Imperial College London

ProfessorNickOliver

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction

Wynn Chair in Human Metabolism (Clinical)
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 1796nick.oliver

 
 
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Location

 

7S7aCommonwealth BuildingHammersmith Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

238 results found

Elbalshy M, Haszard J, Smith H, Kuroko S, Galland B, Oliver N, Shah V, de Bock MI, Wheeler BJet al., 2022, Effect of divergent continuous glucose monitoring technologies on glycaemic control in type 1 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials., Diabet Med

AIMS: We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs) assessing separately and together the effect of the three distinct categories of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems (adjunctive, non-adjunctive and intermittently-scanned CGM [isCGM]), compared with traditional capillary glucose monitoring, on HbA1c and CGM metrics. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and Cochrane Central register of clinical trials were searched. Inclusion criteria were as follows: randomised controlled trials; participants with type 1 diabetes of any age and insulin regimen; investigating CGM and isCGM compared with traditional capillary glucose monitoring; and reporting glycaemic outcomes of HbA1c and/or time-in-range (TIR). Glycaemic outcomes were extracted post-intervention and expressed as mean differences and 95%CIs between treatment and comparator groups. Results were pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Rob2 tool. RESULTS: This systematic review was conducted between January and April 2021; it included 22 RCTs (15 adjunctive, 5 non-adjunctive, and 2 isCGM)). The overall analysis of the pooled three categories showed a statistically significant absolute improvement in HbA1c percentage points (mean difference (95% CI): -0.22% [-0.31 to -0.14], I2  = 79%) for intervention compared with comparator and was strongest for adjunctive CGM (-0.26% [-0.36, -0.16]). Overall TIR (absolute change) increased by 5.4% (3.5 to 7.2), I2  = 71% for CGM intervention compared with comparator and was strongest with non-adjunctive CGM (6.0% [2.3, 9.7]). CONCLUSIONS: For individuals with T1D, use of CGM was beneficial for impacting glycaemic outcomes including HbA1c, TIR and time-below-range (TBR). Glycaemic improvement appeared greater for TIR for newer non-adjunctive CGM technology.

Journal article

Oliver N, 2022, Diagnostic challenge, DIABETIC MEDICINE, Vol: 39, ISSN: 0742-3071

Journal article

Eng PC, Distaso W, Durreshahwar H, Shaikhali Y, Narendranathan D, Cassin-Scott R, Misra S, Hill NE, Tharakan G, Oliver NS, Tan TM, Izzi-Engbeaya C, Salem Vet al., 2022, The benefit of dexamethasone in patients with COVID-19 infection is preserved in patients with diabetes., Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism: a journal of pharmacology and therapeutics, ISSN: 1462-8902

Dexamethasone significantly reduces mortality1 and is now standard treatment for patients with COVID-19 who require supplemental oxygen and/or mechanical ventilation. However, supraphysiological doses of glucocorticoids may exacerbate dysglycaemia and precipitate hyperglycaemic complications, particularly in those with or at risk of Type 2 diabetes2. The RECOVERY trial1 reported a low incidence of hyperglycaemic complications (2/1996, 0.1%), although the real-world incidence is likely to be much higher3. Type 2 diabetes itself increases the risk of severe COVID-194, and hyperglycaemia independently predicts poor outcomes5. We investigated the possibility that patients with diabetes may derive less survival benefit from steroid therapy in the setting of severe COVID-19 infection

Journal article

Oliver N, 2022, Taking back control, DIABETIC MEDICINE, Vol: 39, ISSN: 0742-3071

Journal article

Clarke S, Phylactou M, Patel B, Mills E, Muzi B, Izzi-Engbeaya C, khoo B, Meeran M, Comninos A, Abbara A, Tan T, Oliver N, Dhillo Wet al., 2022, Preserved C-peptide in survivors of COVID-19: post-hoc analysis, Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism: a journal of pharmacology and therapeutics, Vol: 24, Pages: 570-574, ISSN: 1462-8902

Journal article

Bevan GT, Chew S, Godsland I, Oliver N, Hill Net al., 2022, A game for all shapes and sizes? Changes in anthropometric and performance measures of elite professional rugby union players 1999-2018, BMJ Open Sport and Exercise Medicine, Vol: 8, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 2055-7647

