480 results found
Huang K-W, Tan CP, Reebye V, et al., 2021, MTL-CEBPA Combined with Immunotherapy or RFA Enhances Immunological Anti-Tumor Response in Preclinical Models, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES, Vol: 22
IntroductionCannabinoids are a group of terpenophenolic compounds derived from the Cannabis sativa L. plant. There is a growing body of evidence from cell culture and animal studies in support of cannabinoids possessing anticancer properties.MethodA database search of peer reviewed articles published in English as full texts between January 1970 and April 2021 in Google Scholar, MEDLINE, PubMed and Web of Science was undertaken. References of relevant literature were searched to identify additional studies to construct a narrative literature review of oncological effects of cannabinoids in pre-clinical and clinical studies in various cancer types.ResultsPhyto-, endogenous and synthetic cannabinoids demonstrated antitumour effects both in vitro and in vivo. However, these effects are dependent on cancer type, the concentration and preparation of the cannabinoid and the abundance of receptor targets. The mechanism of action of synthetic cannabinoids, (−)-trans-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) has mainly been described via the traditional cannabinoid receptors; CB1 and CB2, but reports have also indicated evidence of activity through GPR55, TRPM8 and other ion channels including TRPA1, TRPV1 and TRPV2.ConclusionCannabinoids have shown to be efficacious both as a single agent and in combination with antineoplastic drugs. These effects have occurred through various receptors and ligands and modulation of signalling pathways involved in hallmarks of cancer pathology. There is a need for further studies to characterise its mode of action at the molecular level and to delineate efficacious dosage and route of administration in addition to synergistic regimes.
Mizandari M, Azrumelashvili T, Keshavarz P, et al., 2021, Image-Guided Percutaneous Pancreatic Duct Drainage: A 10-Year Observational Study, JOURNAL OF VASCULAR AND INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY, Vol: 32, Pages: 1075-+, ISSN: 1051-0443
Hashimoto A, Sarker D, Reebye V, et al., 2021, Up-regulation of C/EBP alpha inhibits suppressive activity of myeloid cells and potentiates antitumor response in mice and cancer patients., CANCER RESEARCH, Vol: 81, ISSN: 0008-5472
Pinato D, Cortellini A, Sukumaran A, et al., 2021, PRIME-HCC: Phase Ib study of neoadjuvant ipilimumab and nivolumab prior to liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma, BMC Cancer, Vol: 21, ISSN: 1471-2407
BackgroundAfter liver resection (LR), patients with hepatocellular cancer (HCC) are at high risk of recurrence. There are no approved anti-cancer therapies known to affect such risk, highlighting the acute need for novel systemic therapies to control the probability of disease relapse. Immunotherapy is expanding as a novel treatment option for HCC. Emerging data from cohort 4 of the CA209–040 study, which investigated the safety and preliminary efficacy of nivolumab/ipilimumab co-administration in advanced HCC, suggest that the combination can be delivered safely with an acceptable proportion of reversible grade 3–4 toxicities (27.1%) and a low discontinuation rate (2%) in patients with HCC. Here, we describe the design and rationale of PRIME-HCC, a two-part, multi-centre, phase Ib study to assess safety and bioactivity of the nivolumab/ipilimumab combination prior to LR in early-stage HCC.MethodsThe study involves an initial safety run-in phase (Part 1) to allow for preliminary safety characterisation within the first 6 patients enrolled and a subsequent expansion (Part 2). Ipilimumab will be administered once only on Day 1. Nivolumab will be administered on Day 1 and Day 22 (± 3 days) for a total of two 21-day cycles (i.e. 6 weeks of treatment). The primary objective of the study is to determine the safety and tolerability of the nivolumab/ipilimumab combination prior to LR. The secondary objective is to preliminarily characterize the efficacy of the combination prior to LR, including objective response rate (ORR) and pathologic response rates. Additional exploratory objectives include preliminary evidence of long-term disease control and to identify predictive correlates of response to the nivolumab/ipilimumab combination in HCC.DiscussionThe results of this study will help define the positioning of neoadjuvant nivolumab/ipilimumab combination in the perioperative management of HCC, with potential to improve survival outcom
Antonowicz S, Bodai Z, Wiggins T, et al., 2021, Endogenous aldehyde accumulation generates genotoxicity and exhaled biomarkers in esophageal adenocarcinoma, NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2041-1723
