759 results found
Nolde JM, Beaney T, Carnagarin R, et al., 2022, Global Impact of Different Blood Pressure Thresholds in 4 021 690 Participants of the May Measurement Month Initiative., Hypertension
BACKGROUND: Influential guidelines currently define hypertension at different thresholds of blood pressure (BP). The global May Measurement Month initiative provides a unique opportunity to estimate the potential consequences of universal lowering of BP thresholds on the prevalence of hypertension based on a large, real-world, patient-level data set. METHODS: The average of the second and third of 3 attended BP readings after 5 minutes of rest from 4 021 690 standardized, opportunistic BP screenings in various settings of the 2017 to 2019 May Measurement Month initiatives from 104 countries were analyzed to assess the demographic and phenotypic impact of 3 defined BP thresholds. RESULTS: The age- and sex-standardized median of the relative increase in rate of hypertension with a change of thresholds from ≥140/≥90 to ≥130/≥80 mm Hg was 72.3% (interquartile range, 59.3%-91.3%) among the participating countries. With a change from ≥140/≥90 to ≥120/≥70 mm Hg, the median range was 162.6% (interquartile range, 132.8%-202.6%). The increase in rate of hypertension was most pronounced in low-income (95.3% and 203.9%) and least pronounced in high-income countries (71.6% and 167.1%). CONCLUSIONS: The impact of a universal application of lower BP thresholds for the definition of hypertension would have an enormous impact on the prevalence of hypertension globally with large disparities between countries and substantial heterogeneity of demographic and phenotypic patterns, which should be confirmed in dedicated population studies. While focusing on lower BP targets may constitute an opportunity for early intervention, the potential socioeconomic consequences may pose unsurmountable obstacles for most health care systems worldwide.
Poulter N, Lin Q, Ye T, et al., 2022, Hypertension in stroke survivors and associations with national premature stroke mortality: data on 2.5 million participants from multinational screening campaigns., The Lancet Global Health, ISSN: 2214-109X
BackgroundBlood pressure (BP) control plays a pivotal role in reducing stroke incidence and recurrence. May Measurement Month (MMM) is the largest global BP screening campaign, initiated in 2017 by the International Society of Hypertension (ISH). We aim to compare MMM participants with and without a previous stroke and to investigate associations between national-level estimates of BP management from MMM and premature stroke mortality.MethodsOver 2.5 million volunteers (≥18 years) were screened in May 2017 and 2018 from 92 countries. Three seated BPs and demographic, lifestyle, and cardiovascular disease data were collected. Associations between risk factors and stroke history were analysed using mixed-effects logistic regression. Linear regression was used to investigate associations between national-level estimates of BP management and premature stroke mortality based on Global Burden of Diseases (GBD) data. FindingsOf 2 222 399 (88·4%) participants with recorded data on a history of stroke, 62 639 (2·8%) reported a previous stroke. Those with a stroke history had higher rates of hypertension and treated and controlled hypertension than those without. One third of those with a stroke history had untreated or treated but uncontrolled BP (≥140/90 mmHg). Strong positive associations were found between national premature stroke mortality and increasing mean systolic BP levels and proportion of participants with raised BP and strong negative associations with the proportions of hypertensives on treatment and with controlled BP. InterpretationBP control remains suboptimal worldwide amongst those with a previous stroke. National estimates of BP management reflect national premature stroke mortality sufficiently well to provide a prompt for policymakers to promote BP screening and management.
Gnanenthiran S, Borghi C, Burger DE, et al., 2021, Renin-Angiotensin System Inhibitors in Patients With Covid-19: A Prospective Meta-analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials Led by the International Society of Hypertension, Scientific Sessions of the American-Heart-Association / Resuscitation Science Symposium, Publisher: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, Pages: E577-E578, ISSN: 0009-7322
Graham SE, Clarke SL, Wu K-HH, et al., 2021, The power of genetic diversity in genome-wide association studies of lipids, NATURE, Vol: 600, Pages: 675-+, ISSN: 0028-0836
Pathak A, Poulter NR, Kavanagh M, et al., 2021, Improving the management of hypertension by tackling awareness, adherence, and clinical inertia: a symposium report, American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs, Vol: 22, ISSN: 1175-3277
Hypertension remains the leading cause of global mortality, with elevated systolic blood pressure (BP) leading to 10.8 million deaths each year. Despite this, only around 50% of individuals with hypertension are aware of their condition. Alongside low awareness rates, lack of patient adherence to medication and therapeutic inertia have been identified as factors contributing to the lack of hypertension control worldwide. This report summarizes presentations from the “one of a kind” Servier-sponsored symposium, Improving the Management of Hypertension: Acting on Key Factors, which was conducted as part of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH)-International Society of Hypertension (ISH) 2021 ON-AIR meeting. The symposium focused on how low awareness, therapeutic inertia, and nonadherence can be addressed by combining the experience of a patient with the expertise of physicians. May Measurement Month, the ongoing global BP measurement program, is raising awareness of hypertension in over 90 countries, and the 2018 European Society of Cardiology/ESH guidelines and the 2020 ISH guidelines now include recommendations that specifically address low adherence and therapeutic inertia, including involving patients in a shared decision-making process and the use of single-pill combination therapy. Understanding the role of emotion in decision making and addressing the different psychological states and attitudes in the patient’s “cycle of change” are key to effective shared decision making and improving adherence.
