Imperial College London

ProfessorNickOliver

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction

Wynn Chair in Human Metabolism (Clinical)
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 1796nick.oliver

 
 
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Location

 

7S7aCommonwealth BuildingHammersmith Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

220 results found

Oliver N, 2021, Keeping score, Diabetic Medicine, Vol: 38, ISSN: 0742-3071

Journal article

Oliver N, 2021, Focussing care, DIABETIC MEDICINE, Vol: 38, ISSN: 0742-3071

Journal article

Thomas MG, Avari P, Godsland IF, Lett AM, Reddy M, Oliver Net al., 2021, Optimizing type 1 diabetes after multiple daily injections and capillary blood monitoring: Pump or sensor first? A meta-analysis using pooled differences in outcome measures, DIABETES OBESITY & METABOLISM, ISSN: 1462-8902

Journal article

Oliver N, 2021, People power, DIABETIC MEDICINE, Vol: 38, ISSN: 0742-3071

Journal article

Uduku C, Pendolino V, Godsland I, Oliver N, Reddy M, Fothergill RTet al., 2021, Cross-sectional analysis of emergency hypoglycaemia and outcome predictors among people with diabetes in an urban population, DIABETIC MEDICINE, ISSN: 0742-3071

Journal article

Avari P, Unsworth R, Rilstone S, Uduku C, Logan KM, Hill NE, Godsland IF, Reddy M, Oliver Net al., 2021, Improved glycaemia during the Covid-19 pandemic lockdown is sustained post-lockdown and during the "Eat Out to Help Out" Government Scheme, in adults with Type 1 diabetes in the United Kingdom, PLOS ONE, Vol: 16, ISSN: 1932-6203

Journal article

Thomas NJ, Dennis JM, Sharp SA, Kaur A, Misra S, Walkey HC, Johnston DG, Oliver NS, Hagopian WA, Weedon MN, Patel KA, Oram RAet al., 2021, DR15-DQ6 remains dominantly protective against type 1 diabetes throughout the first five decades of life, DIABETOLOGIA, Vol: 64, Pages: 2258-2265, ISSN: 0012-186X

Journal article

Oliver N, 2021, Outside in, DIABETIC MEDICINE, Vol: 38, ISSN: 0742-3071

Journal article

Ngaosuwan K, Johnston DG, Godsland IF, Cox J, Majeed A, Quint JK, Oliver N, Robinson Set al., 2021, Increased mortality risk in patients with primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol: 106, Pages: e2759-e2768, ISSN: 0021-972X

CONTEXT: Mortality data in patients with adrenal insufficiency are inconsistent, possibly due to temporal and geographical differences between patients and their reference populations. OBJECTIVE: To compare mortality risk and causes of death in adrenal insufficiency with an individually-matched reference population. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: UK general practitioner database (CPRD). PARTICIPANTS: 6821 patients with adrenal insufficiency (primary, 2052; secondary, 3948) and 67564 individually-matched controls (primary, 20366; secondary, 39134). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All-cause and cause-specific mortality; hospital admission from adrenal crisis. RESULTS: With follow-up of 40799 and 406899 person-years for patients and controls respectively, the hazard ratio (HR; [95%CI]) for all-cause mortality was 1.68 [1.58 - 1.77]. HRs were greater in primary (1.83 [1.66 - 2.02]) than in secondary (1.52 [1.40 - 1.64]) disease; (HR; primary versus secondary disease, 1.16 [1.03 - 1.30]). The leading cause of death was cardiovascular disease (HR 1.54 [1.32-1.80]), along with malignant neoplasms and respiratory disease. Deaths from infection were also relatively high (HR 4.00 [2.15 - 7.46]). Adrenal crisis contributed to 10% of all deaths. In the first two years following diagnosis, the patients' mortality rate and hospitalisation from adrenal crisis were higher than in later years. CONCLUSION: Mortality was increased in adrenal insufficiency, especially primary, even with individual matching and was observed early in the disease course. Cardiovascular disease was the major cause but mortality from infection was also high. Adrenal crisis was a common contributor. Early education for prompt treatment of infections and avoidance of adrenal crisis hold potential to reduce mortality.

Journal article

Washirasaksiri C, Srivanichakorn W, Godsland IF, Kositamongkol C, Chariyalertsak S, Kessomboon P, Assanangkornchai S, Taneepanichskul S, Neelapaichit N, Phisalprapa P, Johnston DG, Oliver NS, Aekplakorn Wet al., 2021, Increasing glycaemia is associated with a significant decline in HDL cholesterol in women with prediabetes in two national populations, SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2045-2322

Journal article

Oliver N, 2021, Changes, DIABETIC MEDICINE, Vol: 38, ISSN: 0742-3071

Journal article

Ngaosuwan K, Johnston DG, Godsland IF, Cox J, Majeed A, Quint JK, Oliver N, Robinson Set al., 2021, Full Mortality risk in patients with adrenal insufficiency using Prednisolone or Hydrocortisone: A Retrospective Cohort study., J Clin Endocrinol Metab