Glasbey JC, Omar O, Nepogodiev D, et al., 2021, Preoperative nasopharyngeal swab testing and postoperative pulmonary complications in patients undergoing elective surgery during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, BRITISH JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Vol: 108, Pages: 88-96, ISSN: 0007-1323
Gavriilidis P, Sutcliffe RP, Roberts KJ, et al., 2020, No difference in mortality among ALPPS, two-staged hepatectomy, and portal vein embolization/ligation: A systematic review by updated traditional and network meta-analyses, HEPATOBILIARY & PANCREATIC DISEASES INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 19, Pages: 411-419, ISSN: 1499-3872
Debacker AJ, Voutila J, Catley M, et al., 2020, Delivery of Oligonucleotides to the Liver with GalNAc: From Research to Registered Therapeutic Drug, MOLECULAR THERAPY, Vol: 28, Pages: 1759-1771, ISSN: 1525-0016
Sodergren MH, Mangal N, Wasan H, et al., 2020, Immunological combination treatment holds the key to improving survival in pancreatic cancer, JOURNAL OF CANCER RESEARCH AND CLINICAL ONCOLOGY, Vol: 146, Pages: 2897-2911, ISSN: 0171-5216
Sarker D, Plummer R, Meyer T, et al., 2020, MTL-CEBPA, a small activating RNA therapeutic upregulating C/EBP-α, in patients with advanced liver cancer: a first-in-human, multicenter, open-label, phase I trial, Clinical Cancer Research, Vol: 26, Pages: 3936-3946, ISSN: 1078-0432
PURPOSE: Transcription factor C/EBP-α (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha) acts as a master regulator of hepatic and myeloid functions and multiple oncogenic processes. MTL-CEBPA is a first-in-class small activating RNA oligonucleotide drug that upregulates C/EBP-α. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a phase I, open-label, dose-escalation trial of MTL-CEBPA in adults with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with cirrhosis, or resulting from nonalcoholic steatohepatitis or with liver metastases. Patients received intravenous MTL-CEBPA once a week for 3 weeks followed by a rest period of 1 week per treatment cycle in the dose-escalation phase (3+3 design). RESULTS: Thirty-eight participants have been treated across six dose levels (28-160 mg/m2) and three dosing schedules. Thirty-four patients were evaluable for safety endpoints at 28 days. MTL-CEBPA treatment-related adverse events were not associated with dose, and no maximum dose was reached across the three schedules evaluated. Grade 3 treatment-related adverse events occurred in nine (24%) patients. In 24 patients with HCC evaluable for efficacy, an objective tumor response was achieved in one patient [4%; partial response (PR) for over 2 years] and stable disease (SD) in 12 (50%). After discontinuation of MTL-CEBPA, seven patients were treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs); three patients had a complete response with one further PR and two with SD. CONCLUSIONS: MTL-CEBPA is the first saRNA in clinical trials and demonstrates an acceptable safety profile and potential synergistic efficacy with TKIs in HCC. These encouraging phase I data validate targeting of C/EBP-α and have prompted MTL-CEBPA + sorafenib combination studies in HCC.
Kumar J, Habib NAGY, Huang KAI, et al., 2020, Immunological basis of genesis of hepatocellular carcinoma: unique challenges and potential opportunities through immunomodulation, Vaccines, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2076-393X
A majority of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) develops in the setting of persistent chronic inflammation as immunological mechanisms have been shown to play a vital role in the initiation, growth and progression of tumours. The index review has been intended to highlight ongoing immunological changes in the hepatic parenchyma responsible for the genesis and progression of HCC. The in-situ vaccine effect of radiofrequency (RF) is through generation tumour-associated antigens (TAAs), following necrosis and apoptosis of tumour cells, which not only re-activates the antitumour immune response but can also act in synergism with checkpoint inhibitors to generate a superlative effect with intent to treat primary cancer and distant metastasis. An improved understanding of oncogenic responses of immune cells and their integration into signaling pathways of the tumour microenvironment will help in modulating the antitumour immune response. Finally, we analyzed contemporary literature and summarised the recent advances made in the field of targeted immunotherapy involving checkpoint inhibitors along with RF application with the intent to reinstate antitumour immunity and outline future directives in very early and early stages of HCC.
