689 results found
Philip R, Beaney T, Appelbaum N, et al., 2021, Variation in hypertension clinical practice guidelines: a global comparison., BMC Medicine, ISSN: 1741-7015
Surendran P, Feofanova EV, Lahrouchi N, et al., 2021, Discovery of rare variants associated with blood pressure regulation through meta-analysis of 1.3 million individuals (vol 52, pg 1314, 2020), Nature Genetics, Pages: 1-2, ISSN: 1061-4036
Jun M, Harris K, Heerspink HJL, et al., 2021, Variability in estimated glomerular filtration rate and the risk of major clinical outcomes in diabetes: Post hoc analysis from the ADVANCE trial, DIABETES OBESITY & METABOLISM, ISSN: 1462-8902
Ohkuma T, Chalmers J, Cooper M, et al., 2021, The comparative effects of intensive glucose lowering in diabetes patients aged below or above 65 years: Results from the ADVANCE trial, DIABETES OBESITY & METABOLISM, ISSN: 1462-8902
Gnanenthiran SR, Borghi C, Burger D, et al., 2021, Prospective meta-analysis protocol on randomised trials of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors in patients with COVID-19: an initiative of the International Society of Hypertension, BMJ Open, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-7, ISSN: 2044-6055
Introduction Whether ACE inhibitors (ACEi) or angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) therapy should be continued, initiated or ceased in patients with COVID-19 is uncertain. Given the widespread use of ACEi/ARBs worldwide, guidance on the use of these drugs is urgently needed. This prospective meta-analysis aims to pool data from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the safety and efficacy of ACEi/ARB therapy in adults infected with SARS-CoV-2.Methods and analysis RCTs will be eligible if they compare patients with COVID-19 randomised to ACEi/ARB continuation or commencement versuss no ACEi/ARB therapy; study duration ≥14 days; recruitment completed between March 2020 and May 2021. The primary outcome will be all-cause mortality at ≤30 days. Secondary outcomes will include mechanical ventilation, admission to intensive care or cardiovascular events at short-term follow-up (≤30 days) and all-cause mortality at longer-term follow-up (>1 month). Prespecified subgroup analyses will assess the effect of sex; age; comorbidities; smoking status; ethnicity; country of origin on all-cause mortality. A search of ClinicalTrials.gov has been performed, which will be followed by a formal search of trial registers, preprint servers, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify RCTs that meet inclusion criteria. To date, a search of ClinicalTrials.gov identified 21 potentially eligible trials for this meta-analysis. We will request trial investigators/sponsors to contribute standardised grouped tabular outcome data.Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval and informed consent will be the responsibility of the individual RCTs. Dissemination of results will occur by peer-reviewed publication. The results of our analysis can inform public health policy and clinical decision making regarding ACEi/ARB use in patients with COVID-19 on a global scale.
Oshima M, Hara A, Toyama T, et al., 2021, Comparison of Circulating Biomarkers in Predicting Diabetic Kidney Disease Progression With Autoantibodies to Erythropoietin Receptor, KIDNEY INTERNATIONAL REPORTS, Vol: 6, Pages: 284-295, ISSN: 2468-0249
Mohammedi K, Harrap S, Mancia G, et al., 2021, History of lower-limb complications and risk of cancer death in people with type 2 diabetes, CARDIOVASCULAR DIABETOLOGY, Vol: 20
Poulter NR, 2021, Additive association of knowledge and awareness on control of hypertension: a cross sectional survey in rural India., J Hypertens, Vol: 39, Pages: 44-45
Heller S, Lingvay I, Marso SP, et al., 2020, Risk of severe hypoglycaemia and its impact in type 2 diabetes in DEVOTE., Diabetes Obes Metab, Vol: 22, Pages: 2241-2247
AIMS: To undertake a post-hoc analysis, utilizing a hypoglycaemia risk score based on DEVOTE trial data, to investigate if a high risk of severe hypoglycaemia was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events, and whether reduced rates of severe hypoglycaemia in patients identified as having the highest risk affected the risk of cardiovascular outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The DEVOTE population was divided into quartiles according to patients' individual hypoglycaemia risk scores. For each quartile, the observed incidence and rate of severe hypoglycaemia, major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) and all-cause mortality were determined to investigate whether those with the highest risk of hypoglycaemia were also at the greatest risk of MACE and all-cause mortality. In addition, treatment differences within each risk quartile [insulin degludec (degludec) vs. insulin glargine 100 units/mL (glargine U100)] in terms of severe hypoglycaemia, MACE and all-cause mortality were investigated. RESULTS: Patients with the highest risk scores had the highest rates of severe hypoglycaemia, MACE and all-cause mortality. Treatment ratios between degludec and glargine U100 in the highest risk quartile were 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.56 (0.39; 0.80) (severe hypoglycaemia), 95% CI 0.76 (0.58; 0.99) (MACE) and 95% CI 0.77 (0.55; 1.07) (all-cause mortality). CONCLUSIONS: The risk score demonstrated that a high risk of severe hypoglycaemia was associated with a high incidence of MACE and all-cause mortality and that, in this high-risk group, those treated with degludec had a lower incidence of MACE. These observations support the hypothesis that hypoglycaemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular events.