Background: Rugby union player size has increased since the game turned professional in 1995. Changes in physical and performance capability over this period have yet to be fully described.Hypothesis: Increases in player momentum would result from changes in body mass.Methods: Within-player rates of change in anthropometric and kinetic variables with season played were sampled in three successively studied professional rugby union club cohorts playing at the highest level of European competition between 1999-2019. Data comprised 910 seasons of observation for 291 elite male players. Most players had 2, 3 or 4 seasons of observation. Mixed-effects modelling distinguished changes independent of position played, club and international status.Results: With each season played, player body mass, fat-free mass, and maximum speed increased significantly, while percent fat decreased. The mean maximal velocity of a rugby player in 1999 was 8.2 (±0.18) m/s, which in 2019 had risen to 9.1 (±0.10) m/s. Player’s momentum in 2019 was 14% more than those playing in 1999. In the Front Five, momentum increased in this period by more than 25%, mainly driven by greater running speed, disproving our hypothesis.Conclusions: The momentum of players, particularly forwards, increased markedly over 20 seasons of professional rugby. The resulting forces generated in collisions are thus significantly greater, although these may be mitigated by better player conditioning. Proactive regulation to address player safety may be required to address the changing nature of anthropometric measures and physical performance, minimising injury rates and potential long-term sequelae.

Journal article

Oliver N, 2022, Variance of concern, DIABETIC MEDICINE, Vol: 39, ISSN: 0742-3071

Journal article

Herrero P, Reddy M, Georgiou P, Oliver Net al., 2022, Identifying Continuous Glucose Monitoring Data Using Machine Learning., Diabetes Technol Ther

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The recent increase in wearable devices for diabetes care, and in particular the use of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), generates large datasets and associated cybersecurity challenges. In this work, we demonstrate that it is possible to identify CGM data at an individual level by using standard machine learning techniques. METHODS: The publicly available REPLACE-BG dataset containing 226 adult participants with type 1 diabetes (T1D) wearing CGM over 6 months was used. A support vector machine (SVM) binary classifier aiming to determine if a CGM data stream belongs to an individual participant was trained and tested for each of the subjects in the dataset. To generate the feature vector used for classification, 12 standard glycaemic metrics were selected and evaluated at different time periods of the day (24h, day, night, breakfast, lunch, dinner). Different window lengths of CGM data (3, 7, 15, and 30 days) were chosen to evaluate their impact on the classification performance. A recursive feature selection method was employed to select the minimum subset of features that did not significantly degrade performance. RESULTS: A total of 40 features were generated as a result of evaluating the glycemic metrics over the selected time periods (24h, day, night, breakfast, lunch, dinner). A window length of 15 days was found to perform the best in terms of accuracy (86.8±12.8%) and F1 score (0.86±0.16). The corresponding sensitivity and specificity were 85.7±19.5% and 87.9±17.5%, respectively. Through recursive feature selection, a subset of 11 features was shown to perform similarly to the 40 features. CONCLUSION: It is possible to determine with a relatively high accuracy if a CGM data stream belongs to an individual. The proposed approach can be used as a digital CGM 'fingerprint' or for detecting glycaemic changes within an individual, for example during intercurrent illness.

Journal article

Aceves-Martins M, Quinton R, Brazzelli M, Cruickshank M, Manson P, Hudson J, Oliver N, Hernandez R, Aucott L, Wu F, Dhillo WS, Bhattacharya S, Gillies K, Jayasena CN, NIHR Testosterone Efficacy & Safety TestES Consortiumet al., 2022, Identifying the outcomes important to men with hypogonadism: A qualitative evidence synthesis, Andrology, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2047-2919