Ray K, Molemans B, Schoonen WM, et al., 2021, EU-wide cross-sectional observational study of lipid-modifying therapy use in secondary and primary care: the DA VINCI study, European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, Vol: 28, Pages: 1279-1289, ISSN: 2047-4873
AimsTo provide contemporary data on the implementation of European guideline recommendations for lipid-lowering therapies (LLTs) across different settings and populations and how this impacts low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal achievement.Methods and resultsAn 18 country, cross-sectional, observational study of patients prescribed LLT for primary or secondary prevention in primary or secondary care across Europe. Between June 2017 and November 2018, data were collected at a single visit, including LLT in the preceding 12 months and most recent LDL-C. Primary outcome was the achievement of risk-based 2016 European Society of Cardiology (ESC)/European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) LDL-C goal while receiving stabilized LLT; 2019 goal achievement was also assessed. Overall, 5888 patients (3000 primary and 2888 secondary prevention patients) were enrolled; 54% [95% confidence interval (CI) 52–56] achieved their risk-based 2016 goal and 33% (95% CI 32–35) achieved their risk-based 2019 goal. High-intensity statin monotherapy was used in 20% and 38% of very high-risk primary and secondary prevention patients, respectively. Corresponding 2016 goal attainment was 22% and 45% (17% and 22% for 2019 goals) for very high-risk primary and secondary prevention patients, respectively. Use of moderate–high-intensity statins in combination with ezetimibe (9%), or any LLT with PCSK9 inhibitors (1%), was low; corresponding 2016 and 2019 goal attainment was 53% and 20% (ezetimibe combination), and 67% and 58% (PCSK9i combination).ConclusionGaps between clinical guidelines and clinical practice for lipid management across Europe persist, which will be exacerbated by the 2019 guidelines. Even with optimized statins, greater utilization of non-statin LLT is likely needed to reduce these gaps for patients at highest risk.
Al-Riyami H, Al-Shezawi I, Al-Mashari S, et al., 2021, Prevalence of high blood pressure and cardiovascular risk factors from a community screening programme in the Middle-East; a 3-year analysis of data from the May Measurement Month programme (2017-2019) in Oman, Journal of Human Hypertension, ISSN: 0950-9240
The May Measurement Month (MMM) programme is a global cross-sectional blood pressure (BP) screening programme. Here we present the combined data for the years 2017–2019 from Oman. BP was measured at various screening sites, according to standard protocol and hypertension was diagnosed if the BP was ≥140/90 mmHg or if the individual was already on antihypertensive medication. A total of 15,679 individuals (mean age 41.1 ± 12.6 years range 18–89 years; 71% male) were screened over the 3-year period. 7702 individuals (mean age 41.8 ± 13.9 years; 71.5% male) had three BP readings. The mean of the last two BP readings was 127.3 ± 17.1 mmHg. 1573 readings were in the hypertensive range (1004 newly diagnosed hypertension). A further 749 individuals were on antihypertensive medications with normal BP readings giving a proportion of 30.1% of the entire cohort being hypertensive. BP was high in 43% of patients on antihypertensive medications, 28.1% of those with previous myocardial infarction, 33.9% of those with previous stroke and 37.6% of the diabetic patients. BP strongly correlated with body mass index (BMI) and age (both p < 0.001), with a large proportion (68.5%) of individuals having high BMI(>25 kg/m2). Arab and South Asian ethnicity was associated with higher BMI and BP (both p < 0.001).Community screening programmes help identify previously undiagnosed hypertension and hypertensives with high BP. They also help to identify those at high cardiovascular risk. More emphasis should be given to monitoring those in high cardiovascular risk categories and high-risk ethnic groups.