Surendran P, Gao H, Zhang W, et al., 2020, Discovery of rare variants associated with blood pressure regulation trhough meta-analaysis of 1.3 million individuals, Nature Genetics, Vol: 52, Pages: 1314-1332, ISSN: 1061-4036
Genetic studies of blood pressure (BP) to date have mainly analyzed common variants (minor allele frequency, MAF > 0.05). In a meta-analysis of up to >1.3 million participants, we discovered 106 new BP-associated genomic regions and 87 rare (MAF≤ 0.01) variant BP associations (P < 5 × 10-8), of which 32 were in new BP-associated loci and 55 were independent BP-associated SNVs within known BP-associated regions. Average effects of rare variants (44% coding) were ~8 times larger than common variant effects and indicate potential candidate causal genes at new and known loci (e.g.GATA5, PLCB3). BP-associated variants (including rare and common) were enriched in regions of active chromatin in fetal tissues, potentially linking fetal development with BP regulation in later life. Multivariable Mendelian randomization suggested possible inverse effects of elevated systolic and diastolic BP on large artery stroke. Our study demonstrates the utility of rare variant analyses for identifying candidate genes and the results highlight potential therapeutic targets.
Heller S, Lingvay I, Marso SP, et al., 2020, Development of a hypoglycaemia risk score to identify high-risk individuals with advanced type 2 diabetes in DEVOTE., Diabetes Obes Metab, Vol: 22, Pages: 2248-2256
AIMS: The ability to differentiate patient populations with type 2 diabetes at high risk of severe hypoglycaemia could impact clinical decision making. The aim of this study was to develop a risk score, using patient characteristics, that could differentiate between populations with higher and lower 2-year risk of severe hypoglycaemia among individuals at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two models were developed for the risk score based on data from the DEVOTE cardiovascular outcomes trials. The first, a data-driven machine-learning model, used stepwise regression with bidirectional elimination to identify risk factors for severe hypoglycaemia. The second, a risk score based on known clinical risk factors accessible in clinical practice identified from the data-driven model, included: insulin treatment regimen; diabetes duration; sex; age; and glycated haemoglobin, all at baseline. Both the data-driven model and simple risk score were evaluated for discrimination, calibration and generalizability using data from DEVOTE, and were validated against the external LEADER cardiovascular outcomes trial dataset. RESULTS: Both the data-driven model and the simple risk score discriminated between patients at higher and lower hypoglycaemia risk, and performed similarly well based on the time-dependent area under the curve index (0.63 and 0.66, respectively) over a 2-year time horizon. CONCLUSIONS: Both the data-driven model and the simple hypoglycaemia risk score were able to discriminate between patients at higher and lower risk of severe hypoglycaemia, the latter doing so using easily accessible clinical data. The implementation of such a tool (http://www.hyporiskscore.com/) may facilitate improved recognition of, and education about, severe hypoglycaemia risk, potentially improving patient care.
