the primary endpoint, with no heterogeneity by sex or region, but a stronger effect in individuals aged 66 years or older. The other 3 anthropometric measurements showed similar associations, although there was evidence that WHtR marginally outperformed BMI and WHR. Based on commonly used BMI cut-points, the equivalent WHtR cut-points were estimated to be 0.55 and 0.6, with no evidence of a difference across subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with diabetes, WHtR is a useful indicator of future adverse risk, with similar effects in different population subgroups.
Ojji DB, Poulter N, Damasceno A, et al., 2018, Rationale and design of the comparison of 3 combination therapies in lowering blood pressure in black Africans (CREOLE study): 2 × 3 factorial randomized single-blind multicenter trial., Am Heart J, Vol: 202, Pages: 5-12
BACKGROUND: Current hypertension guidelines recommend the use of combination therapy as first-line treatment or early in the management of hypertensive patients. Although there are many possible combinations of blood pressure(BP)-lowering therapies, the best combination for the black population is still a subject of debate because no large randomized controlled trials have been conducted in this group to compare the efficacy of different combination therapies to address this issue. METHODS: The comparison of 3 combination therapies in lowering BP in the black Africans (CREOLE) study is a randomized single-blind trial that will compare the efficacy of amlodipine plus hydrochlorothiazide versus amlodipine plus perindopril and versus perindopril plus hydrochlorothiazide in blacks residing in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Seven hundred two patients aged 30-79 years with a sitting systolic BP of 140 mm Hg and above, and less than 160 mm Hg on antihypertensive monotherapy, or sitting systolic BP of 150 mm Hg and above, and less than 180 mm Hg on no treatment, will be centrally randomized into any of the 3 arms (234 into each arm). The CREOLE study is taking place in 10 sites in SSA, and the primary outcome measure is change in ambulatory systolic BP from baseline to 6 months. The first patient was randomized in June 2017, and the trial will be concluded by 2019. CONCLUSIONS: The CREOLE trial will provide unique information as to the most efficacious 2-drug combination in blacks residing in SSA and thereby inform the development of clinical guidelines for the treatment of hypertension in this subregion.
Poulter NR, Castillo R, Charchar FJ, et al., 2018, Are the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology High Blood Pressure Guidelines Fit for Global Purpose?: Thoughts From the International Society of Hypertension., Hypertension, Vol: 72, Pages: 260-262
Stergiou GS, Dolan E, Kollias A, et al., 2018, Blood pressure measurement in special populations and circumstances., J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich), Vol: 20, Pages: 1122-1127
According to the established validation protocols, a typical validation study of a blood pressure (BP) monitor includes general population adults with normal or elevated BP. It is recognized, however, that the automated (oscillometric) BP monitors may have different accuracy or uses in some special populations compared with adults in the general population. Thus, an automated BP monitor with proven accuracy in a general population of adults may not be accurate in a special population, and therefore separate validation is needed. Recognized special populations deserving separate validation are those for which there is theoretical, and also clinical evidence, that the accuracy of BP monitors in these groups differs from that in the general population. Young children, pregnant women (including those with preeclampsia), individuals with arm circumference >42 cm, and patients with atrial fibrillation are regarded as special populations. Adolescents, individuals older than 80 years, and patients with end-stage renal disease or diabetes mellitus have also been considered as possible special groups, but there is still inadequate evidence of altered accuracy of BP monitors in these subjects. Validation studies should be performed in special populations and evaluated separately after the BP-measuring device has successfully undergone a validation study in a general population (unless the test device is intended only for a special population). This article discusses issues relating to the measurement of BP and the diagnosis of hypertension in selected special populations, as well as in low-resource settings, where a simplified yet efficient evaluation strategy is necessary.