OBJECTIVE: Men with male hypogonadism (MH) experience sexual dysfunction, which improves with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). However, randomised controlled trials provide little consensus on functional and behavioural symptoms in hypogonadal men; these are often better captured by qualitative information from individual patient experience. METHODS: We systematically searched major electronic databases to identify qualitative data from men with hypogonadism, with or without TRT. Two independent authors performed the selection, extraction, and thematic analysis of data. Quality of eligible studies was assessed using the Critical Appraisals Skills Programme and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation-Confidence in the Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative research tools. RESULTS: We analysed data from five studies published in nine reports that assessed a total of 284 participants. Published data were only available within North America, with no ethnic minority or other underserved groups included. In addition to sexual dysfunction, men with MH experienced adverse changes in physical strength, perceptions of masculinity, cognitive function, and quality of life. The experience of MH appeared dependent on the source(s) of educational material. DISCUSSION: We propose a patient-centred approach to clinician interactions rather than focusing on discreet MH symptoms. Current evidence about the experience of MH is limited to North America and predominantly white ethnicity, which may not be broadly applicable to other geographic regions. Broadening our understanding of the MH experience may improve the targeting of information to patients. In addition, a multidisciplinary approach may better address symptoms neither attributable to MH nor alleviated by TRT.

Journal article

Oliver N, 2022, Baby Steps, DIABETIC MEDICINE, Vol: 39, ISSN: 0742-3071

Journal article

Armiger R, Reddy M, Oliver NS, Georgiou P, Herrero Pet al., 2022, An In Silico Head-to-Head Comparison of the Do-It-Yourself Artificial Pancreas Loop and Bio-Inspired Artificial Pancreas Control Algorithms., J Diabetes Sci Technol, Vol: 16, Pages: 29-39

BACKGROUND: User-developed automated insulin delivery systems, also referred to as do-it-yourself artificial pancreas systems (DIY APS), are in use by people living with type 1 diabetes. In this work, we evaluate, in silico, the DIY APS Loop control algorithm and compare it head-to-head with the bio-inspired artificial pancreas (BiAP) controller for which clinical data are available. METHODS: The Python version of the Loop control algorithm called PyLoopKit was employed for evaluation purposes. A Python-MATLAB interface was created to integrate PyLoopKit with the UVa-Padova simulator. Two configurations of BiAP (non-adaptive and adaptive) were evaluated. In addition, the Tandem Basal-IQ predictive low-glucose suspend was used as a baseline algorithm. Two scenarios with different levels of variability were used to challenge the algorithms on the adult (n = 10) and adolescent (n = 10) virtual cohorts of the simulator. RESULTS: Both BiAP and Loop improve, or maintain, glycemic control when compared with Basal-IQ. Under the scenario with lower variability, BiAP and Loop perform relatively similarly. However, BiAP, and in particular its adaptive configuration, outperformed Loop in the scenario with higher variability by increasing the percentage time in glucose target range 70-180 mg/dL (BiAP-Adaptive vs Loop vs Basal-IQ) (adults: 89.9% ± 3.2%* vs 79.5% ± 5.3%* vs 67.9% ± 8.3%; adolescents: 74.6 ± 9.5%* vs 53.0% ± 7.7% vs 55.4% ± 12.0%, where * indicates the significance of P < .05 calculated in sequential order) while maintaining the percentage time below range (adults: 0.89% ± 0.37% vs 1.72% ± 1.26% vs 3.41 ± 1.92%; adolescents: 2.87% ± 2.77% vs 4.90% ± 1.92% vs 4.17% ± 2.74%). CONCLUSIONS: Both Loop and BiAP algorithms are safe and improve glycemic control when compared, in silico, with Basal-IQ. However, BiAP appears significantly more robust to real-world challenges by outperformi

Journal article

Scott R, Oliver N, Thomas M, Agha-Jaffar Ret al., 2021, Pregnancy and contraception in women with Pre-Gestational diabetes in secondary Care- A questionnaire study, DIABETES RESEARCH AND CLINICAL PRACTICE, Vol: 182, ISSN: 0168-8227

Journal article

Oliver N, 2021, The power of equality, DIABETIC MEDICINE, Vol: 38, ISSN: 0742-3071

Journal article

Giménez M, Conget I, Oliver N, 2021, Automated Insulin Delivery Systems: Today, Tomorrow and User Requirements., J Diabetes Sci Technol, Vol: 15, Pages: 1252-1257

