39 results found
Bircher WG, Dollar AM, Rojas N, A two-fingered robot gripper with large object reorientation range, 2017 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Publisher: IEEE
It is very challenging for a robotic gripper to achieve large reorientations with grasped objects without accidental object ejection. This paper presents a simple gripper that can repeatedly achieve large reorientations over 흅/ퟐrad through the kinematics of the hand-object system alone, without the use of high fidelity contact sensors, complex control of active finger surfaces, or highly actuated fingers. This gripper is the result of two kinematic parameter search optimizationsconnected in cascade. Besides the large range of reorientation attained, the obtained gripper also corresponds to a novel topology since ternary joints in the palm are presented. The in-hand planar reorientation capabilities of the proposed gripper are experimentally tested with success.
Kanner O, Rojas N, Dollar AM, Between-leg coupling schemes for passively-adaptive non-redundant legged robots, 2017 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Publisher: IEEE
This paper studies the synthesis of between-leg coupling schemes for passively-adaptive non-redundant legged robots. Highly actuated legged robots can arbitrarily locate their feet relative to their bodies through active control, but often wind up kinematically over-constrained following ground contact, requiring complex redundant control for stable locomotion. The use of passive sprung joints can provide some minimal passive adaptability to terrain, but it is limited to relatively low terrain variability due to practical travellimits. In this paper, using a 4-RR platform as case study, we show that implementing parallel adaptive couplings between legs of a stance platform can yield substantial passive adaptability to rough terrain while still ensuring that the body is fully constrained in stance. This study uses screw theory-based mobility analysis methods to determine the number of constraints required to control the stance platform. Several coupling schemes are then considered and evaluated through a simulation of their stance capabilities over arbitrary terrain. An experimental validation of these simulation results is presented; it demonstrates the viability of the proposed scheme for passive adaptability.
Rojas N, Dollar AM, Distance-based kinematics of the five-oblique-axis thumb model with intersecting axes at the metacarpophalangeal joint, 2017 IEEE RAS/EMBS International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics, Publisher: IEEE
This paper proposes a novel and simple methodto compute all possible solutions of the inverse kinematicsproblem of the five-oblique-axis thumb model with intersectingaxes at the metacarpophalangeal joint. This thumb model isone of the suggested results by a magnetic-resonance-imaging-based study that, in contrast to those based on cadaver fingersor on the tracking of the surface of the fingers, takes intoaccount muscle and ligament behaviors and avoids inaccuraciesresulting from the movement of the skin with respect to thebones. The proposed distance-based inverse kinematics methodeliminates the use of arbitrary reference frames as is usuallyrequired by standard approaches; this is relevant because thenumerical conditioning of the resulting system of equationswith such traditional approaches depends on the selectedreference frames. Moreover, contrary to other parametrizations(e.g., Denavit-Hartenberg parameters), the suggested distance-based parameters for the thumb have a natural, human-understandable geometric meaning that makes them easier tobe determined from any posture. These characteristics makethe proposed approach of interest for those working in, forinstance, measuring and modeling the movement of the humanhand, developing rehabilitation devices such as orthoses andprostheses, or designing anthropomorphic robotic hands.
Rojas N, Thomas F, Forward kinematics of the general triple-arm robot using a distance-based formulation, 7th IFToMM International Workshop on Computational Kinematics, Publisher: Springer
Distance-based formulations have successfully been used to obtain closure polynomialsfor planar mechanisms without relying, in most cases, on variable eliminations. The methods re-sulting from previous attempts to generalize these techniques to spatial mechanisms exhibit somelimitations such as the impossibility of incorporating orientation constraints. For the first time, thispaper presents a complete satisfactory generalization. As an example, it is applied to obtain a clo-sure polynomial for the the general triple-arm parallel robot (that is, the 3-RPS 3-DOF robot). Thispolynomial, not linked to any particular reference frame, is obtained without variable eliminationsor tangent-half-angle substitutions.