Ratneswaren A, Shah ASV, Thom SA, et al., 2021, Tissue Doppler E prime velocity and E/E prime predict 19-year cardiovascular mortality in hypertension, Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS, Pages: 2336-2336, ISSN: 0195-668X
Jeemon P, Séverin T, Amodeo C, et al., 2021, World Heart Federation Roadmap for Hypertension - A 2021 Update, Global Heart, Vol: 16, ISSN: 2211-8179
The World Heart Federation (WHF) Roadmap series covers a large range of cardiovascular conditions. These Roadmaps identify potential roadblocks and their solutions to improve the prevention, detection and management of cardiovascular diseases and provide a generic global framework available for local adaptation. A first Roadmap on raised blood pressure was published in 2015. Since then, advances in hypertension have included the publication of new clinical guidelines (AHA/ACC; ESC; ESH/ISH); the launch of the WHO Global HEARTS Initiative in 2016 and the associated Resolve to Save Lives (RTSL) initiative in 2017; the inclusion of single-pill combinations on the WHO Essential Medicines' list as well as various advances in technology, in particular telemedicine and mobile health. Given the substantial benefit accrued from effective interventions in the management of hypertension and their potential for scalability in low and middle-income countries (LMICs), the WHF has now revisited and updated the 'Roadmap for raised BP' as 'Roadmap for hypertension' by incorporating new developments in science and policy. Even though cost-effective lifestyle and medical interventions to prevent and manage hypertension exist, uptake is still low, particularly in resource-poor areas. This Roadmap examined the roadblocks pertaining to both the demand side (demographic and socio-economic factors, knowledge and beliefs, social relations, norms, and traditions) and the supply side (health systems resources and processes) along the patient pathway to propose a range of possible solutions to overcoming them. Those include the development of population-wide prevention and control programmes; the implementation of opportunistic screening and of out-of-office blood pressure measurements; the strengthening of primary care and a greater focus on task sharing and team-based care; the delivery of people-centred care and stronger patient and carer education; and the facilitation of adherence to trea
Tremblay J, Haloui M, Attaoua R, et al., 2021, Polygenic risk scores predict diabetes complications and their response to intensive blood pressure and glucose control (vol 64, pg 2012, 2021), DIABETOLOGIA, Vol: 64, Pages: 2355-2356, ISSN: 0012-186X
Golestaneh AK, Clarke JM, Appelbaum N, et al., 2021, The factors influencing clinician use of hypertension guidelines in different resource settings: a qualitative study investigating clinicians' perspectives and experiences, BMC Health Services Research, Vol: 21, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 1472-6963
BackgroundHypertension accounts for the greatest burden of disease worldwide, yet hypertension awareness and control rates are suboptimal, especially within low- and middle-income countries. Guidelines can enable consistency of care and improve health outcomes. A small body of studies investigating clinicians’ perceptions and implementation of hypertension guidelines exists, mostly focussed on higher income settings. This study aims to explore how hypertension guidelines are used by clinicians across different resource settings, and the factors influencing their use.MethodsA qualitative approach was employed using convenience sampling and in-depth semi-structured interviews. Seventeen medical doctors were interviewed over video or telephone call from March to August 2020. Two clinicians worked in low-income countries, ten in middle-income countries, and five in high-income countries. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded inductively. Reflexive thematic analysis was used.ResultsThemes were generated at three levels at which clinicians perceived influencing factors to be operating: healthcare worker, healthcare worker interactions with patients, and the wider health system. Within each level, influencing factors were described as barriers to and facilitators of guideline use. Variation in factors occurred across income settings. At the healthcare worker level, usability of guidelines, trust in guidelines, attitudes and views about guidelines’ purpose, and relevance to patient populations were identified as themes. Influencing factors at the health system level were accessibility of equipment and medications, workforce, and access to healthcare settings. Influences at the patient level were clinician perceived patient motivation and health literacy, and access to, and cost of treatment, although these represented doctors’ perceptions rather than patient perceived factors.ConclusionsThis study adds a high level global view to previous studie
Wang N, Harris K, Chalmers J, et al., 2021, Combination blood pressure lowering in the presence or absence of background statin and aspirin therapy: a combined analysis of PROGRESS and ADVANCE Trials., J Hypertens, Vol: 39, Pages: 1689-1696
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of combination BP lowering on cardiovascular events and mortality in the presence of aspirin and/or statin therapy in a combined analysis of the ADVANCE and PROGRESS trials. METHODS: We conducted an analysis of 14 682 participants allocated combination therapy with perindopril and indapamide or placebo followed up for a mean of 4.2 years. Participants were stratified into four groups defined by background use of medications at baseline: statin, aspirin, both or neither. Linear mixed effect models were used to assess differences in BP and Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the risks of major cardiovascular events, all-cause mortality and treatment discontinuation. RESULTS: At baseline, 14% of patients were on both aspirin and statin, 35% on aspirin, 9% on statins and 42% on neither aspirin/statins. Compared with placebo, combination BP therapy reduced mean SBP by 5.7 mmHg in ADVANCE and 12.1 mmHg in PROGRESS, with no difference (P > 0.447) between patients by baseline use of aspirin/statin. Combination BP therapy reduced the risk of major cardiovascular events (hazard ratio 0.78, 95% CI 0.71-0.86), with no significant difference (P = 0.600) between aspirin/statin subgroups. Rates of treatment discontinuation were similar with combination BP therapy compared with placebo (18.4 versus 18%), with no evidence of difference across the subgroups (P = 0.340). CONCLUSION: BP lowering with perindopril and indapamide reduces the risk of major cardiovascular events independent of baseline use of aspirin and/or statins.
Tremblay J, Haloui M, Attaoua R, et al., 2021, Polygenic risk scores predict diabetes complications and their response to intensive blood pressure and glucose control, Diabetologia, Vol: 64, Pages: 2012-2025, ISSN: 0012-186X
Aims/hypothesisType 2 diabetes increases the risk of cardiovascular and renal complications, but early risk prediction could lead to timely intervention and better outcomes. Genetic information can be used to enable early detection of risk.MethodsWe developed a multi-polygenic risk score (multiPRS) that combines ten weighted PRSs (10 wPRS) composed of 598 SNPs associated with main risk factors and outcomes of type 2 diabetes, derived from summary statistics data of genome-wide association studies. The 10 wPRS, first principal component of ethnicity, sex, age at onset and diabetes duration were included into one logistic regression model to predict micro- and macrovascular outcomes in 4098 participants in the ADVANCE study and 17,604 individuals with type 2 diabetes in the UK Biobank study.ResultsThe model showed a similar predictive performance for cardiovascular and renal complications in different cohorts. It identified the top 30% of ADVANCE participants with a mean of 3.1-fold increased risk of major micro- and macrovascular events (p = 6.3 × 10−21 and p = 9.6 × 10−31, respectively) and a 4.4-fold (p = 6.8 × 10−33) higher risk of cardiovascular death. While in ADVANCE overall, combined intensive blood pressure and glucose control decreased cardiovascular death by 24%, the model identified a high-risk group in whom it decreased the mortality rate by 47%, and a low-risk group in whom it had no discernible effect. High-risk individuals had the greatest absolute risk reduction with a number needed to treat of 12 to prevent one cardiovascular death over 5 years.Conclusions/interpretationThis novel multiPRS model stratified individuals with type 2 diabetes according to risk of complications and helped to target earlier those who would receive greater benefit from intensive therapy.