Ray KK, Bray S, Catapano AL, et al., 2020, What is the potential cardiovascular risk reduction associated with achieving LDL-C levels recommended in the ESC/EAS guidelines for very high-risk patients? Data from 18 European countries, Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS, Pages: 3003-3003, ISSN: 0195-668X
Ryom L, Cotter A, De Miguel R, et al., 2020, 2019 update of the European AIDS Clinical Society Guidelines for treatment of people living with HIV version 10.0, HIV Medicine, Vol: 21, Pages: 617-624, ISSN: 1464-2662
BACKGROUND: The European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) Guidelines cover key aspects of HIV management with major updates every two years. GUIDELINE HIGHLIGHTS: The 2019 Guidelines were extended with a new section focusing on drug-drug interactions and other prescribing issues in people living with HIV (PLWH). The recommendations for treatment-naïve PLWH were updated with four preferred regimens favouring unboosted integrase inhibitors. A two-drug regimen with dolutegravir and lamivudine, and a three-drug regimen including doravirine were also added to the recommended initial regimens. Lower thresholds for hypertension were expanded to all PLWH and for cardiovascular disease prevention, the 10-year predicted risk threshold for consideration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) modification was lowered from 20% to 10%. Frailty and obesity were added as new topics. It was specified to use urine albumin to creatinine ratio to screen for glomerular disease and urine protein to creatinine ratio for tubular diseases, and thresholds were streamlined with the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) recommendations. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment recommendations were split into preferred and alternative treatment options. The algorithm for management of recently acquired HCV infection was updated and includes recommendations for early chronic infection management. Treatment of resistant tuberculosis (TB) was streamlined with the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations, and new tables on immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, on when to start ART in the presence of opportunistic infections and on TB drug dosing were included. CONCLUSIONS: The EACS Guidelines underwent major revisions of all sections in 2019. They are available in four different formats including a new interactive web-based version and are translated into Chinese, French, German, Japanese, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish.
Amod A, Buse JB, McGuire DK, et al., 2020, Risk factors for kidney disorders in patients with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk: An exploratory analysis (DEVOTE 12)., Diab Vasc Dis Res, Vol: 17, Pages: 1479164120970933-1479164120970933
AIM: To investigate risk factors associated with kidney disorders in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) at high cardiovascular (CV) risk. METHODS: In DEVOTE, a cardiovascular outcomes trial, 7637 patients were randomised to insulin degludec (degludec) or insulin glargine 100 units/mL (glargine U100), with standard of care. In these exploratory post hoc analyses, serious adverse event reports were searched using Standardised MedDRA® Queries related to chronic kidney disease (CKD) or acute kidney injury (AKI). Baseline predictors of CKD, AKI and change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were identified using stepwise selection and Cox or linear regression. RESULTS: Over 2 years, eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) decline was small and similar between treatments (degludec: 2.70; glargine U100: 2.92). Overall, 97 and 208 patients experienced CKD and AKI events, respectively. A history of heart failure was a risk factor for CKD (hazard ratio [HR] 1.97 [95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41; 2.75]) and AKI (HR 2.28 [95% CI 1.64; 3.17]). A history of hepatic impairment was a significant predictor of CKD (HR 3.28 [95% CI 2.12; 5.07]) and change in eGFR (estimate: -8.59 [95% CI -10.20; -7.00]). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that traditional, non-modifiable risk factors for kidney disorders apply to insulin-treated patients with T2D at high CV risk. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01959529 (ClinicalTrials.gov).