Automated insulin delivery (AID) is the most recent advance in type 1 diabetes (T1D) management. It has the potential to achieve glycemic targets without disabling hypoglycemia, to improve quality of life and reduce diabetes distress and burden associated with self-management. Several AID systems are currently licensed for use by people with T1D in Europe, United States, and the rest of the world. Despite AID becoming a reality in routine clinical practice over the last few years, the commercially hybrid AID and other systems, are still far from a fully optimized automated diabetes management tool. Implementation of AID systems requires education and support of healthcare professionals taking care of people with T1D, as well as users and their families. There is much to do to increase usability, portability, convenience and to reduce the burden associated with the use of the systems. Co-design, involvement of people with lived experience of T1D and robust qualitative assessment is critical to improving the real-world use of AID systems, especially for those who may have greater need. In addition to this, information regarding the psychosocial impact of the use of AID systems in real life is needed. The first commercially available AID systems are not the end of the development journey but are the first step in learning how to optimally automate insulin delivery in a way that is equitably accessible and effective for people living with T1D.

Journal article

Gibson R, Oliver N, McGowan B, Vetter C, Palla L, D'Annibale M, Linley J, Lorencatto F, Guess Net al., 2021, Towards targeted dietary support for shift workers with type 2 diabetes (Shift-Diabetes study): A mixed-methods case study protocol, DIABETIC MEDICINE, Vol: 39, ISSN: 0742-3071

Journal article

Thomas NJ, Dennis JM, Sharp SA, Kaur A, Misra S, Walkey HC, Johnston DG, Oliver NS, Hagopian WA, Weedon MN, Patel KA, Oram RAet al., 2021, DR15-DQ6 remains dominantly protective against type 1 diabetes throughout the first five decades of life (vol 64, pg 2258, 2021), DIABETOLOGIA, Vol: 65, Pages: 258-258, ISSN: 0012-186X

Journal article

Johnson H, Godsland I, Oliver N, Piggin M, Avari P, Johnston Det al., 2021, Insight Report: Online public involvement session on the use of the Wynn Database for Metabolic Research, Insight Report: Online public involvement session on the use of the Wynn Database for Metabolic Research

Report

Oliver N, 2021, Keeping score, DIABETIC MEDICINE, Vol: 38, ISSN: 0742-3071

Journal article

Oliver N, 2021, Focussing care, DIABETIC MEDICINE, Vol: 38, ISSN: 0742-3071

Journal article

Thomas MG, Avari P, Godsland IF, Lett AM, Reddy M, Oliver Net al., 2021, Optimizing type 1 diabetes after multiple daily injections and capillary blood monitoring: Pump or sensor first? A meta-analysis using pooled differences in outcome measures, DIABETES OBESITY & METABOLISM, Vol: 23, Pages: 2521-2528, ISSN: 1462-8902

Journal article

Oliver N, 2021, People power, DIABETIC MEDICINE, Vol: 38, ISSN: 0742-3071

Journal article

Ngaosuwan K, Johnston DG, Godsland IF, Cox J, Majeed A, Quint JK, Oliver N, Robinson Set al., 2021, Mortality risk in patients with adrenal insufficiency using prednisolone or hydrocortisone: a retrospective cohort study, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol: 106, Pages: 2242-2251, ISSN: 0021-972X

CONTEXT: Prednisolone has been recommended rather than hydrocortisone for glucocorticoid replacement in adrenal insufficiency due its longer duration of action and lower cost. OBJECTIVE: To determine mortality rates with prednisolone versus hydrocortisone. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: A UK primary care database (Clinical Practice Research Datalink). PARTICIPANTS: Patients with primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency, treated with either prednisolone or hydrocortisone, and controls individually matched for age, sex, period and place of follow-up. INTERVENTIONS: Nil. OUTCOMES: Mortality relative to individually matched controls. RESULTS: As expected, mortality in adrenal insufficiency irrespective of cause was increased, based on 5478 patients (4228 on hydrocortisone; 1250 on prednisolone) and 54314 controls (41934 and 12380, respectively). Overall, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) was similar with the two treatments (prednisolone, 1.76 [95% CI, 1.54-2.01] vs. hydrocortisone 1.69 [1.57-1.82]; p=0.65). This was also the case for secondary adrenal insufficiency. In primary disease (1405 on hydrocortisone vs. 137 on prednisolone:13965 and 1347 controls, respectively), prednisolone-users were older, more likely to have another autoimmune disease and malignancy, and less likely to have mineralocorticoid replacement. Nevertheless, after adjustment, the HR for prednisolone-treated patients remained higher than for those taking hydrocortisone (2.92 [2.19-3.91] vs. 1.90 [1.66-2.16]; p=0.0020). CONCLUSIONS: In primary but not in secondary adrenal insufficiency mortality was higher with prednisolone. The study was large, but the number of prednisolone-treated patients was small, and they had greater risk factors. Nonetheless the increased mortality associated with prednisolone persisted despite statistical adjustment. Further evidence is needed regarding the long-term safety of prednisolone as routine replacement.