Sarker D, Sodergren M, Plummer ER, et al., 2020, Phase Ib dose escalation and cohort expansion study of the novel myeloid differentiating agent MTL-CEBPA in combination with sorafenib in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)., Annual Meeting of the American-Society-of-Clinical-Oncology (ASCO), Publisher: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, ISSN: 0732-183X
da Costa AC, Sodergren M, Jayant K, et al., 2020, Radiofrequency combined with immunomodulation for hepatocellular carcinoma: State of the art and innovations, WORLD JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY, Vol: 26, Pages: 2040-2048, ISSN: 1007-9327
Jayant K, Habib N, Huang KW, et al., 2020, Recent Advances: The Imbalance of Immune Cells and Cytokines in the Pathogenesis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma, DIAGNOSTICS, Vol: 10
Reebye V, Vasara J, Raulf N, et al., 2020, Therapeutic saRNAstargeting CEBPA in Myeloid Cells. A potential Immunomodulatoryswitch for Anticancer Therapy, 23rd Annual Meeting of the American-Society-for-Gene-and-Cell-Therapy, Publisher: CELL PRESS, Pages: 51-52, ISSN: 1525-0016
Huang K-W, Reebye V, Czysz K, et al., 2020, Liver activation of hepatocellular nuclear factor-4 alpha by small activating RNA rescues dyslipidemia and improves metabolic profile, Molecular Therapy : Nucleic Acids, Vol: 19, Pages: 361-370, ISSN: 2162-2531
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) culminates in insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Because there are no approved pharmacological treatment agents for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and NAFLD, different signaling pathways are under investigation for drug development with the focus on metabolic pathways. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-alpha (HNF4A) is at the center of a complex transcriptional network where its disruption is directly linked to glucose and lipid metabolism. Resetting HNF4A expression in NAFLD is therefore crucial for re-establishing normal liver function. Here, small activating RNA (saRNA) specific for upregulating HNF4A was injected into rats fed a high-fat diet for 16 weeks. Intravenous delivery was carried out using 5-(G5)-triethanolamine-core polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers. We observed a significant reduction in liver triglyceride, increased high-density lipoprotein/low-density lipoprotein (HDL/LDL) ratio, and decreased white adipose tissue/body weight ratio, all parameters to suggest that HNF4A-saRNA treatment induced a favorable metabolic profile. Proteomic analysis showed significant regulation of genes involved in sphingolipid metabolism, fatty acid β-oxidation, ketogenesis, detoxification of reactive oxygen species, and lipid transport. We demonstrate that HNF4A activation by oligonucleotide therapy may represent a novel single agent for the treatment of NAFLD and insulin resistance.