Welsh P, Rankin N, Li Q, et al., 2018, Circulating amino acids and the risk of macrovascular, microvascular and mortality outcomes in individuals with type 2 diabetes: results from the ADVANCE trial., Diabetologia, Vol: 61, Pages: 1581-1591
AIMS/HYPOTHESES: We aimed to quantify the association of individual circulating amino acids with macrovascular disease, microvascular disease and all-cause mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We performed a case-cohort study (N = 3587), including 655 macrovascular events, 342 microvascular events (new or worsening nephropathy or retinopathy) and 632 all-cause mortality events during follow-up, in a secondary analysis of the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) study. For this study, phenylalanine, isoleucine, glutamine, leucine, alanine, tyrosine, histidine and valine were measured in stored plasma samples by proton NMR metabolomics. Hazard ratios were modelled per SD increase in each amino acid. RESULTS: In models investigating associations and potential mechanisms, after adjusting for age, sex and randomised treatment, phenylalanine was positively, and histidine inversely, associated with macrovascular disease risk. These associations were attenuated to the null on further adjustment for extended classical risk factors (including eGFR and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio). After adjustment for extended classical risk factors, higher tyrosine and alanine levels were associated with decreased risk of microvascular disease (HR 0.78; 95% CI 0.67, 0.91 and HR 0.86; 95% CI 0.76, 0.98, respectively). Higher leucine (HR 0.79; 95% CI 0.69, 0.90), histidine (HR 0.89; 95% CI 0.81, 0.99) and valine (HR 0.79; 95% CI 0.70, 0.88) levels were associated with lower risk of mortality. Investigating the predictive ability of amino acids, addition of all amino acids to a risk score modestly improved classification of participants for macrovascular (continuous net reclassification index [NRI] +35.5%, p < 0.001) and microvascular events (continuous NRI +14.4%, p = 0.012). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We report distinct associations between circulat
Beaney T, Schutte AE, Tomaszewski M, et al., 2018, May Measurement Month 2017: an analysis of blood pressure screening results worldwide., Lancet Glob Health, Vol: 6, Pages: e736-e743
BACKGROUND: Increased blood pressure is the biggest contributor to the global burden of disease and mortality. Data suggest that less than half of the population with hypertension is aware of it. May Measurement Month was initiated to raise awareness of the importance of blood pressure and as a pragmatic interim solution to the shortfall in screening programmes. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey included volunteer adults (≥18 years) who ideally had not had their blood pressures measured in the past year. Each participant had their blood pressure measured three times and received a a questionnaire about demographic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. The primary objective was to raise awareness of blood pressure, measured by number of countries involved, number of people screened, and number of people who have untreated or inadequately treated hypertension (defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg, or both, or on the basis of receiving antihypertensive medication). Multiple imputation was used to estimate the mean of the second and third blood pressure readings if these were not recorded. Measures of association were analysed using linear mixed models. FINDINGS: Data were collected from 1 201 570 individuals in 80 countries. After imputation, of the 1 128 635 individuals for whom a mean of the second and third readings was available, 393 924 (34·9%) individuals had hypertension. 153 905 (17·3%) of 888 616 individuals who were not receiving antihypertensive treatment were hypertensive, and 105 456 (46·3%) of the 227 721 individuals receiving treatment did not have controlled blood pressure. Significant differences in adjusted blood pressures and hypertension prevalence were apparent between regions. Adjusted blood pressure was higher in association with antihypertensive medication, diabetes, cerebrovascular disease, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Blood pressure was higher when measured o
Thomas MC, Woodward M, Li Q, et al., 2018, Relationship Between Plasma 8-OH-Deoxyguanosine and Cardiovascular Disease and Survival in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Results From the ADVANCE Trial., J Am Heart Assoc, Vol: 7