Ward-Cherrier B, Rojas N, Lepora NF, Model-Free Precise In-Hand Manipulation with a 3D-Printed Tactile Gripper, IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters
Kanner OY, Rojas N, Odhner LU, et al., 2017, Adaptive legged robots through exactly-constrained and non-redundant design, IEEE Access, Vol: 5, Pages: 11131-11141, ISSN: 2169-3536
This paper presents a novel strategy for designing passively adaptive, statically stable walking robots with full body mobility that are exactly constrained and non-redundantly actuated during stance. In general, fully mobile legged robots include a large number of actuated joints, giving them a wide range of controllable foot placements but resulting in overconstraint during stance, requiring kinematic redundancy and redundant control for effective locomotion. The proposed design strategy allows for the elimination of actuation redundancy, thus greatly reducing the weight and complexity of the legged robots obtained and allowing for simpler control schemes. Moreover, the underconstrained nature of the resulting robots during swing allows for passive adaptability to rough terrain without large contact forces. The strategy uses kinematic mobility analysis tools to synthesize leg topologies, underactuated robotics design approaches to effectively distribute actuation constraints, and elastic elements to influence nominal leg behavior. Several examples of legged robot designs using the suggested approach are thoroughly discussed and a proof-of-concept of a non-redundant walking robot is presented.
Ma RR, Rojas N, Dollar AM, 2016, Spherical Hands: Toward Underactuated, In-Hand Manipulation Invariant to Object Size and Grasp Location, Journal of Mechanisms and Robotics, Vol: 8, Pages: 061021-061021, ISSN: 1942-4302
Ma RR, Rojas N, Dollar AM, 2016, Towards Predictable Precision Manipulation of Unknown Objects with Underactuated Fingers, Advances in Reconfigurable Mechanisms and Robots II, Editors: Ding, Kong, Dai, Cham, Publisher: Springer International Publishing, Pages: 927-937, ISBN: 978-3-319-23327-7
Rojas N, Dollar AM, 2016, Classification and Kinematic Equivalents of Contact Types for Fingertip-Based Robot Hand Manipulation, Journal of Mechanisms and Robotics, Vol: 8, Pages: 041014-041014, ISSN: 1942-4302
Rojas N, Dollar AM, 2016, Gross Motion Analysis of Fingertip-Based Within-Hand Manipulation, IEEE Transactions on Robotics, Vol: 32, Pages: 1009-1016, ISSN: 1552-3098
Rojas N, Ma RR, Dollar AM, 2016, The GR2 Gripper: An Underactuated Hand for Open-Loop In-Hand Planar Manipulation, IEEE Transactions on Robotics, Vol: 32, Pages: 763-770, ISSN: 1552-3098
Kanner OY, Rojas N, Dollar AM, 2015, Design of a Passively-Adaptive Three Degree-of-Freedom Multi-Legged Robot With Underactuated Legs, ASME 2015 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference (IDETC/CIE), Pages: V05AT08A062-V05AT08A062
This paper discusses the design of a three degree-of-freedom (3-DOF) non-redundant walking robot with decoupled stance and propulsion locomotion phases that is exactly constrained in stance and utilizes adaptive underactuation to robustly traverse terrain of varying ground height. Legged robots with a large number of actuated degrees of freedom can actively adapt to rough terrain but often end up being kinematically overconstrained in stance, requiring complex redundant control schemes for effective locomotion. Those with fewer actuators generally use passive compliance to enhance their dynamic behavior at the cost of postural control and reliable ground clearance, and often inextricably link control of the propulsion of the robot with control of its posture. In this paper we show that the use of adaptive underactuation techniques with constraint-based design synthesis tools allows for lighter and simpler lower mobility legged robots that can adapt to the terrain below them during the swing phase yet remain stable during stance and that the decoupling of stance and propulsion can greatly simplify their control. Simulation results of the swing phase behavior of the proposed 3-DOF decoupled adaptive legged robot as well as proof-of-concept experiments with a prototype of its corresponding stance platform are presented and validate the suggested design framework.
N Rojas, J Borràs, F Thomas, 2015, On quartically-solvable robots, 2015 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Publisher: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Pages: 1410-1415, ISSN: 1050-4729
This paper presents a first attempt at a unified kinematics analysis of all serial and parallel solvable robots, that is, robots whose position analysis can be carried out without relying on numerical methods. The efforts herein are focused on finding a unified formulation for all quartically-solvable robots, as all other solvable robots can be seen as particular cases of them. The first part is centered on the quest for the most general quartically-solvable parallel and serial robots. As a result, representatives of both classes are selected. Then, using Distance Geometry, it is shown how solving the forward kinematics of the parallel representative is equivalent to solve the inverse kinematics of the serial representative, thus providing a unified formulation. Finally, it is shown that the position and singularity analysis of these robots reduces to the analysis of the relative position of two coplanar ellipses.