Ramakrishnan A, Shah A, Thom S, et al., 2021, 182 Tissue doppler E’ velocity and E/e’ predict 19-year cardiovascular mortality in hypertension, British Cardiovascular Society Virtual Annual Conference, ‘Cardiology and the Environment’, Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group, Pages: A140-A142, ISSN: 1355-6037
Background We have previously shown that tissue Doppler assessments of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function predict cardiac events in a hypertensive population over a period of 4 years. These out-performed traditional echocardiographic measures in a well-treated hypertensive population.Purpose We aimed to test whether tissue Doppler assessment of LV diastolic function would predict cardiovascular (CV) mortality in the Hypertension Associated Cardiovascular Disease sub-study of the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial (ASCOT).Methods ASCOT was a multicentre randomised trial with a 2x2 factorial design. Inclusion criteria for the study included hypertension and three other CV risk factors, including male sex and age over 55. Protocols, including for echocardiography, have been detailed previously.This study comprised the 519 patients recruited to the St Mary’s Hospital site of the ASCOT study, who were followed for a median of 19 years with mortality flagged by the Office for National Statistics. We have used all reported deaths on or before 31st January 2019. CV deaths include deaths due to coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke and other CV causes. Echocardiography was performed one year after blood pressure control. mean tissue Doppler E’ was calculated as the average of septal, lateral and inferior wall measurements over three cycles. The ratio of the transmitral Doppler E wave velocity and the composite mean of E’ was used to calculate E/E’ ratio. Statistical analysis was performed using Python including multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. A two-sided P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results After a median of 19 years (±5 years), 317 patients survived (mean age at baseline 60y, 38 female) and 202 did not (mean age 68y, 30 female). Twenty-three deaths were due to CHD, 11 were due to stroke, 27 were due to other CV causes, and 76 were due to cancer. Baseline characteristics were not signi
Nguyen TN, Harris K, Woodward M, et al., 2021, The impact of frailty on the effectiveness and safety of intensive glucose control and blood pressure-lowering therapy for people with Type 2 diabetes: results from the ADVANCE trial., Diabetes Care, ISSN: 0149-5992
OBJECTIVE: To develop a frailty index (FI) and explore the relationship of frailty to subsequent adverse outcomes on the effectiveness and safety of more intensive control of both blood glucose and blood pressure (BP), among participants with type 2 diabetes in the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) trial. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the effectiveness and safety of intensive glucose control and BP intervention according to frailty (defined as FI >0.21) status. The primary outcomes were macro- and microvascular events. The secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, severe hypoglycemia, and discontinuation of BP treatment due to hypotension/dizziness. RESULTS: There were 11,140 participants (mean age, 65.8 years; 42.5% women, 25.7% frail). Frailty was an independent predictor of all primary outcomes and secondary outcomes. The effect of intensive glucose treatment on primary outcomes showed some evidence of attenuation in the frail: hazard ratios for combined major macro- and microvascular events 1.03 (95% CI 0.90-1.19) in the frail versus 0.84 (95% CI 0.74-0.94) in the nonfrail (P = 0.02). A similar trend was observed with BP intervention. Severe hypoglycemia rates (per 1,000 person-years) were higher in the frail: 8.39 (6.15-10.63) vs. 4.80 (3.84-5.76) in nonfrail (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in discontinuation of BP treatment between frailty groups. CONCLUSIONS: It was possible to retrospectively estimate frailty in a trial population, and this FI identified those at higher risk of poor outcomes. Participants with frailty had some attenuation of benefit from intensive glucose-lowering and BP-lowering treatments.