Poulter N, Williams B, Schutte AE, et al., 2020, Response to the editorial: "the international society of hypertension guidelines 2020 - a new drug treatment recommendation in the wrong direction?", Blood Pressure, Vol: 29, Pages: 339-340, ISSN: 0803-7051
Ray K, Molemans B, Schoonen WM, et al., 2020, EU-wide cross-sectional observational study of lipid-modifying therapy use in secondary and primary care: the DA VINCI study, European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN: 2047-4873
AimsTo provide contemporary data on the implementation of European guideline recommendations for lipid-lowering therapies (LLTs) across different settings and populations and how this impacts low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal achievement.Methods and resultsAn 18 country, cross-sectional, observational study of patients prescribed LLT for primary or secondary prevention in primary or secondary care across Europe. Between June 2017 and November 2018, data were collected at a single visit, including LLT in the preceding 12 months and most recent LDL-C. Primary outcome was the achievement of risk-based 2016 European Society of Cardiology (ESC)/European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) LDL-C goal while receiving stabilized LLT; 2019 goal achievement was also assessed. Overall, 5888 patients (3000 primary and 2888 secondary prevention patients) were enrolled; 54% [95% confidence interval (CI) 52–56] achieved their risk-based 2016 goal and 33% (95% CI 32–35) achieved their risk-based 2019 goal. High-intensity statin monotherapy was used in 20% and 38% of very high-risk primary and secondary prevention patients, respectively. Corresponding 2016 goal attainment was 22% and 45% (17% and 22% for 2019 goals) for very high-risk primary and secondary prevention patients, respectively. Use of moderate–high-intensity statins in combination with ezetimibe (9%), or any LLT with PCSK9 inhibitors (1%), was low; corresponding 2016 and 2019 goal attainment was 53% and 20% (ezetimibe combination), and 67% and 58% (PCSK9i combination).ConclusionGaps between clinical guidelines and clinical practice for lipid management across Europe persist, which will be exacerbated by the 2019 guidelines. Even with optimized statins, greater utilization of non-statin LLT is likely needed to reduce these gaps for patients at highest risk.
Beaney T, Schutte AE, Stergiou GS, et al., 2020, May Measurement Month 2019 The Global Blood Pressure Screening Campaign of the International Society of Hypertension, HYPERTENSION, Vol: 76, Pages: 333-341, ISSN: 0194-911X
Wahab KW, Kolo PM, Sani MU, et al., 2020, May measurement month 2018: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Nigeria., European Heart Journal Supplements, Vol: 22, Pages: H96-H99, ISSN: 1520-765X
Hypertension remains the dominant cardiovascular risk factor worldwide. May Measurement Month (MMM) is an annual global programme of the International Society of Hypertension aimed at screening for undetected hypertension in the general population. We report the outcome of MMM 2018 in Nigeria. An opportunistic screening of adults aged at least 18 years was conducted in the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria in the month of May, 2018. Screening for hypertension was done by trained volunteers with the use of validated digital and mercury sphygmomanometers following the MMM protocol. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure (BP) ≥140/90 mmHg or the use of BP-lowering medication. There were 6398 participants (53.0% female) with a mean (SD) age of 41.7 (15.0) years. Hypertension was present in 36.4% of the participants with 51.1% of the hypertensives aware of their status, 41.8% on medication, of whom 43.1% were controlled. Overall, only 18.0% of all hypertensive participants had their BP under control. The proportion with hypertension is high, and awareness, treatment, and control rates are low. Concerted efforts are needed to improve awareness and treatment of hypertension in Nigeria in order to reduce the high rate of complications associated with uncontrolled BP.
Poulter NR, Borghi C, Burger D, et al., 2020, May measurement month 2018: results of blood pressure screening from 41 countries., European Heart Journal Supplements, Vol: 22, Pages: H1-H4, ISSN: 1520-765X
Burazeri G, Qirjako G, Beaney T, et al., 2020, May measurement month 2018: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Albania., European Heart Journal Supplements, Vol: 22, Pages: H5-H7, ISSN: 1520-765X
This article reports on May Measurement Month (MMM) 2018, which consisted of the 2nd round of the hypertension screening campaign conducted in Albania, a former communist country in South Eastern Europe. The hypertension screening campaign in Albania was conducted during the period 13-31 May 2018. Overall, there were eight sites from seven districts of the country involving 7046 participants aged ≥18 years (61% women and 39% men; overall mean age 46.8 ± 15.7 years). Blood pressure was measured with OMRON sphygmomanometers (Omron Healthcare, Kyoto, Japan). Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mmHg, or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90 mmHg, or on treatment for hypertension. Self-reported information included height and weight, diabetes, smoking status, and alcohol intake. The proportion of participants with hypertension was 37.2% of whom only 52.1% exhibited awareness. Furthermore, only a quarter of hypertensive individuals were properly treated and controlled. Significant predictors of high SBP and/or high DBP included a previous diagnosis of hypertension, being on antihypertensive medication, frequent alcohol intake, and being overweight and obese. The MMM 2018 campaign in Albania had a unique value for early detection of hypertension, particularly among younger adults. Policymakers and decision-makers in Albania and elsewhere should also rely on the MMM screening campaigns which have a great potential for prevention and control of hypertension in the general population.