Nansai S, Mohan RE, Tan N, et al., 2015, Dynamic Modeling and Nonlinear Position Control of a Quadruped Robot with Theo Jansen Linkage Mechanisms and a Single Actuator, Journal of Robotics, Vol: 2015, Pages: 1-15, ISSN: 1687-9600
Nansai S, Rojas N, Elara MR, et al., 2015, A novel approach to gait synchronization and transition for reconfigurable walking platforms, Digital Communications and Networks, Vol: 1, Pages: 141-151, ISSN: 2352-8648
Nansai S, Rojas N, Elara MR, et al., 2015, On a Jansen leg with multiple gait patterns for reconfigurable walking platforms, Advances in Mechanical Engineering, Vol: 7, Pages: 168781401557382-168781401557382, ISSN: 1687-8140
Rojas N, Dollar AM, 2015, The Coupler Surface of the RSRS Mechanism, Journal of Mechanisms and Robotics, Vol: 8, Pages: 014505-014505, ISSN: 1942-4302
Rojas N, Dollar AM, Thomas F, 2015, A unified position analysis of the Dixon and the generalized Peaucellier linkages, Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol: 94, Pages: 28-40, ISSN: 0094-114X
Tan N, Rojas N, Elara Mohan R, et al., 2015, Nested Reconfigurable Robots: Theory, Design, and Realization, International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems, Vol: 12, Pages: 110-110, ISSN: 1729-8814
M R Elara, N Rojas, A Chua, 2014, Design principles for robot inclusive spaces: a case study with Roomba, 2014 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Publisher: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Pages: 5592-5599, ISSN: 1050-4729
Research focus on service robots that deals with applications related to healthcare, logistics, residential, search and rescue are gaining significant momentum in the recent years. Their social and economic relevance is more than evident. Yet, while much has been researched about “designing robots” focusing on sensing, actuation, mobility and control of service robots, little work has been done on “design for robots” that looks at designing preferred artefacts or environments for such robots. In this work, we propose a new philosophy of robot inclusive spaces, a cross disciplinary approach that brings together roboticians, architects and designers to solve numerous unsettled research problems in robotics community through design of inclusive interior spaces for robots where the latter live and operate. With a residential floor cleaning robot as a case study, we inductively derived a set of four design principles namely observability, accessibility, activity and safety that guides the realization of an inclusive space for these service robots. Also, the suggested principles are further defined, analysed and validated for their merits in this paper.
N Rojas, A M Dollar, 2014, Characterization of the precision manipulation capabilities of robot hands via the continuous group of displacements, 2014 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Pages: 1601-1608, ISSN: 2153-0858
V Kee, N Rojas, M R Elara, et al., 2014, Hinged-Tetro: A self-reconfigurable module for nested reconfiguration, 2014 IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, Pages: 1539-1546, ISSN: 2159-6247
M R Elara, N Rojas, R Sosa, et al., 2013, Robot Inclusive Space challenge: A design initiative, 2013 6th IEEE Conference on Robotics, Automation and Mechatronics (RAM), Pages: 73-78, ISSN: 2158-2181
Mohan RE, Rojas N, Seah S, et al., 2013, Design principles for robot inclusive spaces, 19th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED13)
N Rojas, F Thomas, 2013, The closure condition of the double banana and its application to robot position analysis, 2013 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Publisher: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Pages: 4641-4646, ISSN: 1050-4729
A double banana is defined as the bar-and-joint assembly of two bipyramids joined by their apexes. Clearly, the bar lengths of this kind of assembly are not independent as we cannot assign arbitrary values to them. This dependency can be algebraically expressed as a closure condition fully expressed in terms of bar lengths. This paper is devoted to its derivation and to show how its use simplifies the position analysis of many well-known serial and parallel robots thus providing a unifying treatment to apparently disparate problems. This approach permits deriving the univariate polynomials, needed for the closed-form solution of these position analysis problems, without relying on trigonometric substitutions or difficult variable eliminations.
Rojas N, Mohan R, Sosa R, 2013, Reconfiguration in linkages by variable allocation of joint positions: a modular design approach, 3rd IFToMM International Symposium on Robotics and Mechatronics, Pages: 587-596
Rojas N, Thomas F, 2013, The Univariate Closure Conditions of All Fully Parallel Planar Robots Derived From a Single Polynomial, IEEE Transactions on Robotics, Vol: 29, Pages: 758-765, ISSN: 1552-3098
Rojas N, Thomas F, 2013, Application of Distance Geometry to Tracing Coupler Curves of Pin-Jointed Linkages 1, Journal of Mechanisms and Robotics, Vol: 5, Pages: 021001-021001, ISSN: 1942-4302
S Nansai, N Rojas, M R Elara, et al., 2013, Exploration of adaptive gait patterns with a reconfigurable linkage mechanism, 2013 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Pages: 4661-4668, ISSN: 2153-0858
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