727 results found
Wang N, Harris K, Chalmers J, et al., 2021, Combination blood pressure lowering in the presence or absence of background statin and aspirin therapy: a combined analysis of PROGRESS and ADVANCE Trials., J Hypertens, Vol: 39, Pages: 1689-1696
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of combination BP lowering on cardiovascular events and mortality in the presence of aspirin and/or statin therapy in a combined analysis of the ADVANCE and PROGRESS trials. METHODS: We conducted an analysis of 14 682 participants allocated combination therapy with perindopril and indapamide or placebo followed up for a mean of 4.2 years. Participants were stratified into four groups defined by background use of medications at baseline: statin, aspirin, both or neither. Linear mixed effect models were used to assess differences in BP and Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the risks of major cardiovascular events, all-cause mortality and treatment discontinuation. RESULTS: At baseline, 14% of patients were on both aspirin and statin, 35% on aspirin, 9% on statins and 42% on neither aspirin/statins. Compared with placebo, combination BP therapy reduced mean SBP by 5.7 mmHg in ADVANCE and 12.1 mmHg in PROGRESS, with no difference (P > 0.447) between patients by baseline use of aspirin/statin. Combination BP therapy reduced the risk of major cardiovascular events (hazard ratio 0.78, 95% CI 0.71-0.86), with no significant difference (P = 0.600) between aspirin/statin subgroups. Rates of treatment discontinuation were similar with combination BP therapy compared with placebo (18.4 versus 18%), with no evidence of difference across the subgroups (P = 0.340). CONCLUSION: BP lowering with perindopril and indapamide reduces the risk of major cardiovascular events independent of baseline use of aspirin and/or statins.
Tremblay J, Haloui M, Attaoua R, et al., 2021, Polygenic risk scores predict diabetes complications and their response to intensive blood pressure and glucose control, DIABETOLOGIA, ISSN: 0012-186X
Aims/hypothesisType 2 diabetes increases the risk of cardiovascular and renal complications, but early risk prediction could lead to timely intervention and better outcomes. Genetic information can be used to enable early detection of risk.MethodsWe developed a multi-polygenic risk score (multiPRS) that combines ten weighted PRSs (10 wPRS) composed of 598 SNPs associated with main risk factors and outcomes of type 2 diabetes, derived from summary statistics data of genome-wide association studies. The 10 wPRS, first principal component of ethnicity, sex, age at onset and diabetes duration were included into one logistic regression model to predict micro- and macrovascular outcomes in 4098 participants in the ADVANCE study and 17,604 individuals with type 2 diabetes in the UK Biobank study.ResultsThe model showed a similar predictive performance for cardiovascular and renal complications in different cohorts. It identified the top 30% of ADVANCE participants with a mean of 3.1-fold increased risk of major micro- and macrovascular events (p = 6.3 × 10−21 and p = 9.6 × 10−31, respectively) and a 4.4-fold (p = 6.8 × 10−33) higher risk of cardiovascular death. While in ADVANCE overall, combined intensive blood pressure and glucose control decreased cardiovascular death by 24%, the model identified a high-risk group in whom it decreased the mortality rate by 47%, and a low-risk group in whom it had no discernible effect. High-risk individuals had the greatest absolute risk reduction with a number needed to treat of 12 to prevent one cardiovascular death over 5 years.Conclusions/interpretationThis novel multiPRS model stratified individuals with type 2 diabetes according to risk of complications and helped to target earlier those who would receive greater benefit from intensive therapy.
Nguyen TN, Harris K, Woodward M, et al., 2021, The impact of frailty on the effectiveness and safety of intensive glucose control and blood pressure-lowering therapy for people with Type 2 diabetes: results from the ADVANCE trial., Diabetes Care, ISSN: 0149-5992
OBJECTIVE: To develop a frailty index (FI) and explore the relationship of frailty to subsequent adverse outcomes on the effectiveness and safety of more intensive control of both blood glucose and blood pressure (BP), among participants with type 2 diabetes in the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) trial. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the effectiveness and safety of intensive glucose control and BP intervention according to frailty (defined as FI >0.21) status. The primary outcomes were macro- and microvascular events. The secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, severe hypoglycemia, and discontinuation of BP treatment due to hypotension/dizziness. RESULTS: There were 11,140 participants (mean age, 65.8 years; 42.5% women, 25.7% frail). Frailty was an independent predictor of all primary outcomes and secondary outcomes. The effect of intensive glucose treatment on primary outcomes showed some evidence of attenuation in the frail: hazard ratios for combined major macro- and microvascular events 1.03 (95% CI 0.90-1.19) in the frail versus 0.84 (95% CI 0.74-0.94) in the nonfrail (P = 0.02). A similar trend was observed with BP intervention. Severe hypoglycemia rates (per 1,000 person-years) were higher in the frail: 8.39 (6.15-10.63) vs. 4.80 (3.84-5.76) in nonfrail (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in discontinuation of BP treatment between frailty groups. CONCLUSIONS: It was possible to retrospectively estimate frailty in a trial population, and this FI identified those at higher risk of poor outcomes. Participants with frailty had some attenuation of benefit from intensive glucose-lowering and BP-lowering treatments.