Victória Pereira S, Neto M, Feijão A, et al., 2020, May measurement month 2018: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Angola., European Heart Journal Supplements, Vol: 22, Pages: H8-H10, ISSN: 1520-765X
Elevated blood pressure (BP) is a growing burden worldwide with high prevalence in the world and with a huge impact on public health. May Measurement Month (MMM) is a global initiative aimed at raising awareness of high BP and to act as a temporary solution to the lack of screening programmes. An opportunistic cross-sectional survey of volunteers aged ≥18 was carried out in May 2018. Blood pressure measurement, the definition of hypertension and statistical analysis followed the standard MMM protocol. In Angola 14 433 individuals (mean age 38.6 years; 53.7% female; 99.9% black) in 6 of 18 provinces were screened. In total, 99.0% of screenees provided three BP readings with an average BP from 2nd and 3rd reading of 126/80 mmHg. After imputation, 4844 (33.6%) had hypertension of whom 54.2% were aware of their diagnosis and 46.3% were on antihypertensive medication. Of those medicated, 42.6% were controlled and of all hypertensive individuals, 19.7% were controlled. We screened 2603 individuals with untreated hypertension and 1285 with inadequately treated hypertension. Angolan MMM18 emerges as a continuation of the Angolan MMM17 study, the largest BP screening campaign undertaken in Angola, enabling us to compare the 2 years. This year's results also showed a high percentage of hypertensive individuals and almost 3900 adults with untreated or inadequately treated hypertension, demonstrating that there is still a long way to go but also that the Angolan MMM is being effective at raising awareness at least among these individuals.
Espeche WG, Rojas C, Stisman D, et al., 2020, May measurement month 2018: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Argentinean cohort., European Heart Journal Supplements, Vol: 22, Pages: H11-H13, ISSN: 1520-765X
Hypertension continues to be the leading cause of death and disability in the industrialized world, with a high level of unawareness and unacceptably poor control. Therefore, the Argentinian Society of Hypertension, in agreement with the May Measurement Month (MMM) initiative of the International Society of Hypertension, implemented for the second consecutive year an educational campaign during the month of May 2018. A volunteer cross-sectional survey was carried out in public spaces and health centres during the month of May 2018 across 33 cities in Argentina. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥140 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg based on the mean of the 2nd and 3rd of three consecutive BP measurements, or in those on treatment for high BP. Statistical analysis including multiple imputation followed the MMM protocol. A total of 70 418 individuals were screened during MMM18, after excluding those under 18 years old. Of the total, 43.8% of participants were classified as hypertensive, 77.7% were aware of their diagnosis, 69.1% were on pharmacological treatment, and 38.7% were controlled. Of those on antihypertensive medication, 56.0% were controlled. It is necessary to reinforce strategies not only to increase the awareness and control of hypertension but also to identify the population groups, in which these strategies would have the greatest impact, helping to reduce the enormous health burden attributed to hypertension.
Zelveian P, Avagyan A, Minasyan A, et al., 2020, An analysis of blood pressure screening of 21 112 participants in Armenia: May Measurement Month 2018., European Heart Journal Supplements, Vol: 22, Pages: H14-H16, ISSN: 1520-765X
Elevated blood pressure (BP) is a growing burden worldwide and is the leading cause of mortality and disability-adjusted life years all over the world. May Measurement Month (MMM) is a global initiative aimed to raise awareness of high BP and to act as a temporary solution to the lack of screening programmes worldwide. An opportunistic cross-sectional survey of volunteers aged ≥18 was carried out in May to July 2018. Blood pressure measurement, the definition of hypertension (HTN) and statistical analysis followed the standard MMM protocol. The study was conducted in public areas (17 sites in Yerevan and 22 in regions), both indoor and outdoor, as well as in 78 primary care centres. A total of 21 112 individuals were screened during MMM18, of which 20 732 had three BP measurements available. The mean age of screened individuals was 46.2 ± 17.3 years, 57.8% were female. At the time of screening, 26.1% were on antihypertensive medication. After imputation, the percentage of participants with HTN was 38.7%, and 76.7% of them were aware of their high BP. Of participants receiving treatment, 47.1% had a controlled BP. MMM18 was the largest BP screening campaign undertaken in Armenia. We found that the proportion of HTN is substantial in Armenia, which may be a vital contributor to the growing burden of non-communicable diseases. Our results also suggest that untreated HTN is common and when treated still not adequately controlled in Armenia. The current situation, with an insufficient control rate of HTN, must be changed as soon as possible.