Ingabire PM, Ojji DB, Rayner B, et al., 2021, High prevalence of non-dipping patterns among Black Africans with uncontrolled hypertension: a secondary analysis of the CREOLE trial., BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, Vol: 21, Pages: 254-254, ISSN: 1471-2261
BACKGROUND: Dipping of blood pressure (BP) at night is a normal physiological phenomenon. However, a non-dipping pattern is associated with hypertension mediated organ damage, secondary forms of hypertension and poorer long-term outcome. Identifying a non-dipping pattern may be useful in assessing risk, aiding the decision to investigate for secondary causes, initiating treatment, assisting decisions on choice and timing of antihypertensive therapy, and intensifying salt restriction. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with non-dipping pattern and determine the effect of 6 months of three antihypertensive regimens on the dipping pattern among Black African hypertensive patients. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of the CREOLE Study which was a randomized, single blind, three-group trial conducted in 10 sites in 6 Sub-Saharan African countries. The participants were 721 Black African patients, aged between 30 and 79 years, with uncontrolled hypertension and a baseline 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). Dipping was calculated from the average day and average night systolic blood pressure measures. RESULTS: The prevalence of non-dipping pattern was 78% (564 of 721). Factors that were independently associated with non-dipping were: serum sodium > 140 mmol/l (OR = 1.72, 95% CI 1.17-2.51, p-value 0.005), a higher office systolic BP (OR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05, p-value 0.003) and a lower office diastolic BP (OR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.95-0.99, p-value 0.03). Treatment allocation did not change dipping status at 6 months (McNemar's Chi2 0.71, p-value 0.40). CONCLUSION: There was a high prevalence of non-dipping among Black Africans with uncontrolled hypertension. ABPM should be considered more routinely in Black Africans with uncontrolled hypertension, if resources permit, to help personalise therapy. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms
Diaz ABF, David-Ona DI, Mercado-Asis LB, et al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results in the Philippines, European Heart Journal Supplements, Vol: 23, Pages: B120-B123, ISSN: 1520-765X
The Philippine Society of Hypertension (PSH) took part again in the annual May Measurement Month 2019 (MMM19) blood pressure (BP) measurement campaign to raise awareness of hypertension especially in those who are not aware of their condition. The MMM19 standard protocol designed by the International Society of Hypertension was used during screening. These included the collection of basic data on demography, lifestyle, and environmental factors. Standardized sitting BP measurements were taken two to three times, using an automated BP apparatus and were inputted either in the MMM19 app or data were recorded in paper form and manually transferred to Excel spreadsheets by encoders supervised by the PSH. A total of 89 941 participated through opportunistic convenience sampling. After multiple imputation, a total of 47 925 (53.3%) participants had hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg or on antihypertensive medication). Of this number, 31 151 (65%) were aware that they had high BP and 30 120 (62.8%) were on antihypertensive medications. Of the 30 120 participants on antihypertensive medications, only 18 373 (61.1%) had controlled BP (<140/90 mmHg). Being overweight or obese were significant predictors of high BP. Other predictors of high systolic BP and diastolic BP were alcohol intake, smoking, and a previous history of hypertension in pregnancy, while pregnant participants had significantly lower BP. The MMM19 campaign succeeded in raising awareness of high BP in our country, and the opportunistic sampling enhanced a sense of people empowerment by their knowing how easy it is to detect high BP and thereby enabling the prevention of long-term health complications. The higher BP control in the MMM19 hypertensive individuals possibly attests to the success of the previous MMM17 and MMM18 campaigns.
Minh HV, Poulter NR, Viet NL, et al., 2021, Blood pressure screening results from May Measurement Month 2019 in Vietnam, European Heart Journal Supplements, Vol: 23, Pages: B154-B157, ISSN: 1520-765X
Elevated blood pressure (BP) is a growing burden worldwide, leading to over 10 million deaths each year. May Measurement Month (MMM) is a global initiative to raise awareness of high BP and act as a temporary solution to the lack of screening programmes worldwide. We aimed to screen for hypertension and cardiovascular risk factors in people aged ≥18 years in the community, thereby defining the proportion of subjects with elevated BP and assess the awareness and the effectiveness of its treatment. An opportunistic cross-sectional survey of volunteers aged ≥18 years was carried out in May 2019. Blood pressure measurement, the definition of hypertension and statistical analysis followed the standard MMM protocol. From May 2019 to June 2019, through 10 cities/provinces in Vietnam, 25 887 individuals with mean age 48.7 (SD ±17.7) years were screened. After multiple imputations, 8758 (33.8%) had hypertension. Of individuals not receiving antihypertensive medication, 3025 (15.0%) were hypertensive. Of individuals receiving antihypertensive medication, 2800 (48.8%) had uncontrolled BP. Raised BP [systolic BP (SBP) ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP (DBP) ≥90 mmHg] was also associated with additional risk factors including smoking, alcohol intake, previous hypertension in pregnancy, and obesity. May Measurement Month 2019 was the most extensive BP screening campaign ever undertaken in Vietnam. Undiagnosed and uncontrolled hypertension in Vietnam remains a substantial health problem. Local campaigns applying standardized methods such as MMM 2019 will be beneficial to screen for the significant number of individuals with raised BP and increase the awareness of hypertension.