Ingabire PM, Ojji DB, Rayner B, et al., 2021, High prevalence of non-dipping patterns among Black Africans with uncontrolled hypertension: a secondary analysis of the CREOLE trial., BMC Cardiovasc Disord, Vol: 21
BACKGROUND: Dipping of blood pressure (BP) at night is a normal physiological phenomenon. However, a non-dipping pattern is associated with hypertension mediated organ damage, secondary forms of hypertension and poorer long-term outcome. Identifying a non-dipping pattern may be useful in assessing risk, aiding the decision to investigate for secondary causes, initiating treatment, assisting decisions on choice and timing of antihypertensive therapy, and intensifying salt restriction. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with non-dipping pattern and determine the effect of 6 months of three antihypertensive regimens on the dipping pattern among Black African hypertensive patients. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of the CREOLE Study which was a randomized, single blind, three-group trial conducted in 10 sites in 6 Sub-Saharan African countries. The participants were 721 Black African patients, aged between 30 and 79 years, with uncontrolled hypertension and a baseline 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). Dipping was calculated from the average day and average night systolic blood pressure measures. RESULTS: The prevalence of non-dipping pattern was 78% (564 of 721). Factors that were independently associated with non-dipping were: serum sodium > 140 mmol/l (OR = 1.72, 95% CI 1.17-2.51, p-value 0.005), a higher office systolic BP (OR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05, p-value 0.003) and a lower office diastolic BP (OR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.95-0.99, p-value 0.03). Treatment allocation did not change dipping status at 6 months (McNemar's Chi2 0.71, p-value 0.40). CONCLUSION: There was a high prevalence of non-dipping among Black Africans with uncontrolled hypertension. ABPM should be considered more routinely in Black Africans with uncontrolled hypertension, if resources permit, to help personalise therapy. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms
Philip R, Beaney T, Appelbaum N, et al., 2021, Variation in hypertension clinical practice guidelines: a global comparison, BMC Medicine, Vol: 19, ISSN: 1741-7015
BackgroundHypertension is the largest single contributor to the global burden of disease, affecting an estimated 1.39 billion people worldwide. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) can aid in the effective management of this common condition, however, inconsistencies exist between CPGs, and the extent of this is unknown. Understanding the differences in CPG recommendations across income settings may provide an important means of understanding some of the global variations in clinical outcomes related to hypertension.AimsThis study aims to analyse the variation between hypertension CPGs globally. It aims to assess the variation in three areas: diagnostic threshold and staging, treatment and target blood pressure (BP) recommendations in hypertension.MethodsA search was conducted on the MEDLINE repository to identify national and international hypertension CPGs from 2010 to May 2020. An additional country-specific grey-literature search was conducted for all countries and territories of the world as identified by the World Bank. Data describing the diagnosis, staging, treatment and target blood pressure were extracted from CPGs, and variations between CPGs for these domains were analysed.ResultsForty-eight CPGs from across all World Bank income settings were selected for analysis. Ninety-six per cent of guidelines defined hypertension as a clinic-based BP of ≥140/90 mmHg, and 87% of guidelines recommended a target BP of < 140/90 mmHg. In the pharmacological treatment of hypertension, eight different first-step, 17 different second-step and six different third-step drug recommendations were observed. Low-income countries preferentially recommended diuretics (63%) in the first-step treatment, whilst high-income countries offered more choice between antihypertensive classes. Forty-four per cent of guidelines, of which 71% were from higher-income contexts recommended initiating treatment with dual-drug therapy at BP 160/100 mmHg or higher.C
Ray KR, Bray S, Catapano AL, et al., 2021, COMPARISON OF ACHIEVING 2019 ESC/EAS VERSUS 2018 ACC/AHA LDL-C GOALS FOR PATIENTS WITH ATHEROSCLEROTIC CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE: A CARDIOVASCULAR RISK SIMULATION FROM THE DA VINCI STUDY, 70th Annual Scientific Session and Expo of the American-College-of-Cardiology (ACC), Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, Pages: 1579-1579, ISSN: 0735-1097
Rahimi K, 2021, Pharmacological blood pressure lowering for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease across different levels of blood pressure: an individual participant-level data meta-analysis, The Lancet, Vol: 397, Pages: 1625-1636, ISSN: 0140-6736
BackgroundThe effects of pharmacological blood pressure lowering at normal or high-normal blood pressure ranges in people with or without pre-existing cardiovascular disease remains uncertain. We analysed individual participant data from randomised trials to investigate the effects of blood pressure lowering treatment on the risk of major cardiovascular events by baseline levels of systolic blood pressure.MethodsWe did a meta-analysis of individual participant-level data from 48 randomised trials of pharmacological blood pressure lowering medications versus placebo or other classes of blood pressure-lowering medications, or between more versus less intensive treatment regimens, which had at least 1000 persons-years of follow-up in each group. Trials exclusively done with participants with heart failure or short-term interventions in participants with acute myocardial infarction or other acute settings were excluded. Data from 51 studies published between 1972 and 2013 were obtained by the Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration (Oxford University, Oxford, UK). We pooled the data to investigate the stratified effects of blood pressure-lowering treatment in participants with and without prevalent cardiovascular disease (ie, any reports of stroke, myocardial infarction, or ischaemic heart disease before randomisation), overall and across seven systolic blood pressure categories (ranging from <120 to ≥170 mm Hg). The primary outcome was a major cardiovascular event (defined as a composite of fatal and non-fatal stroke, fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction or ischaemic heart disease, or heart failure causing death or requiring admission to hospital), analysed as per intention to treat.FindingsData for 344 716 participants from 48 randomised clinical trials were available for this analysis. Pre-randomisation mean systolic/diastolic blood pressures were 146/84 mm Hg in participants with previous cardiovascular disease (n=157 728) and 157/89 mm
McDonnell BJ, Rees E, Cockcroft JR, et al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland., Eur Heart J Suppl, Vol: 23, Pages: B147-B150, ISSN: 1520-765X
In the UK, heart and circulatory diseases account for 29% of all deaths (14% through coronary heart disease and 8% through stroke). In 2015, the prevalence of hypertension was 20% in the UK and 23% in the Republic of Ireland. In 2019, 14% of people registered with a UK general practice had hypertension and yet it was the attributable risk factor for around half of all deaths from coronary heart disease or stroke. We participated in May Measurement Month 2019 to increase awareness of blood pressure (BP) measurement, and to identify the proportion of undiagnosed hypertension and degree of uncontrolled hypertension in the community. The 2019 campaign set up screening sites within the community at places of worship, supermarkets, GP surgeries, workplaces, charity events, community pharmacies, gyms, and various other public places. We screened 10194 participants (mean age 51 ± 18 years, 60% women) and found that 1013 (9.9%) were on antihypertensive treatment, while 3408 (33.4%) had hypertension. Of the 3408 participants with hypertension, only 33.5% were aware of their condition despite 98.8% having previous BP measurements. In those on antihypertensive medication, only 38.2% had controlled BP (<140 and <90 mmHg). Our UK and Republic of Ireland data demonstrate concerning levels of undiagnosed hypertension and sub-optimal BP control in many individuals with a diagnosis. This evidence supports a critical need for better systematic community and primary care screening initiatives.