BACKGROUND: 8-Oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-2'-dG) is a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage that is associated with cardiovascular disease and premature mortality in the general population. Although oxidative stress has a proven role in cardiovascular complications in diabetes mellitus, evidence for a relationship between plasma 8-oxo-2'-dG and major cardiovascular outcomes in diabetes mellitus is weak. METHODS AND RESULTS: A case-cohort study was performed in 3766 participants with prevalent diabetes mellitus in the ADVANCE (Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation) trial (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00145925). The hazard ratios for mortality and major acute cardiovascular events were derived using Cox regression models. During a median of 5 years of follow-up, 695 (18.4%) participants in this enriched cohort died (including 354 deaths from cardiovascular disease). Individuals with higher levels of 8-oxo-2'-dG were more likely to die. After adjusting for cardiovascular disease risk factors, the hazard ratio for a 1-SD increase in plasma 8-oxo-2'-dG was 1.10 (95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.20; P=0.03). This was driven by an independent association between plasma 8-oxo-2'-dG and cardiovascular death (hazard ratio, 1.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-1.37 [P<0.001]). By contrast, no association was seen between 8-oxo-2'-dG and noncardiovascular disease death (of which cancer was the major single cause). 8-Oxo-2'-dG was also not significantly associated with either nonfatal myocardial infarction or nonfatal stroke. CONCLUSIONS: In adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus, increased levels of 8-oxo-2'-dG are independently associated with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality in adults with longstanding type 2 diabetes mellitus who participated in the ADVANCE trial, consistent with the role of oxidative damage in the development and progression of cardiovascular decompensation in diabetes mellitu
Feitosa MF, Kraja AT, Chasman DI, et al., 2018, Novel genetic associations for blood pressure identified via gene-alcohol interaction in up to 570K individuals across multiple ancestries, PLOS ONE, Vol: 13, ISSN: 1932-6203
Verma S, Bhatt DL, Bain SC, et al., 2018, Effect of Liraglutide on Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Polyvascular Disease: Results of the LEADER Trial., Circulation, Vol: 137, Pages: 2179-2183
Feldman RD, Fitchett D, Hegele RA, et al., 2018, Type 2 Diabetes and the Reduction of Cardiovascular Risk: Sorting Out the Actors and the Roles., Can J Cardiol, Vol: 34, Pages: 532-535
Crossan C, Dehbi H-M, Williams H, et al., 2018, A protocol for an economic evaluation of a polypill in patients with established or at high risk of cardiovascular disease in a UK NHS setting: RUPEE (NHS) study, BMJ OPEN, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2044-6055
Dzudie A, Rayner B, Ojji D, et al., 2018, Roadmap to Achieve 25% Hypertension Control in Africa by 2025., Glob Heart, Vol: 13, Pages: 45-59
BACKGROUND: The Pan-African Society of Cardiology (PASCAR) has identified hypertension as the highest area of priority action to reduce heart disease and stroke on the continent. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this PASCAR roadmap on hypertension was to develop practical guidance on how to implement strategies that translate existing knowledge into effective action and improve detection, treatment and control of hypertension and cardiovascular health in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) by the year 2025. METHODS: Development of this roadmap started with the creation of a consortium of experts with leadership skills in hypertension. In 2014, experts in different fields, including physicians and nonphysicians, were invited to join. Via face-to-face meetings and teleconferences, the consortium made a situation analysis, set a goal, identified roadblocks and solutions to the management of hypertension and customized the World Heart Federation roadmap to Africa. RESULTS: Hypertension is a major crisis on the continent but very few randomized controlled trials have been conducted on its management. Also, only 25.8% of the countries have developed or adopted guidelines for management of hypertension. Other major roadblocks are either government and health-system related or health care professional or patient related. The PASCAR hypertension task force identified a 10-point action plan to be implemented by African ministries of health to achieve 25% control of hypertension in Africa by 2025. CONCLUSIONS: Hypertension affects millions of people in SSA and if left untreated, is a major cause of heart disease and stroke. Very few SSA countries have a clear hypertension policy. This PASCAR roadmap identifies practical and effective solutions that would improve detection, treatment and control of hypertension on the continent and could be implemented as is or adapted to specific national settings.