Poulter NR, Borghi C, Damasceno A, et al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: results of blood pressure screening from 47 countries, European Heart Journal Supplements, Vol: 23, Pages: B1-B5, ISSN: 1520-765X
Nwokocha M, Beaney T, Holder C, et al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Jamaica, European Heart Journal Supplements, Vol: 23, Pages: B82-B85, ISSN: 1520-765X
There is evidence of an elevated risk of hypertension in populations that are primarily of African origin. Hypertension is predominantly asymptomatic, necessitating increased awareness. May Measurement Month was a descriptive, population-based, cross-sectional study of blood pressure (BP) screening and awareness campaign conducted in 2019 in a sample of 2550 participants (≥18 years) in Jamaica. In total, 1791 (70.2%) of the participants were female, 756 (29.6%) were male, with an average age of 49.3 years, and a body mass index (kg/m2) of 28.5 (6.2). Of all participants, 2289 (89.8%) were black and 154 (6.0%) were of mixed races. Twenty-two (0.9%) had never had their BP measured, whereas 354 (13.9%) had their measurements more than a year ago, and 2129 (83.5%) had measured within the year. Of all 2550 participants, 1055 (41.4%) had hypertension, 69.9% of our subjects with hypertension were aware, whereas only 62.5% were on antihypertensive medication and 27.8% had controlled BP (systolic <140 mmHg and diastolic BP <90 mmHg). Of 660 participants on antihypertensive medication, 44.4% had controlled BP. Two hundred and seventy-six (15.4%) of women reported hypertension in a previous pregnancy. Hypertension with previous pregnancy was positively correlated with current elevation. These results suggest a high rate of raised BP among community dwellers whose hypertension had not been previously diagnosed by a health professional and warrant proactive approaches that promote community-based awareness, and regular measurements.
Barbosa ECD, Feitosa AM, Bortolotto LA, et al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Brazil, European Heart Journal Supplements, Vol: 23, Pages: B30-B32, ISSN: 1520-765X
The aim of this study is to describe the results of the May Month Measurement (MMM) campaign implemented in Brazil, in 2019. Questionnaire data were collected and three measures of blood pressure (BP) were performed. The sample consisted of 13 476 individuals, 58.2% were white, 60.8% were women. The average age was 46.3 (18.6) years. Of all 13 476 participants, 6858 (50.9%) had hypertension defined as a systolic BP ≥140 mmHg or a diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg or being on anti-hypertensive medication. Of those with hypertension, 68.8% were aware of their diagnosis, 65.3% were on antihypertensive medication, and 36.1% had controlled BP (<140/90 mmHg). In addition, of 4479 participants on anti-hypertensive medication, 55.2% had controlled BP. The use of anti-hypertensive medication was associated with higher systolic (P < 0.001) and diastolic BP (P < 0.001) and having diabetes with higher systolic BP (P < 0.001). Previous hypertension in pregnancy was associated with higher systolic (P = 0.038) and diastolic BP (P = 0.003), and smoking was associated with higher systolic BP (P < 0.001). Lastly, obese and overweight individuals showed significantly higher systolic (P < 0.001) and diastolic (P < 0.001) BP. The Brazilian MMM19 data demonstrate that strategies to increase awareness of hypertension and a better control of the risk factors are still needed.
Tlhakanelo JT, Makwati O, Beaney T, et al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Botswana, European Heart Journal Supplements, Vol: 23, Pages: B27-B29, ISSN: 1520-765X
The May Measurement Month (MMM) 2019 campaign aimed to raise awareness of the health issues surrounding raised blood pressure (BP) among the general public. It also sought to identify and facilitate reduction of BPs of participants who require intervention to lower their BP according to current country treatment guidelines. Participants aged ≥18 years were recruited on site through interactions with the study team, educational fliers, and as voluntary walk-ins in response to the media engagement prior to the campaign. Blood pressures were measured using validated upper-arm cuff electronic devices provided by Omron Healthcare in partnership with International Society of Hypertension. With the participant seated, their back supported and legs resting uncrossed on the ground, three BP and heart rate readings were taken and recorded, 1 min apart. Participants' basic demographic data were also collected. Hypertension was defined as being on treatment for hypertension, or a systolic BP ≥140 mmHg and/or a diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg (based on the mean of the last two of three readings). Of the 5459 screened participants, 1750 (32.1%) had hypertension, of whom 784 (44.8%) were aware they were hypertensive and 726 (41.5%) were on antihypertensive medication. Among those on antihypertensive treatment, 47.0% had their BP controlled (<140/90 mmHg). Only 19.5% of all those with hypertension had their BP controlled. A total of 1024 (21.6%) of the 4733 participants not on antihypertensive treatment were hypertensive. Intensified preventive and treatment measures to control BP at the health system, individual and population levels remain a critical requirement for Botswana.
Chia YC, Devaraj NK, Chook JB, et al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Malaysia, European Heart Journal Supplements, Vol: 23, Pages: B98-B100, ISSN: 1520-765X
Despite hypertension remaining the leading cause of death worldwide, awareness of hypertension and its control rate is still suboptimal in Malaysia. This study aims to determine the proportion of both diagnosed and undiagnosed hypertension, awareness and its control rate during the yearly May Measurement Month (MMM) campaign that has been coordinated by the International Society of Hypertension. Participants aged ≥18 years were recruited at various screening sites namely universities, health facilities, shopping malls, and other sites. Participant's socio-demographic, environmental, and lifestyle data were captured using a questionnaire. Three blood pressure (BP) readings as well as anthropometric measurements were obtained from all participants. The mean of the second and third BP readings was used in analyses. Hypertension was defined as a systolic BP ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg or taking antihypertensive medication. A total of 3062 participants were recruited. The proportion with hypertension in our study was 18.7% (n = 572). The proportion who were aware of their BP status was 63.2%. More than half (57.2%) of the hypertensives were on antihypertensive medication and 70.3% of those treated were controlled. In conclusion, in this BP screening campaign, one in five were hypertensive with almost two thirds aware of their hypertensive status. BP control among those who are taking medications was high at 70% but under 60% of hypertensives were on treatment. Hypertension screening programmes are important to promote awareness and control of hypertension as well as to reduce the devastating complications associated with this disorder.