Victória Pereira S, Neto M, Feijão A, et al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Angola., Eur Heart J Suppl, Vol: 23, Pages: B9-B11, ISSN: 1520-765X
Raised blood pressure (BP) is the biggest risk factor that contributes to the global burden of disease and mortality. May Measurement Month (MMM) is a global initiative aimed to improved awareness of BP and has been a temporary solution to the lack of screening programmes. An opportunistic cross-sectional survey of volunteers aged ≥18 was carried out in May 2019. Blood pressure measurement, the definition of hypertension, and statistical analysis followed the standard MMM protocol. In total, 7112 individuals were screened (mean age 41.3 years; 50.4% female; 99.5% black) in 6 of the 18 Angolan provinces. In total, 99.6% of screenees provided three BP readings with an average BP of the 2nd and 3rd readings of 126/81 mmHg. After imputation, 2745 (38.6%) had hypertension of whom 1389 (59.8%) were aware of their diagnosis and 50.6% were on antihypertensive medication. Of those 1389 treated participants, 41.2% were controlled (<140/90 mmHg) and of all hypertensive individuals, 20.8% were controlled. Also, 1356 individuals had untreated hypertension and 817 were inadequately treated. Angolan MMM19 follows on from the MMM17 (n = 17481) and MMM18 (n = 14433) studies, which were the largest BP screening campaigns undertaken in Angola. The 2019 results showed a high percentage of hypertensive individuals and almost 2200 adults had either untreated or inadequately treated hypertension, demonstrating that there is work to do but also that the Angolan MMM is being effective at raising awareness at least among these individuals.
Torlasco C, Faini A, Pengo MF, et al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Italy., Eur Heart J Suppl, Vol: 23, Pages: B77-B81, ISSN: 1520-765X
Cardiovascular (CV) diseases are burdened by high mortality and morbidity, being responsible for half of the deaths in Europe. Although hypertension is recognized as the most important CV risk factor, hypertension awareness, and blood pressure (BP) control are still unsatisfactory. In 2017 and 2018, respectively >10 000 and >5000 individuals took part in the May Measurement Month (MMM) campaign in Italy, of whom 30.6% and 26.3% were found to have high BP, respectively. To raise public awareness on the importance of hypertension and to collect BP data on a nation-wide scale in Italy. In the frame of the MMM campaign, an opportunistic cross-sectional survey of volunteers aged ≥18 years was carried out in May 2019. BP measurement, the definition of hypertension, and statistical analysis followed the standard MMM protocol. Screening was conducted in multiple sites by health personnel. Among the 10 182 people screened (females: 52.3%, mean age 58 ± 16years) mean BP was 127/78 mmHg, and 3171 (31.1%) participants had arterial hypertension, of whom 62.1% were aware of being hypertensive. Diabetes, body mass index >25 kg/m2 were associated with higher BP and previous myocardial infarction with lower BP. For the third consecutive year we collected a nation-wide snapshot of BP control in a large sample of individuals. The high participation, with some yearly fluctuations likely due to the limitations of the sampling technique, confirms the power of this kind of health campaign in reaching a significant number of people to raise awareness on health topics.
Lopez-Jaramillo P, Lopez-Lopez JP, Otero J, et al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Colombia., Eur Heart J Suppl, Vol: 23, Pages: B46-B48, ISSN: 1520-765X
Hypertension awareness and control is poor in low- and middle-income countries. Thus, implementing strategies to increase hypertension detection is needed. Colombia participated as one of the 92 countries involved in the third campaign of the May Measurement Month in 2019. Blood pressure (BP) was measured in 48 324 volunteers from 13 departments in Colombia. In total, 27.9% individuals were identified with hypertension. Of those with hypertension, 63.7% were aware of their condition, 60.0% were on antihypertensive medication, and 38.4% had controlled BP. These results showed low levels of awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in this sample of subjects volunteered to participate, suggest the urgent necessity of implementing programmes to improve the diagnosis and management of hypertension in Colombia.
Molinero A, Calvo E, Beaney T, et al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Spain., Eur Heart J Suppl, Vol: 23, Pages: B138-B140, ISSN: 1520-765X
The aim of the May Measurement Month (MMM) is devoted to better understanding the awareness, treatment, and control rates of hypertension in Spain. Presented here are the data corresponding to 2019 campaign. In 2019, a total of 4433 patients (61.5% males) with a mean age of 54.8 years were included. Of all, 96.0% were Caucasian, and 3294 were recruited in pharmacies. The mean values of systolic blood pressure (BP) were 125.6 and of diastolic 76.7 mmHg in the whole population. The most recent previous BP measurement took place more than 1 year before in 27.6% of participants. A total of 1883 were hypertensive (systolic BP ≥140 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg or taking antihypertensive medication), of whom 77.2%/were aware and 71.1% were on medication. Of all, 64.9% of those on medication and 46.1% of all hypertensive participants had a BP controlled to <140/90 mmHg. These data from MMM 2019 continue to indicate the need for an improvement in the awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in Spain.