Bethel MA, Patel RA, Merrill P, et al., 2018, Cardiovascular outcomes with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists in patients with type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis, LANCET DIABETES & ENDOCRINOLOGY, Vol: 6, Pages: 105-113, ISSN: 2213-8587
Mohammedi K, Chalmers J, Herrington W, et al., 2018, Associations between body mass index and the risk of renal events in patients with type 2 diabetes., Nutr Diabetes, Vol: 8
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the relationship between BMI and the risk of renal disease in patients with type 2 diabetes in the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: PreterAx and DiamicroN Modified-Release Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) study. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Participants were divided into six baseline BMI categories: <18.5 (underweight, n = 58); ≥18.5 to <25 (normal, n = 2894); ≥25 to <30 (overweight, n = 4340); ≥30 to <35 (obesity grade 1, n = 2265); ≥35 to <40 (obesity grade 2, n = 744); and ≥40 kg/m2 (obesity grade 3, n = 294); those underweight were excluded. The composite outcome "major renal event" was defined as development of new macroalbuminuria, doubling of creatinine, end stage renal disease, or renal death. These outcomes and development of new microalbuminuria were considered individually as secondary endpoints. RESULTS: During 5-years of follow-up, major renal events occurred in 487 (4.6%) patients. The risk increased with higher BMI. Multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CIs), compared to normal weight, were: 0.91 (0.72-1.15) for overweight; 1.03 (0.77-1.37) for obesity grade 1; 1.42 (0.98-2.07) for grade 2; and 2.16 (1.34-3.48) for grade 3 (p for trend = 0.006). These findings were similar across subgroups by randomised interventions (intensive versus standard glucose control and perindopril-indapamide versus placebo). Every additional unit of BMI over 25 kg/m2 increased the risk of major renal events by 4 (1-6)%. Comparable results were observed with the risk of secondary endpoints. CONCLUSIONS: Higher BMI is an independent predictor of major renal events in patients with type 2 diabetes. Our findings encourage weight loss to improve nephroprotection in these patients.
Pieber TR, Marso SP, McGuire DK, et al., 2018, DEVOTE 3: temporal relationships between severe hypoglycaemia, cardiovascular outcomes and mortality, DIABETOLOGIA, Vol: 61, Pages: 58-65, ISSN: 0012-186X
Zinman B, Marso SP, Poulter NR, et al., 2018, Day-to-day fasting glycaemic variability in DEVOTE: associations with severe hypoglycaemia and cardiovascular outcomes (DEVOTE 2), DIABETOLOGIA, Vol: 61, Pages: 48-57, ISSN: 0012-186X
Jun M, Ohkuma T, Zoungas S, et al., 2018, Changes in Albuminuria and the Risk of Major Clinical Outcomes in Diabetes: Results From ADVANCE-ON., Diabetes Care, Vol: 41, Pages: 163-170
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between 2-year changes in urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) and the risk of clinical outcomes in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed data from 8,766 participants in the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron MR Controlled Evaluation Post-Trial Observational Study (ADVANCE-ON). Change in UACR was calculated from UACR measurements 2 years apart, classified into three groups: decrease in UACR of ≥30%, minor change, and increase in UACR of ≥30%. By analyzing changes from baseline UACR groups, categorized into thirds, we repeated these analyses accounting for regression to the mean (RtM). The primary outcome was the composite of major macrovascular events, renal events, and all-cause mortality; secondary outcomes were these components. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs). RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 7.7 years, 2,191 primary outcomes were observed. Increases in UACR over 2 years independently predicted a greater risk of the primary outcome (HR for ≥30% UACR increase vs. minor change: 1.26; 95% CI 1.13-1.41), whereas a decrease in UACR was not significantly associated with lower risk (HR 0.93; 95% CI 0.83-1.04). However, after allowing for RtM, the effect of "real" decrease in UACR on the primary outcome was found to be significant (HR 0.84; 95% CI 0.75-0.94), whereas the estimated effect on an increase was unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in UACR predicted changes in the risk of major clinical outcomes and mortality in type 2 diabetes, supporting the prognostic utility of monitoring albuminuria change over time.
This data is extracted from the Web of Science and reproduced under a licence from Thomson Reuters. You may not copy or re-distribute this data in whole or in part without the written consent of the Science business of Thomson Reuters.