Journal article

Uduku C, Pendolino V, Godsland I, Oliver N, Reddy M, Fothergill RTet al., 2021, Cross-sectional analysis of emergency hypoglycaemia and outcome predictors among people with diabetes in an urban population, DIABETIC MEDICINE, Vol: 38, ISSN: 0742-3071

Journal article

Avari P, Unsworth R, Rilstone S, Uduku C, Logan KM, Hill NE, Godsland IF, Reddy M, Oliver Net al., 2021, Improved glycaemia during the Covid-19 pandemic lockdown is sustained post-lockdown and during the "Eat Out to Help Out" Government Scheme, in adults with Type 1 diabetes in the United Kingdom, PLOS ONE, Vol: 16, ISSN: 1932-6203

Journal article

Thomas NJ, Dennis JM, Sharp SA, Kaur A, Misra S, Walkey HC, Johnston DG, Oliver NS, Hagopian WA, Weedon MN, Patel KA, Oram RAet al., 2021, DR15-DQ6 remains dominantly protective against type 1 diabetes throughout the first five decades of life, Diabetologia, Vol: 64, Pages: 2258-2265, ISSN: 0012-186X

Aims/hypothesisAmong white European children developing type 1 diabetes, the otherwise common HLA haplotype DR15-DQ6 is rare, and highly protective. Adult-onset type 1 diabetes is now known to represent more overall cases than childhood onset, but it is not known whether DR15-DQ6 is protective in older-adult-onset type 1 diabetes. We sought to quantify DR15-DQ6 protection against type 1 diabetes as age of onset increased.MethodsIn two independent cohorts we assessed the proportion of type 1 diabetes cases presenting through the first 50 years of life with DR15-DQ6, compared with population controls. In the After Diabetes Diagnosis Research Support System-2 (ADDRESS-2) cohort (n = 1458) clinician-diagnosed type 1 diabetes was confirmed by positivity for one or more islet-specific autoantibodies. In UK Biobank (n = 2502), we estimated type 1 diabetes incidence rates relative to baseline HLA risk for each HLA group using Poisson regression. Analyses were restricted to white Europeans and were performed in three groups according to age at type 1 diabetes onset: 0–18 years, 19–30 years and 31–50 years.ResultsDR15-DQ6 was protective against type 1 diabetes through to age 50 years (OR < 1 for each age group, all p < 0.001). The following ORs for type 1 diabetes, relative to a neutral HLA genotype, were observed in ADDRESS-2: age 5–18 years OR 0.16 (95% CI 0.08, 0.31); age 19–30 years OR 0.10 (0.04, 0.23); and age 31–50 years OR 0.37 (0.21, 0.68). DR15-DQ6 also remained highly protective at all ages in UK Biobank. Without DR15-DQ6, the presence of major type 1 diabetes high-risk haplotype (either DR3-DQ2 or DR4-DQ8) was associated with increased risk of type 1 diabetes.Conclusions/interpretationHLA DR15-DQ6 confers dominant protection from type 1 diabetes across the first five decades of life.