Sęk-Mastej A, Banach M, Mastej M, et al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Poland., Eur Heart J Suppl, Vol: 23, Pages: B124-B127, ISSN: 1520-765X
May Measurement Month 2019 is the third edition of a global initiative organized by the International Society of Hypertension aimed at raising awareness of hypertension and the need for blood pressure (BP) screening. We present data analysis from Poland. To evaluate the potential of opportunistic BP measurements as a tool for cardiovascular disease prevention programmes. To collect new country data for further annual comparisons. An opportunistic cross-sectional survey of volunteers aged ≥18 was carried out in 201 sites in May 2019. BP was measured in 7072 subjects (mean age: 54 ± 15 years; 62.3% females). After multiple imputation, the age- and sex-standardized systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) was 125.4/78.5 mmHg in the whole group, 133.3/82.8 mmHg in individuals on antihypertensive medication and 123.3/77.7 mmHg in those not taking antihypertensive drugs. The proportion of subjects with high BP (≥140/90 mmHg) were 41.8% in subjects taking antihypertensive drugs, and 19.6% in those not taking any antihypertensive drugs. Overall, hypertension was present in 55.4% of participants (3917 out of 7072), of whom 83.0% were aware of their diagnosis. 80.4% of hypertensives were taking antihypertensive medication. 46.7% of all hypertensives had BP controlled to target (<140/90 mmHg). Higher BP correlated with body mass index and age but not tobacco smoking. SBP but not DBP was higher in diabetic participants. These data provide evidence on the current epidemiology of hypertension and may serve as a source of information to introduce primary and secondary prevention programmes to reduce cardiovascular risk in Poland.
Lanas F, Garcia MS, Paccot M, et al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: blood pressure screening results from Chile., Eur Heart J Suppl, Vol: 23, Pages: B40-B42, ISSN: 1520-765X
Hypertension is a major preventable cause of death worldwide. May Measurement Month (MMM) is a global initiative aimed at raising awareness of high blood pressure (BP) and identifying individuals with increased BP. A cross-sectional survey of volunteers aged ≥18 years old was carried out in May 2019 in Chile. Participating sites were distributed across the country, most of them from the Public Health System outpatient clinics. In addition, clinical research sites, universities, and private clinics participated. Blood pressure measurement protocol, hypertension categories, and statistical analysis followed the MMM protocol. Hypertension was diagnosed as mean systolic BP ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg or receiving antihypertensive medication. Overall, 6876 individuals were screened. After multiple imputations, hypertension prevalence was 35.4%, of which 65.9% were aware of their condition. While 60.1% were on antihypertensive medication and 34.4% of the total number of hypertensives had their BP controlled. Of participants not receiving antihypertensive treatment, 17.9% were identified as hypertensive. The MMM 2019 survey demonstrated a high proportion of participants with hypertension, with only one-third of these individuals having controlled BP (systolic BP <140 mmHg and diastolic BP <90 mmHg). The high percentage of participants with hypertension who were either untreated (39.9%) or were treated but uncontrolled (57.2%) suggesting that such opportunistic screening programmes may be a useful tool to improve hypertension control in Chile.
Azevedo V, Dias L, Garcia G, et al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Cape Verde., Eur Heart J Suppl, Vol: 23, Pages: B37-B39, ISSN: 1520-765X
The Cabo Verdean population is aging and, consequently, non-communicable diseases, namely cardiovascular diseases, are increasing, with hypertension being an important risk factor. Following Cabo Verde's engagement with the May Measurement Month (MMM) campaign, in 2019, it was possible to improve the screening capacity, at the same time that a major social mobilization campaign was carried out to improve the population's knowledge about raised blood pressure (BP) and its consequences. With activities on nine islands, telemedicine was used to train researchers and volunteers. The MMM app was used to collect participant data. Individuals aged ≥18 years were recruited through opportunistic sampling. Each participant completed a questionnaire on demographic, lifestyle and environmental factors and had three BP measurements and weight and height measurements. Hypertension was defined as a systolic BP ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg (mean of the second and third readings), or when using antihypertensive medication. When respondents did not provide three BP readings, multiple imputation using chained equations was used to calculate the mean of the second and third readings. A total of 17 627 individuals [mean age of 42.7 (SD 16.2); 63.8% women] were screened. After multiple imputation, 5990 (34.0%) had hypertension, of which 68.4% knew the diagnosis previously and 51.3% used antihypertensive drugs. The reported use of antihypertensive medication and a previous diagnosis of hypertension were strong predictors of higher levels of systolic and diastolic BP. Corrective actions were taken with an updated national protocol for hypertension treatment in primary health care. The II Non-Communicable Diseases Survey corroborated MMM national data that we see as an ideal initiative to reach the public, raising awareness about this important cardiovascular risk factor and providing political decision instruments.