Clift A, Frilling A, Braat A, et al., 2020, Radioembolization for Neuroendocrine Liver Metastases: An Institutional Case Series, Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, 17th Annual European-Neuroendocrine-Tumor-Society (ENETS) Conference for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Neuroendocrine Tumor Disease, Publisher: KARGER, Pages: 223-223, ISSN: 0028-3835
Sarker D, Sodergren M, Plummer ER, et al., 2020, First-in-human phase I trial of small activating RNA (saRNA) oligonucleotide MTL-CEBPA in combination with sorafenib in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium of the American-Society-of-Clinical-Oncology, Publisher: AMER SOC CLINICAL ONCOLOGY, ISSN: 0732-183X
Yoon S, Huang K-W, Andrikakou P, et al., 2019, Targeted delivery of C/EBP alpha-saRNA by RNA aptamers shows anti-tumor effects in a mouse model of advanced PDAC, Molecular Therapy : Nucleic Acids, Vol: 18, Pages: 142-154, ISSN: 2162-2531
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most aggressive malignancies; it preferentially metastasizes to the liver and is the main cause of death from this disease. In previous studies, small activating RNA against CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBPα-saRNA) demonstrated efficacy of PDAC in a local subcutaneous tumor model. In this study, we focused on the efficacy of C/EBPα-saRNA in advanced stage PDAC. For targeted delivery, we selected a new anti-transferrin receptor aptamer (TR14), which demonstrated a high binding affinity to target proteins. The TR14 aptamer was internalized with clathrin-mediated endocytosis, distributed in early endosome, late endosome, and lysosome subcellularly. To investigate its anti-tumor effects to advanced PDAC, we conjugated C/EBPα-saRNA to TR14. Treatment of pancreatic cancer cells with the conjugates upregulated expression of C/EBPα and its downstream target p21, and inhibited cell proliferation. For in vivo assays, we established an advanced PDAC mouse model by engrafting luciferase reporter-PANC-1 cells directly into the livers of non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) mice. After treatment of aptamer-C/EBPα conjugates, we observed significant reduction of tumor growth in this advanced PDAC mouse model. Combinational treatment of the conjugates with gemcitabine also demonstrated enhanced anti-tumor effects in advanced PDAC. This suggests that aptamer-C/EBPα conjugates could be used as an adjuvant, along with other conventional anti-cancer drugs in advanced PDAC. In conclusion, targeted delivery of C/EBPα-saRNAs by aptamers might have potential therapeutic effects in advanced PDAC.
Sarker D, Plummer R, Basu B, et al., 2019, First-in-human, first-in-class phase I study of MTL-CEBPA, a RNA oligonucleotide targeting the myeloid cell master regulator C/EBP-alpha, in patients with advanced hepatocellular cancer (HCC), 44th Congress of the European-Society-for-Medical-Oncology (ESMO), Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS, Pages: 168-+, ISSN: 0923-7534
Sodergren M, Tan C, Reebye V, et al., 2019, Targeting myeloid-derived suppressor cells and T cells: Combination treatment with MTL-CEBPA and PD-1 antibody in a mouse syngeneic CT26 model, 44th Congress of the European-Society-for-Medical-Oncology (ESMO), Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS, ISSN: 0923-7534
Patel BY, White L, Howard AM, et al., 2019, A Retrospective Analysis of Portal Vein Embolisation In A Tertiary Hepato Pancreato Biliary Centre, International Surgical Conference of the Association-of-Surgeons-in-Training (ASIT), Publisher: WILEY, Pages: 74-74, ISSN: 0007-1323
Brian BF, Jolicoeur AS, Guerrero CR, et al., 2019, Unique-region phosphorylation targets LynA for rapid degradation, tuning its expression and signaling in myeloid cells, ELIFE, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2050-084X
Sodergren MH, Huang K-W, Reebye V, et al., 2019, MTL-CEBPA combined with radiofrequency ablation and immunotherapy enhances immunological anti-tumour response in an HCC mouse model, Annual Meeting of the American-Association-for-Cancer-Research (AACR), Publisher: AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH, ISSN: 0008-5472
Frilling A, Clift AK, Braat AJAT, et al., 2019, Radioembolisation with 90Y microspheres for neuroendocrine liver metastases: an institutional case series, systematic review and meta-analysis, HPB, Vol: 21, Pages: 773-783, ISSN: 1365-182X
BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine liver metastases are clinically challenging due to their frequent disseminated distribution. This study aims to present a British experience with an emerging modality, radioembolisation with yttrium-90 labelled microspheres, and embed this within a meta-analysis of response and survival outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective case series of patients treated with SIR-Spheres (radiolabelled resin microspheres) was performed. Results were included in a systematic review and meta-analysis of published results with glass or resin microspheres. Objective response rate (ORR) was defined as complete or partial response. Disease control rate (DCR) was defined as complete/partial response or stable disease. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients were identified. ORR and DCR in the institutional series was 14/24 and 21/24 at 3 months. Overall survival and progression-free survival at 3-years was 77.6% and 50.4%, respectively. There were no grade 3/4 toxicities post-procedure. A fixed-effects pooled estimate of ORR of 51% (95% CI: 47%-54%) was identified from meta-analysis of 27 studies. The fixed-effects weighted average DCR was 88% (95% CI: 85%-90%, 27 studies). CONCLUSION: Current data demonstrate evidence of the clinical effectiveness and safety of radioembolisation for neuroendocrine liver metastases. Prospective randomised studies to compare radioembolisation with other liver directed treatment modalities are needed.