Ndhlovu HLL, Chirwa ML, Mbeba MK, et al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Malawi, European Heart Journal Supplements, Vol: 23, Pages: B95-B97, ISSN: 1520-765X
May Measurement Month (MMM) is a global initiative that aims at raising awareness and screening people for high blood pressure (BP). Malawi has participated in MMM since 2017. A 2017 STEPwise Survey conducted in Malawi among 4187 participants found that 65.2% had never had their BP measured before, 26.8% had their BPs measured but not diagnosed, 3.9% were diagnosed but not within the last 12 months, and 4.1% were diagnosed within the last 12 months. An opportunistic cross-sectional survey of volunteers aged 18 and above was carried out in May and June 2019. All BP measurements, definition of hypertension and statistical analysis followed the standard MMM protocol. The screening took place in Nkhatabay, Lilongwe, and Blantyre. A total number of 9723 participants were screened with a mean age of 42.0 (SD 16.6) years. Of these 8444 (86.8%) had never had their BP measured within the last 12 months, 2559 (26.3%) had raised BP, 2169 (23.2%) of those with raised BP were not on treatment whereas 390 (4.0%) were on treatment. The results showed that many of the participants had not had their BP checked in the past year. There is a significant need to expand BP screening opportunities within Malawi for early detection of hypertension.
Lee H-Y, Oh GC, Sohn IS, et al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Korea, European Heart Journal Supplements, Vol: 23, Pages: B89-B91, ISSN: 1520-765X
Hypertension is the biggest contributing risk factor to cerebrovascular disease and is associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease. The May Measurement Month (MMM) campaign is a global initiative aimed at raising awareness of hypertension and acting as a temporary solution to the lack of screening programs worldwide. An opportunistic cross-sectional survey of participants aged ≥18 was carried out during May 2019 in Korea. Over 10 000 participants were recruited in the MMM campaign in Korea, with a slogan of 'A simple measure to save lives-#checkyourpressure'. A total of 9975 participants with valid clinical and blood pressure (BP) data were used for analysis. All participants were Korean in ethnicity, mean age was 57.2 (SD ± 21.2) years, 57.7% were females, and the mean body mass index was 23.4 kg/m2 (SD ± 3.3). In total, 37.7% of the participants reported a previous diagnosis of hypertension, and 91.3% of those diagnosed were on antihypertensive medications. For other comorbidities, 11.6% reported having diabetes mellitus, 2.0% had previous stroke, and 1.0% had previous myocardial infarction. Mean BP was 130.0/81.0 mmHg in the overall population. After multiple imputation, 47.6% of participants were classified as hypertensive (systolic BP ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg or on treatment for raised BP). Among all hypertensive participants, the awareness rate, the treatment rate, and the control rate (systolic BP <140 mmHg and diastolic BP <90 mmHg) were 76.2%, 74.0%, and 50.5%, respectively. Of those on antihypertensive medication, the control rate was 68.2%. While awareness and treatment rates were relatively high in the MMM19 campaign, the BP control rate of the total hypertensive population was still only ∼50%, which demands more emphasis on strict BP control.
Ogola EN, Mbau L, Gachemba YM, et al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Kenya, European Heart Journal Supplements, Vol: 23, Pages: B86-B88, ISSN: 1520-765X
Elevated blood pressure (BP) is the leading cause of global mortality, but control rates remain poor because most patients, especially in Africa, are unaware. May Measurement Month (MMM) is an annual global BP screening campaign that was initiated by the International Society of Hypertension (ISH) in 2017 to raise awareness of raised BP. Following participation in 2017 and 2018, Kenya participated again in 2019 and the results are reported here. Screening was carried out in 30 sites by volunteers coordinated by the Kenya Cardiac Society. Participants had three BP readings by standard methods with the last two being averaged and recorded. Heart rate, weight, height, socio-demographic parameters, and co-morbidities were documented. Hypertension was defined as a systolic BP (SBP) ≥140 mmHg and/or a diastolic BP (DBP) ≥90 mmHg or being on treatment with at least one antihypertensive medication. A total of 33 992 participants were screened, mean age was 42.5 (SD 16.8) years and 58.7% of participants were female. Only 27.3% had their BPs checked within the preceding 12 months. After multiple imputation, 26.1% were hypertensive, of whom 34.5% were aware of their hypertension and 31.5% were on treatment. Of those on treatment, 59.7% were controlled translating to 18.8% of all hypertensives. Being on treatment for hypertension, overweight, obese or having had hypertension in previous pregnancy were associated with increased SBP and DBP, while diabetes was associated with raised SBP. Two-thirds of hypertensives were unaware. Only a third of those aware were on treatment, with about 60% of these controlled. Lack of awareness remains a significant barrier to BP control. Programmes to raise awareness such as MMM are significant in raising population awareness.