Wahab KW, Kolo PM, Odili A, et al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Nigeria., Eur Heart J Suppl, Vol: 23, Pages: B114-B116, ISSN: 1520-765X
The aim of this study is to estimate the frequency of undetected hypertension across the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria. We conducted an opportunistic screening of adults aged at least 18 years in the month of May 2019. Participants were recruited by trained volunteers using the May Measurement Month protocol. Blood pressure (BP) was measured using validated digital and mercury sphygmomanometers. We defined hypertension as BP ≥140/90 mmHg or the use of BP-lowering medication. A total of 3646 participants (52.8% females) with a mean age of 44.5 ± 15.7 years were screened. Hypertension was present in 39.2% of the participants but only 55. 4% of these were on antihypertensive medications. Only 46.8% hypertensives who were on medications had their BP controlled (<140/90 mmHg). Previous history of hypertension in pregnancy, alcohol intake and smoking were associated with increased mean systolic and diastolic BPs. The frequency of Nigerians with hypertension is high while only about half of those on antihypertensive medications are controlled. A multi-pronged approach to reduce the burden of hypertension is needed.
Patil M, Jose AP, More A, et al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from India., Eur Heart J Suppl, Vol: 23, Pages: B73-B76, ISSN: 1520-765X
Aims: May Measurement Month is a global screening campaign to raise awareness regarding elevated blood pressure (BP). With the growing burden of hypertension, it is imperative to regularly assess the disease's prevalence, risk factors, and awareness levels in a country. The current prevalence of hypertension in India as per the National Family Health Survey Data stands at 25.3%. May Measurement Month mobilizes healthcare professionals and sensitizes them to regularly measure BP, and impart lifestyle modification advice to the community. It also complements the deficiency in screening programmes at a national and international level. Methods and results: May Measurement Month was carried out in May 2019 as an opportunistic screening campaign for adults (≥18 years). It was carried out by over 5000 trained volunteers across approximately 1000 screening sites (hospitals, public places, pharmacies, villages, and malls) in India. A total of 362 708 (57% males and 42.7% females) people were screened, among whom 68.1% had never measured their BP, and 29.4% (n = 106 522) were found to have hypertension. Of these, only 42.0% were on antihypertensive medication and 23.3% had controlled hypertension. Conclusion: Almost a third of the screened population had hypertension, and less than half of those with hypertension were aware of it or on treatment for it. Among those on antihypertensive drugs, BP was controlled in only half of them. These results support the need for greater impetus on BP screening initiatives to detect hypertension early in the community and prevent complications due to uncontrolled BP.
Twumasi-Ankrah B, Poulter NR, Tannor EK, et al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Ghana-Sub-Saharan Africa., Eur Heart J Suppl, Vol: 23, Pages: B62-B65, ISSN: 1520-765X
Raised blood pressure (BP) remains the biggest single risk factor contributing to the global burden of disease and to global mortality. Although a substantial number of people who have hypertension are either oblivious of it, not treated, or being managed but remain uncontrolled. May Measurement Month (MMM) is a global initiative led by the International Society of Hypertension (ISH) with the goal of increasing awareness of high BP and serving as a spur to establish screening programmes worldwide. An opportunistic cross-sectional survey of volunteers aged ≥18 years was carried out in May 2019. Measurement of BP and collection of relevant health information were performed according to a standardized protocol for MMM. Screening sites were set up in churches, mosques, health facilities, pharmacies, recreational parks, sports facilities, shopping centres, marketplaces, universities, workplaces, and community centres across four regions of Ghana. A total of 7102 participants gave their consent and were screened during MMM 2019. After multiple imputation, of all 7102 participants 1836 (25.9%) had hypertension. Of all 1836 participants with hypertension, 36.5% were aware of their status and 30.0% were on anti-hypertensive medication. Of 550 participants on antihypertensive medications, 46.1% had controlled BP (systolic BP <140 mmHg and diastolic BP <90 mmHg). Also, of all 1836 participants with hypertension, 13.8% had their BP controlled. Again, the proportion of participants with hypertension of those not receiving anti-hypertensive treatment was 1286 (19.6%). Data obtained from this project demonstrates that there is still a significant number of people with hypertension who are unaware of having it, are untreated, or are on treatment but remain uncontrolled. It also highlights the significance of BP screening campaigns as a tool to identify persons with elevated BP.
Aljuraiban GS, Al Slail FY, Aldhwailea SK, et al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Saudi Arabia., Eur Heart J Suppl, Vol: 23, Pages: B128-B130, ISSN: 1520-765X
High blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and was identified as the most significant single preventable cause of mortality. The prevalence of hypertension in Saudi Arabia is high. To raise awareness and identify undiagnosed hypertension, the Saudi Ministry of Health participated in the May Measurement Month (MMM) 2019 global screening initiative of the International Society of Hypertension. Ninety-two primary care centres across the Kingdom recruited respondents aged ≥18 years through opportunistic sampling, from 1 May to 30 August of 2019. Data collection included sociodemographic, lifestyle habits, environmental, and anthropometric indicators. Blood pressure was measured twice using automated BP devices. A total of 25 023 adults were screened with a mean age of 42.4 (16.7) years and a mean body mass index of 27.5 (6.0) kg/m2. In total, 43.6% of participants were females and 56.4% were males. Of all the participants with hypertension, 60.8% were aware, 60.8% were on antihypertensive medication, and 39.3% had controlled BP (systolic BP <140 mmHg and diastolic BP <90 mmHg). Moreover, out of 4440 participants on antihypertensive medication, only 64.6% had controlled BP. The high numbers of individuals with hypertension and with undiagnosed hypertension highlight the importance of BP screening campaigns to increase awareness, detection, and target treatment on a national level. Findings from this study can form a baseline by which to measure progress in future iterations of MMM.