Habib NA, Huang K-W, Reebye V, et al., 2019, MTLCEBPA, a drug candidate for hepatocellular-carcinoma enhances efficacy of Sorafenib, Annual Meeting of the American-Association-for-Cancer-Research (AACR), Publisher: AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH, ISSN: 0008-5472
Janikashvili N, Jayant K, Kikodze N, et al., 2019, Immunomodulatory changes following isolated RF ablation in colorectal liver metastases: a case report, Medicines, Vol: 6, ISSN: 2305-6320
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in developed countries. The liver is the most prevalent site of metastasis from CRC. Currently, the gold-standard treatment for colorectal liver metastases (CLMs) is surgical resection. However, depending on the pattern of the disease, a significant number of patients may require different approaches alone or in combination with surgery, including thermal ablation (radiofrequency (RFA) or microwave (MWA) ablation) or transarterial liver-directed therapies, although the latter is not yet part of the standard treatment for CRC liver metastases. Methods and Results: We present the case of a 63-yearold man with bilobar CLM who was treated with transarterial embolization (TAE) and RFA followed by chemotherapy. A post-RFA study of immune parameters revealed the downregulation of CD39 expression in the circulating CD4+ T cell population and a reduction of the serum levels of cytokines IL-10, TGF-β, IFN-gamma and IL-17, which positively correlated with the diminished serum level of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and the subdued inflammatory markers: the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR). Later, the patient underwent chemotherapy. Liver failure developed within two years and nine months following tumour ablation, leading to the death of the patient. Conclusions: However, the denial of adjuvant chemotherapy by the patient gave us the opportunity to assess the immunomodulatory changes following RFA in the absence of any other therapeutic modalities.
Zhou J, Li H, Xia X, et al., 2019, Anti-inflammatory activity of MTL-CEBPA, a small activating RNA drug, in LPS-stimulated monocytes and humanized mice, Molecular Therapy, Vol: 27, Pages: 999-1016, ISSN: 1525-0016
Excessive or inappropriate inflammatory responses can cause serious and even fatal diseases. The CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (CEBPA) gene encodes C/EBPα, a transcription factor that plays a fundamental role in controlling maturation of the myeloid lineage and is also expressed during the late phase of inflammatory responses when signs of inflammation are decreasing. MTL-CEBPA, a small activating RNA targeting for upregulation of C/EBPα, is currently being evaluated in a phase 1b trial for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. After dosing, subjects had reduced levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and we therefore hypothesized that MTL-CEBPA has anti-inflammatory potential. The current study was conducted to determine the effects of C/EBPα saRNA - CEBPA-51 - on inflammation in vitro and in vivo after endotoxin challenge. CEBPA-51 led to increased expression of the C/EBPα gene and inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines in THP-1 monocytes previously stimulated by E. coli-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Treatment with MTL-CEBPA in an LPS-challenged humanized mouse model upregulated C/EBPα mRNA, increased neutrophils, and attenuated production of several key pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and IFN-γ. In addition, a Luminex analysis of mouse serum revealed that MTL-CEBPA reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Collectively, the data support further investigation of MTL-CEBPA in acute and chronic inflammatory diseases where this mechanism has pathogenic importance.
Zhao X, Reebye V, Hitchen P, et al., 2019, Mechanisms involved in the activation of C/EBP alpha by small activating RNA in hepatocellular carcinoma, ONCOGENE, Vol: 38, Pages: 3446-3457, ISSN: 0950-9232
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