Torlasco C, Faini A, Pengo MF, et al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Italy, European Heart Journal Supplements, Vol: 23, Pages: B77-B81, ISSN: 1520-765X
Cardiovascular (CV) diseases are burdened by high mortality and morbidity, being responsible for half of the deaths in Europe. Although hypertension is recognized as the most important CV risk factor, hypertension awareness, and blood pressure (BP) control are still unsatisfactory. In 2017 and 2018, respectively >10 000 and >5000 individuals took part in the May Measurement Month (MMM) campaign in Italy, of whom 30.6% and 26.3% were found to have high BP, respectively. To raise public awareness on the importance of hypertension and to collect BP data on a nation-wide scale in Italy. In the frame of the MMM campaign, an opportunistic cross-sectional survey of volunteers aged ≥18 years was carried out in May 2019. BP measurement, the definition of hypertension, and statistical analysis followed the standard MMM protocol. Screening was conducted in multiple sites by health personnel. Among the 10 182 people screened (females: 52.3%, mean age 58 ± 16years) mean BP was 127/78 mmHg, and 3171 (31.1%) participants had arterial hypertension, of whom 62.1% were aware of being hypertensive. Diabetes, body mass index >25 kg/m2 were associated with higher BP and previous myocardial infarction with lower BP. For the third consecutive year we collected a nation-wide snapshot of BP control in a large sample of individuals. The high participation, with some yearly fluctuations likely due to the limitations of the sampling technique, confirms the power of this kind of health campaign in reaching a significant number of people to raise awareness on health topics.
Lopez-Jaramillo P, Lopez-Lopez JP, Otero J, et al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Colombia, European Heart Journal Supplements, Vol: 23, Pages: B46-B48, ISSN: 1520-765X
Hypertension awareness and control is poor in low- and middle-income countries. Thus, implementing strategies to increase hypertension detection is needed. Colombia participated as one of the 92 countries involved in the third campaign of the May Measurement Month in 2019. Blood pressure (BP) was measured in 48 324 volunteers from 13 departments in Colombia. In total, 27.9% individuals were identified with hypertension. Of those with hypertension, 63.7% were aware of their condition, 60.0% were on antihypertensive medication, and 38.4% had controlled BP. These results showed low levels of awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in this sample of subjects volunteered to participate, suggest the urgent necessity of implementing programmes to improve the diagnosis and management of hypertension in Colombia.
Sęk-Mastej A, Banach M, Mastej M, et al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Poland, European Heart Journal Supplements, Vol: 23, Pages: B124-B127, ISSN: 1520-765X
May Measurement Month 2019 is the third edition of a global initiative organized by the International Society of Hypertension aimed at raising awareness of hypertension and the need for blood pressure (BP) screening. We present data analysis from Poland. To evaluate the potential of opportunistic BP measurements as a tool for cardiovascular disease prevention programmes. To collect new country data for further annual comparisons. An opportunistic cross-sectional survey of volunteers aged ≥18 was carried out in 201 sites in May 2019. BP was measured in 7072 subjects (mean age: 54 ± 15 years; 62.3% females). After multiple imputation, the age- and sex-standardized systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) was 125.4/78.5 mmHg in the whole group, 133.3/82.8 mmHg in individuals on antihypertensive medication and 123.3/77.7 mmHg in those not taking antihypertensive drugs. The proportion of subjects with high BP (≥140/90 mmHg) were 41.8% in subjects taking antihypertensive drugs, and 19.6% in those not taking any antihypertensive drugs. Overall, hypertension was present in 55.4% of participants (3917 out of 7072), of whom 83.0% were aware of their diagnosis. 80.4% of hypertensives were taking antihypertensive medication. 46.7% of all hypertensives had BP controlled to target (<140/90 mmHg). Higher BP correlated with body mass index and age but not tobacco smoking. SBP but not DBP was higher in diabetic participants. These data provide evidence on the current epidemiology of hypertension and may serve as a source of information to introduce primary and secondary prevention programmes to reduce cardiovascular risk in Poland.
Lanas F, Garcia MS, Paccot M, et al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: blood pressure screening results from Chile, European Heart Journal Supplements, Vol: 23, Pages: B40-B42, ISSN: 1520-765X
Hypertension is a major preventable cause of death worldwide. May Measurement Month (MMM) is a global initiative aimed at raising awareness of high blood pressure (BP) and identifying individuals with increased BP. A cross-sectional survey of volunteers aged ≥18 years old was carried out in May 2019 in Chile. Participating sites were distributed across the country, most of them from the Public Health System outpatient clinics. In addition, clinical research sites, universities, and private clinics participated. Blood pressure measurement protocol, hypertension categories, and statistical analysis followed the MMM protocol. Hypertension was diagnosed as mean systolic BP ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg or receiving antihypertensive medication. Overall, 6876 individuals were screened. After multiple imputations, hypertension prevalence was 35.4%, of which 65.9% were aware of their condition. While 60.1% were on antihypertensive medication and 34.4% of the total number of hypertensives had their BP controlled. Of participants not receiving antihypertensive treatment, 17.9% were identified as hypertensive. The MMM 2019 survey demonstrated a high proportion of participants with hypertension, with only one-third of these individuals having controlled BP (systolic BP <140 mmHg and diastolic BP <90 mmHg). The high percentage of participants with hypertension who were either untreated (39.9%) or were treated but uncontrolled (57.2%) suggesting that such opportunistic screening programmes may be a useful tool to improve hypertension control in Chile.
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