Haj Amor S, Beaney T, Saidi O, et al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Tunisia., Eur Heart J Suppl, Vol: 23, Pages: B144-B146, ISSN: 1520-765X
We performed a May Measurement Month (MMM) screening campaign among adult volunteers aged 18 years old and over in Tunisia. The objective was to raise awareness, and to estimate the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension, one of the main cardiovascular risk factors. Following the MMM protocol, three blood pressure (BP) measurements were taken by physicians and standard interviewing procedures were used to record medical history, socio-demographic, and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Hypertension was defined as a systolic BP ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg or treatment with antihypertensive medication. From 11 271 adults screened, the prevalence of hypertension was 38.1%. Among those with hypertension, 72.5% were aware of their diagnosis, and 67.5% were treated. BP control was achieved in only 38.2% of all those with hypertension. The study highlights the magnitude of hypertension in Tunisia. There is an urgent need for implementing a comprehensive integrated population-based intervention programme to ameliorate the growing problem of hypertension.
Alcocer L, Rosas M, Estrada A, et al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Mexico., Eur Heart J Suppl, Vol: 23, Pages: B104-B106, ISSN: 1520-765X
May Measurement Month 2019 (MMM19) in Mexico was an opportunistic survey, aimed to improve blood pressure (BP) awareness at the individual and population levels. This survey followed the methodology of MMM19, previously published. The total number of participants screened was 39 700, 56.7% female, 36.6% were of mixed ethnicity, mean age [standard deviation (SD)] was 46.9 (17.4) years, and mean body mass index was 27.2 (SD: 4.4) kg/m2. Seven per cent of the participants reported having diabetes, 2.4% reported having a myocardial infarction in the past, 1.1% stroke, 2.0% were pregnant at the time of the survey, 3.7% of women had suffered from hypertension in a previous pregnancy, 11.4% declared that they were smokers, and 47.0% drank alcohol at least once a week. After multiple imputations, of all 39 700 participants, 10 140 (25.5%) had hypertension; of all participants with hypertension, 43.8% were aware of their diagnosis, 41.7% were on antihypertensive medication, and 27.8% had controlled BP (systolic BP <140 mmHg and diastolic BP <90 mmHg). Of those on antihypertensive medication, 27.8% had controlled BP. In Mexico, MMM is the largest hypertension survey ever done, it provides complementary data to the existing information on arterial hypertension in the country and helps to increase the visibility of hypertension: a priority health problem.
Dzudie A, Njume E, Mfekeu LK, et al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Cameroon., Eur Heart J Suppl, Vol: 23, Pages: B33-B36, ISSN: 1520-765X
The multi-country May Measurement Month (MMM) screening campaign aims to raise awareness on blood pressure (BP) and hypertension in individuals and communities, and measure BP, ideally, of those who had no BP measurement in the preceding year. We here report key findings from the Cameroon arm of MMM 2019. An opportunistic sample of adults (≥18 years) was included from 5 May to 5 June 2019 across 15 sites (markets, churches, homes, motor parks, workplaces, and hospitals/clinics). Data collection, cleaning, the definition of hypertension, and statistical analysis followed the standard protocol. The mean age of the 30 187 participants screened was 36.9 (SD: 14.9) years, 50.4% were female (5% of whom were pregnant), and 94.4% were screened out of the hospital/clinic settings. After multiple imputation of missing data, 6286 (20.8%) had hypertension, 24.0% were taking antihypertensive medication, and 705 (11.2%) of all participants with hypertension had controlled BP. In linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, and antihypertensive medicines use, a previous diagnosis of hypertension, a history of stroke, and use of antihypertensive medicines were significant predictors of systolic and diastolic BP levels. BPs were also significantly higher when measured in public outdoors, public indoors (diastolic BP only), workplaces, and other unspecified areas compared to hospitals/clinic settings. MMM19 is the largest ever BP screening campaign in a single month, in Cameroon and despite the limitations resulting from non-random sample selection, the opportunistic screening allows access to awareness and screening for hypertension out of the hospital/clinic settings.
Nemcsik J, Páll D, Nemes-Nagy Z, et al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Hungary., Eur Heart J Suppl, Vol: 23, Pages: B70-B72, ISSN: 1520-765X
Cardiovascular diseases are not only the leading causes of mortality in Hungary but also the mortality rate is twice as high as the European Union average, so screening programmes identifying subjects with elevated blood pressure (BP) are of utmost importance. May Measurement Month (MMM) is an annual global initiative that began in 2017 aimed at raising awareness of high BP. Hungary joined the 3rd campaign of MMM in 2019 and an overview of the results are presented in this paper. An opportunistic cross-sectional survey of participants aged ≥18 years was carried out in May 2019. Hypertension was defined as systolic BP ≥140 mmHg and diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg or treatment for hypertension, statistical analysis followed the standard MMM protocol. In Hungary, 55 sites were set up in primary and secondary care facilities, in pharmacies, and in malls across all regions, in both cities and villages. Out of 2766 individuals screened, 1286 participants (46.5%) had hypertension. Out of 1869 participants not on antihypertensive medication, 389 (20.8%) had elevated BP. In the case of treated individuals (n = 897), 420 (46.8%) had uncontrolled hypertension. Almost every 2nd subject of the screened cohort had hypertension (treated and controlled, treated and uncontrolled, or untreated). In the untreated cohort, every 5th subject had elevated BP, whilst among patients on antihypertensive medication, every second had uncontrolled BP. By identifying almost one-third of the whole screened cohort with the possibility of newly diagnosed or uncontrolled hypertension, our results confirm the importance of BP screening campaigns.