Carnagarin R, Fonseca R, Brockman D, et al., 2020, May measurement month 2018: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Australia., European Heart Journal Supplements, Vol: 22, Pages: H17-H19, ISSN: 1520-765X
May Measurement Month (MMM), originally initiated as a temporary solution to address the lack of blood pressure (BP) screening programs worldwide, emerged as an effective annual campaign to increase the awareness of hypertension. MMM18, a cross-sectional survey of volunteers aged ≥18 years was carried out during May 2018 predominantly in capital cities across Australia following the standard MMM protocol. Blood pressure screening along with additional information including anthropometric data and responses to questionnaires on demographic, lifestyle, and environmental factors were collected from 3 352 individuals across Australia. After multiple imputation, 1 026 (30.6%) adult Australians had hypertension. Of the 2 936 individuals not on antihypertensive treatment, 610 (20.8%) were hypertensive, and 237 (57.1%) of the 416 individuals receiving antihypertensive treatment had uncontrolled BP. In line with MMM17 results and other previous surveys, MMM18 revealed that close to one-third of the screened population (30.6%) had hypertension, 57.1% of individuals treated with BP-lowering medication remained uncontrolled indicating suboptimal management of the condition in the majority of patients. Most importantly, only 49.0% of those with hypertension were aware of their elevated BP, highlighting lack of awareness of elevated BP in nearly half of the affected population. Elevated BP was directly associated with alcohol consumption, overweight, and obesity. Our findings demonstrate the need for (i) continued efforts to increase BP awareness in the population, (ii) optimization of BP management strategies, and (iii) tackling some of the major contributors to BP elevation, including alcohol consumption and obesity.
Malik F-T-N, Al Mamun MA, Ishraquzzaman M, et al., 2020, May measurement month 2018: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Bangladesh., European Heart Journal Supplements, Vol: 22, Pages: H20-H22, ISSN: 1520-765X
Elevated blood pressure (BP) is a growing burden worldwide, leading to over 10 million deaths each year. According to Non-communicable disease (NCD) Risk Factors Survey Bangladesh 2010, one-fifth (21.9%) of adults aged 25 years or more have hypertension. Almost one-third of the adult population did not have their BP measured in their lifetime in Bangladesh. National Heart Foundation of Bangladesh participated in May Measurement Month (MMM) 2018 as a part of a global initiative aimed at raising awareness of high BP and to act as a temporary solution to the lack of screening programmes nationally. An opportunistic cross-sectional survey of volunteers aged ≥18 years was carried out in May 2018. Blood pressure measurement, the definition of hypertension and statistical analysis followed the MMM protocol. Data were collected from 10 screening sites in 9 districts in Bangladesh. A total of 5208 individuals were screened during MMM18. After multiple imputation, 1750 (33.6%) had hypertension. Among the 1750 participants with hypertension, 1312 (75.0%) were aware of having hypertension. Among those that were not on antihypertensive medication, 15.2% were hypertensive and among those that were on antihypertensive medication 33.6% had uncontrolled hypertension. The present study showed that opportunistic screening can identify significant numbers of people with raised BP. A periodic public health programme at a national level needs to be initiated to increase hypertension detection and control rates and thus for prevention of cardiovascular diseases.