Journal article

Oliver N, 2021, Outside in, DIABETIC MEDICINE, Vol: 38, ISSN: 0742-3071

Journal article

Ngaosuwan K, Johnston DG, Godsland IF, Cox J, Majeed A, Quint JK, Oliver N, Robinson Set al., 2021, Increased mortality risk in patients with primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol: 106, Pages: e2759-e2768, ISSN: 0021-972X

CONTEXT: Mortality data in patients with adrenal insufficiency are inconsistent, possibly due to temporal and geographical differences between patients and their reference populations. OBJECTIVE: To compare mortality risk and causes of death in adrenal insufficiency with an individually-matched reference population. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: UK general practitioner database (CPRD). PARTICIPANTS: 6821 patients with adrenal insufficiency (primary, 2052; secondary, 3948) and 67564 individually-matched controls (primary, 20366; secondary, 39134). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All-cause and cause-specific mortality; hospital admission from adrenal crisis. RESULTS: With follow-up of 40799 and 406899 person-years for patients and controls respectively, the hazard ratio (HR; [95%CI]) for all-cause mortality was 1.68 [1.58 - 1.77]. HRs were greater in primary (1.83 [1.66 - 2.02]) than in secondary (1.52 [1.40 - 1.64]) disease; (HR; primary versus secondary disease, 1.16 [1.03 - 1.30]). The leading cause of death was cardiovascular disease (HR 1.54 [1.32-1.80]), along with malignant neoplasms and respiratory disease. Deaths from infection were also relatively high (HR 4.00 [2.15 - 7.46]). Adrenal crisis contributed to 10% of all deaths. In the first two years following diagnosis, the patients' mortality rate and hospitalisation from adrenal crisis were higher than in later years. CONCLUSION: Mortality was increased in adrenal insufficiency, especially primary, even with individual matching and was observed early in the disease course. Cardiovascular disease was the major cause but mortality from infection was also high. Adrenal crisis was a common contributor. Early education for prompt treatment of infections and avoidance of adrenal crisis hold potential to reduce mortality.

Journal article

Washirasaksiri C, Srivanichakorn W, Godsland IF, Kositamongkol C, Chariyalertsak S, Kessomboon P, Assanangkornchai S, Taneepanichskul S, Neelapaichit N, Phisalprapa P, Johnston DG, Oliver NS, Aekplakorn Wet al., 2021, Increasing glycaemia is associated with a significant decline in HDL cholesterol in women with prediabetes in two national populations, SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2045-2322

Journal article

Oliver N, 2021, Changes, DIABETIC MEDICINE, Vol: 38, ISSN: 0742-3071

Journal article

Ngaosuwan K, Johnston DG, Godsland IF, Cox J, Majeed A, Quint JK, Oliver N, Robinson Set al., 2021, Cardiovascular disease in patients with primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency and the role of comorbidities, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol: 106, Pages: 1284-1293, ISSN: 0021-972X

CONTEXT: Mortality studies have established that cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in patients with adrenal insufficiency and the risk is greater than that observed in individually-matched controls. OBJECTIVE: Here we have performed a detailed analysis of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, taking account of the role of co-morbidities. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: UK general practitioner database (CPRD). PARTICIPANTS: 6821 patients with adrenal insufficiency (primary, 2052; secondary, 3948) compared with 67564 individually-matched controls, with and without adjustment for comorbidities (diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, previous cardiovascular disease, and smoking). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Composite cardiovascular events recorded in CPRD and cardiovascular mortality in those participants with linked national mortality data. RESULTS: Hazard ratios (95%CI) for composite cardiovascular events in patients with adrenal insufficiency of any cause were 1.28 (1.20-1.36, unadjusted) and 1.07 (1.01-1.14, adjusted). Increased cerebrovascular events in patients with secondary adrenal insufficiency accounted for most of the increased hazard (1.53 (1.34-1.74, adjusted)) and were associated with cranial irradiation therapy. Cardiovascular mortality data were available for 3547 patients and 34944 controls. The adjusted hazard ratio for ischaemic heart disease mortality was 1.86 (1.25-2.78) for primary adrenal insufficiency and 1.39 (1.02-1.89) for secondary. CONCLUSION: Co-morbidities largely accounted for the increased cardiovascular events but in secondary adrenal insufficiency, cerebrovascular events were independently increased and associated with irradiation treatment. However, the risk of cardiovascular mortality remained increased even following adjustment for co-morbidities in both primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency.

Journal article

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