Peñaherrera E, Ramírez M, Peñaherrera R, et al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Ecuador., Eur Heart J Suppl, Vol: 23, Pages: B55-B58, ISSN: 1520-765X
Arterial hypertension is a growing burden worldwide, leading to over 10.8 million deaths each year. In Ecuador, it is the main risk factor for the major cause of death, coronary, and cerebrovascular disease [GBD 2017 Risk Factor Collaborators. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioral, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet 2018;392:1923-1994]. The May Measurement Month Campaign in 2019 (MMM19) is a global initiative of the International Society of Hypertension aimed at raising awareness of high blood pressure (BP) and to act as a temporary solution to the lack of screening programs worldwide. A volunteer cross-sectional survey was carried out in May 2019 across 42 health centres in Ecuador. The average age was 51 (SD ±17.6) years. Blood pressure measurement, the definition of hypertension (mean of the second and third BP measurement ≥140/90 mmHg or who were medicated for high BP), and statistical analysis followed the standard MMM protocol. In total, 15 885 volunteers participated in MMM19. After multiple imputation, 6654 (41.9%) had hypertension. Of individuals not receiving antihypertensive medication, 2383 (20.5%) were hypertensive. Of individuals receiving antihypertensive medication, 1004 (23.5%) had uncontrolled BP. May Measurement Month 2019 was the largest BP screening campaign done in Ecuador. In the survey, including 6654 participants with hypertension, only 49.1% had their BP values controlled (<140/90 mmHg). May Measurement Month 2019 demonstrated a high prevalence of hypertension among volunteer screenees in our country. The high percentage of persons untreated or with uncontrolled hypertension while on pharmacologic treatment suggest that appropriate screening can help to identify a significant number of people with high BP. These data shou
Malik F-T-N, Al Mamun MA, Choudhury SR, et al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Bangladesh., Eur Heart J Suppl, Vol: 23, Pages: B21-B23, ISSN: 1520-765X
According to the Non-communicable disease Risk Factors Survey of 2018, more than one-fifth (21.0%) of adults aged 25 years or older have hypertension and one-third of the adults did not have their blood pressure (BP) measured in their lifetime in Bangladesh. The National Heart Foundation of Bangladesh participated in May Measurement Month (MMM) 2017 and 2018 as well as this 2019 as a part of a global initiative aimed at raising awareness of high BP and to act as a temporary solution to the lack of screening programmes worldwide. This opportunistic screening of voluntary participants aged ≥18 years was carried out from May to July 2019. Data were collected from 100 screening sites in 16 districts in Bangladesh. BP measurement, the definition of hypertension, and statistical analysis followed the MMM protocol. Data on 24 941 individuals were analysed. Among the participants, 12 658 (50.8%) were female. After multiple imputation, 6990 (28.0%) had hypertension. Among the 6990 participants with hypertension, 5007 (71.6%) were on antihypertensive medication and 5331 (76.3%) were aware of having hypertension. Among 6990 participants with hypertension, 3217 (46.0%) had controlled BP (<140/90 mmHg) and among the participants with hypertension and on antihypertensive medication, 64.2% had controlled BP. Opportunistic BP screening can identify significant numbers of people with raised BP and thus assist in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.
Salazar MR, Garcia Vazquez F, Espeche WG, et al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Argentina., Eur Heart J Suppl, Vol: 23, Pages: B12-B14, ISSN: 1520-765X
The Argentinean Society of Hypertension, in agreement with the May Measurement Month (MMM) initiative of the International Society of Hypertension, implemented for the third consecutive year a hypertension screening campaign. A volunteer cross-sectional survey was carried out in public spaces and health centres during the month of May 2019 across 33 cities in Argentina. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg based on the mean of the second and third BP measurements, or in those on treatment for high BP. A total of 94 523 individuals (53.9 ± 17.8 years old, 55 231women and 39 292 men), were evaluated. The age and sex standardized mean BP was 124.7/77.2 mmHg. Among participants, 34.7% were overweight (25-29.9 m/kg2) and 28.7% had obesity (≥30 m/kg2). Individuals identified as being overweight had BP 3/2 mmHg higher and individuals with obesity 6/4 mmHg higher than those with normal weight. The prevalence of hypertension was 52.5%. Although 81.1% were aware and 77.7% were on antihypertensive treatment, only 46.0% of all individuals with hypertension had their BP controlled. Moreover, 19.8% of those not on any antihypertensive medication were found with raised BP. The low level of control of hypertension generates the critical need for the development of community-based prevention strategies reinforcing strategies to increase the awareness and control of hypertension.
Minh HV, Poulter NR, Viet NL, et al., 2021, Blood pressure screening results from May Measurement Month 2019 in Vietnam., Eur Heart J Suppl, Vol: 23, Pages: B154-B157, ISSN: 1520-765X
Elevated blood pressure (BP) is a growing burden worldwide, leading to over 10 million deaths each year. May Measurement Month (MMM) is a global initiative to raise awareness of high BP and act as a temporary solution to the lack of screening programmes worldwide. We aimed to screen for hypertension and cardiovascular risk factors in people aged ≥18 years in the community, thereby defining the proportion of subjects with elevated BP and assess the awareness and the effectiveness of its treatment. An opportunistic cross-sectional survey of volunteers aged ≥18 years was carried out in May 2019. Blood pressure measurement, the definition of hypertension and statistical analysis followed the standard MMM protocol. From May 2019 to June 2019, through 10 cities/provinces in Vietnam, 25 887 individuals with mean age 48.7 (SD ±17.7) years were screened. After multiple imputations, 8758 (33.8%) had hypertension. Of individuals not receiving antihypertensive medication, 3025 (15.0%) were hypertensive. Of individuals receiving antihypertensive medication, 2800 (48.8%) had uncontrolled BP. Raised BP [systolic BP (SBP) ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP (DBP) ≥90 mmHg] was also associated with additional risk factors including smoking, alcohol intake, previous hypertension in pregnancy, and obesity. May Measurement Month 2019 was the most extensive BP screening campaign ever undertaken in Vietnam. Undiagnosed and uncontrolled hypertension in Vietnam remains a substantial health problem. Local campaigns applying standardized methods such as MMM 2019 will be beneficial to screen for the significant number of individuals with raised BP and increase the awareness of hypertension.