Masupe T, Tlhakanelo JT, Tiro MB, et al., 2020, May measurement month 2018: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Botswana., European Heart Journal Supplements, Vol: 22, Pages: H23-H25, ISSN: 1520-765X
During the May Measurement Month 2018 (MMM18) campaign, we aimed to raise hypertension awareness and measure blood pressure (BP) across different communities in Botswana. Study sites included four large villages and Gaborone (capital city). Screening sites were shopping malls, train stations, churches, and workplaces. Individuals aged ≥18 years were recruited through fliers, word of mouth, and as volunteer walk-ins at the sites. Demographic and risk factor data were collected through a questionnaire prior to measuring three BP readings per participant. Weight was measured while height was usually estimated. Hypertension was defined as: systolic BP ≥140 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg or taking antihypertensive medication. The mean of readings 2 and 3 was used and was estimated using multiple imputation where missing. Amongst 4599 participants whose BPs were measured, 54.5% were female, while mean age was 35.9 years. A total of 1510 (32.8%) participants were hypertensive and of those, 712 (47.1%) were aware of the hypertension. Only 35.2% of hypertensives were on antihypertensive treatment with 54.4% had controlled BP. Amongst all hypertensives, only 19.1% had controlled BP. Risk factors associated with higher BP included obesity, more than 1 unit of alcohol/week and BP measured on Sunday. Less than half (47.1%) of those identified as having hypertension during MMM18 were aware of their condition, despite the escalating prevalence of hypertension in the country. Regular BP awareness and opportunistic BP measurement campaigns like MMM are recommended to improve detection and control of hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors.
Azevedo V, Dias L, Soares I, et al., 2020, May measurement month 2018: an analyses of blood pressure screening results from Cabo Verde., European Heart Journal Supplements, Vol: 22, Pages: H30-H32, ISSN: 1520-765X
Raised blood pressure (BP) is the biggest contributor to mortality and disease burden in Cabo Verde. May Measurement Month (MMM) is a global campaign set up in 2017 to raise awareness of high BP. In 2018, we aimed to expand the campaign by including a greater number of centres to increase awareness. Nine islands participated in MMM 2018. Volunteers (≥18 years) were recruited through opportunistic sampling at a variety of screening sites. Each participant had three BP measurements and completed a questionnaire on demographic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. Hypertension was defined as a systolic BP ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg, or taking antihypertensive medication. In total, 98.0% of screenees provided three BP readings and multiple imputation using chained equations was used to impute missing readings. A total of 8008 individuals (mean age 40.4 years; 68.5% female) were screened. After multiple imputation, 2666 (33.3%) individuals had hypertension, of whom 74.8% were aware of their previous diagnosis and 55.8% were taking antihypertensive medication. Of those on medication, 39.1% were controlled and of all hypertensives, 21.8% were controlled. We detected 44.2% of individuals with untreated hypertension and 60.9% of treated individuals were inadequately treated. The Cape Verdean population is ageing and consequently cardiovascular disease is increasing, with hypertension being an important risk factor. Corrective actions need to be taken by the government. MMM is an ideal initiative to reach the public by raising awareness of this major cardiovascular risk factor.
Barbosa E, Eibel B, Feitosa ADM, et al., 2020, May measurement month 2018: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Brazil., European Heart Journal Supplements, Vol: 22, Pages: H26-H29, ISSN: 1520-765X
Hypertension is a pathology of high prevalence in the world. In Brazil, it is the main risk factor for the major cause of death in the country, coronary heart disease. The May Measurement Month Campaign in 2018 (MMM18) included a population with representation from all Brazilian states and reflects some of the characteristics of hypertension in Brazil. Questionnaire data were collected and three measures of blood pressure (BP) were performed. The sample consisted of 12 413 individuals, 59.1% were white, 51.3% were women. The average age was 54. ± 16.0 years. Diabetes was present in 11.6%, previous myocardial infarction in 5.9%, and previous stroke in 2.7%. Current smokers were 9.3% and 12.4% were regular drinkers. The average body mass index was 27.3 ± 4.5 kg/m2. After multiple imputations, 67.9% were hypertensive (>140/90 mmHg). Of the individuals who were not taking antihypertensive medication, 27.9% were hypertensive and of those taking antihypertensive medication, 40.3% were uncontrolled. Systolic BP increased with age. The MMM18 campaign demonstrated a large number of unknown hypertensives and a high rate of uncontrolled hypertension in Brazil, unfortunately in keeping with 2017 findings.
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