Goma F, Syatalimi C, Tembo P, et al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Zambia., Eur Heart J Suppl, Vol: 23, Pages: B158-B160, ISSN: 1520-765X
In Zambia, hypertension accounts for the highest proportion of deaths due to cardiovascular diseases causing 3.3% of all deaths, killing an average of 670 people per year. May Measurement Month (MMM) is an annual global screening campaign aiming to improve awareness of blood pressure (BP) at the individual and population level. Adults (≥18 years) recruited through opportunistic sampling were screened at multiple sites within Lusaka during May and June 2019. Ideally, three BP readings were measured for each participant, and data on lifestyle factors and comorbidities were collected. Data were analysed centrally by the MMM project team and multiple imputations were performed where necessary. Of the total of 9232 enrolled, 8.7% of them had never had their BP measured, 2.5% had diabetes mellitus, 1.9% had had a myocardial infarction, 1.5% had had a stroke, 10.6% were current smokers, and 10.0% consumed alcohol once or more per week. Blood pressure fell from a mean of 128.6/82.9 mmHg for the 1st reading to a mean of 123.2/80.0 mmHg for the 3rd reading. The lowest proportion of participants with hypertension was identified by the 3rd reading alone (30.0%). Of all the participants, 30.7% had hypertension, though only 42.6% of them were aware of their diagnosis. Seven hundred and eighty-three (27.6%) were on antihypertensive medication though only 35.0% of them had controlled BP (systolic BP <140 mmHg and diastolic BP <90 mmHg). Compared with MMM17 data, there is deterioration of the monitored parameters calling for urgent and accelerated public health policy and clinical practice interventions. We think that the MMM campaign should continue annually to raise awareness of this treatable condition.
Ogola EN, Mbau L, Gachemba YM, et al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Kenya., Eur Heart J Suppl, Vol: 23, Pages: B86-B88, ISSN: 1520-765X
Elevated blood pressure (BP) is the leading cause of global mortality, but control rates remain poor because most patients, especially in Africa, are unaware. May Measurement Month (MMM) is an annual global BP screening campaign that was initiated by the International Society of Hypertension (ISH) in 2017 to raise awareness of raised BP. Following participation in 2017 and 2018, Kenya participated again in 2019 and the results are reported here. Screening was carried out in 30 sites by volunteers coordinated by the Kenya Cardiac Society. Participants had three BP readings by standard methods with the last two being averaged and recorded. Heart rate, weight, height, socio-demographic parameters, and co-morbidities were documented. Hypertension was defined as a systolic BP (SBP) ≥140 mmHg and/or a diastolic BP (DBP) ≥90 mmHg or being on treatment with at least one antihypertensive medication. A total of 33 992 participants were screened, mean age was 42.5 (SD 16.8) years and 58.7% of participants were female. Only 27.3% had their BPs checked within the preceding 12 months. After multiple imputation, 26.1% were hypertensive, of whom 34.5% were aware of their hypertension and 31.5% were on treatment. Of those on treatment, 59.7% were controlled translating to 18.8% of all hypertensives. Being on treatment for hypertension, overweight, obese or having had hypertension in previous pregnancy were associated with increased SBP and DBP, while diabetes was associated with raised SBP. Two-thirds of hypertensives were unaware. Only a third of those aware were on treatment, with about 60% of these controlled. Lack of awareness remains a significant barrier to BP control. Programmes to raise awareness such as MMM are significant in raising population awareness.
Lee H-Y, Oh GC, Sohn IS, et al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Korea., Eur Heart J Suppl, Vol: 23, Pages: B89-B91, ISSN: 1520-765X
Hypertension is the biggest contributing risk factor to cerebrovascular disease and is associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease. The May Measurement Month (MMM) campaign is a global initiative aimed at raising awareness of hypertension and acting as a temporary solution to the lack of screening programs worldwide. An opportunistic cross-sectional survey of participants aged ≥18 was carried out during May 2019 in Korea. Over 10 000 participants were recruited in the MMM campaign in Korea, with a slogan of 'A simple measure to save lives-#checkyourpressure'. A total of 9975 participants with valid clinical and blood pressure (BP) data were used for analysis. All participants were Korean in ethnicity, mean age was 57.2 (SD ± 21.2) years, 57.7% were females, and the mean body mass index was 23.4 kg/m2 (SD ± 3.3). In total, 37.7% of the participants reported a previous diagnosis of hypertension, and 91.3% of those diagnosed were on antihypertensive medications. For other comorbidities, 11.6% reported having diabetes mellitus, 2.0% had previous stroke, and 1.0% had previous myocardial infarction. Mean BP was 130.0/81.0 mmHg in the overall population. After multiple imputation, 47.6% of participants were classified as hypertensive (systolic BP ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg or on treatment for raised BP). Among all hypertensive participants, the awareness rate, the treatment rate, and the control rate (systolic BP <140 mmHg and diastolic BP <90 mmHg) were 76.2%, 74.0%, and 50.5%, respectively. Of those on antihypertensive medication, the control rate was 68.2%. While awareness and treatment rates were relatively high in the MMM19 campaign, the BP control rate of the total hypertensive population was still only ∼50%, which demands more emphasis on strict BP control.
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