CONTEXT: Prednisolone has been recommended rather than hydrocortisone for glucocorticoid replacement in adrenal insufficiency due its longer duration of action and lower cost. OBJECTIVE: To determine mortality rates with prednisolone versus hydrocortisone. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: A UK primary care database (Clinical Practice Research Datalink). PARTICIPANTS: Patients with primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency, treated with either prednisolone or hydrocortisone, and controls individually matched for age, sex, period and place of follow-up. INTERVENTIONS: Nil. OUTCOMES: Mortality relative to individually matched controls. RESULTS: As expected, mortality in adrenal insufficiency irrespective of cause was increased, based on 5478 patients (4228 on hydrocortisone; 1250 on prednisolone) and 54314 controls (41934 and 12380, respectively). Overall, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) was similar with the two treatments (prednisolone, 1.76 [95% CI, 1.54-2.01] vs. hydrocortisone 1.69 [1.57-1.82]; p=0.65). This was also the case for secondary adrenal insufficiency. In primary disease (1405 on hydrocortisone vs. 137 on prednisolone:13965 and 1347 controls, respectively), prednisolone-users were older, more likely to have another autoimmune disease and malignancy, and less likely to have mineralocorticoid replacement. Nevertheless, after adjustment, the HR for prednisolone-treated patients remained higher than for those taking hydrocortisone (2.92 [2.19-3.91] vs. 1.90 [1.66-2.16]; p=0.0020). CONCLUSIONS: In primary but not in secondary adrenal insufficiency mortality was higher with prednisolone. The study was large, but the number of prednisolone-treated patients was small, and they had greater risk factors. Nonetheless the increased mortality associated with prednisolone persisted despite statistical adjustment. Further evidence is needed regarding the long-term safety of prednisolone as routine replacement.

Journal article

Ngaosuwan K, Johnston DG, Godsland IF, Cox J, Majeed A, Quint JK, Oliver N, Robinson Set al., 2021, Cardiovascular disease in patients with primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency and the role of comorbidities, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol: 106, Pages: 1284-1293, ISSN: 0021-972X

CONTEXT: Mortality studies have established that cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in patients with adrenal insufficiency and the risk is greater than that observed in individually-matched controls. OBJECTIVE: Here we have performed a detailed analysis of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, taking account of the role of co-morbidities. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: UK general practitioner database (CPRD). PARTICIPANTS: 6821 patients with adrenal insufficiency (primary, 2052; secondary, 3948) compared with 67564 individually-matched controls, with and without adjustment for comorbidities (diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, previous cardiovascular disease, and smoking). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Composite cardiovascular events recorded in CPRD and cardiovascular mortality in those participants with linked national mortality data. RESULTS: Hazard ratios (95%CI) for composite cardiovascular events in patients with adrenal insufficiency of any cause were 1.28 (1.20-1.36, unadjusted) and 1.07 (1.01-1.14, adjusted). Increased cerebrovascular events in patients with secondary adrenal insufficiency accounted for most of the increased hazard (1.53 (1.34-1.74, adjusted)) and were associated with cranial irradiation therapy. Cardiovascular mortality data were available for 3547 patients and 34944 controls. The adjusted hazard ratio for ischaemic heart disease mortality was 1.86 (1.25-2.78) for primary adrenal insufficiency and 1.39 (1.02-1.89) for secondary. CONCLUSION: Co-morbidities largely accounted for the increased cardiovascular events but in secondary adrenal insufficiency, cerebrovascular events were independently increased and associated with irradiation treatment. However, the risk of cardiovascular mortality remained increased even following adjustment for co-morbidities in both primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency.

Journal article

Oliver N, 2021, Holding steady, DIABETIC MEDICINE, Vol: 38, ISSN: 0742-3071

Journal article

Rilstone S, Reddy M, Oliver N, 2021, A Pilot Study of Flat and Circadian Insulin Infusion Rates in Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion (CSII) in Adults with Type 1 Diabetes (FIRST1D)., J Diabetes Sci Technol, Vol: 15, Pages: 666-671

BACKGROUND: Initiation of continuous subcutaneous insulin therapy (CSII) in type 1 diabetes requires conversion of a basal insulin dose into a continuous infusion regimen. There are limited data to guide the optimal insulin profile to rapidly achieve target glucose and minimize healthcare professional input. The aim of this pilot study was to compare circadian and flat insulin infusion rates in CSII naïve adults with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Adults with type 1 diabetes commencing CSII were recruited. Participants were randomized to circadian or flat basal profile calculated from the total daily dose. Basal rate testing was undertaken on days 7, 14 and 28 and basal rates were adjusted. The primary outcome was the between-group difference in absolute change in insulin basal rate over 24 hours following three rounds of basal testing. Secondary outcomes included the number of basal rate changes and the time blocks. RESULTS: Seventeen participants (mean age 33.3 (SD 8.6) years) were recruited. There was no significant difference in absolute change in insulin basal rates between groups (P = .85). The circadian group experienced significant variation in the number of changes made with the most changes in the morning and evening (P = .005). The circadian group received a greater reduction in total insulin (-14.1 (interquartile range (IQR) -22.5-12.95) units) than the flat group (-7.48 (IQR -11.90-1.23) units) (P = .021). CONCLUSION: The initial insulin profile does not impact on the magnitude of basal rate changes during optimization. The circadian profile requires changes at specific time points. Further development of the circadian profile may be the optimal strategy.

Journal article

Oliver N, 2021, Best foot forward, DIABETIC MEDICINE, Vol: 38, ISSN: 0742-3071

Journal article

von Herrath M, Bain SC, Bode B, Clausen JO, Coppieters K, Gaysina L, Gumprecht J, Hansen TK, Mathieu C, Morales C, Mosenzon O, Segel S, Tsoukas G, Pieber TRet al., 2021, Anti-interleukin-21 antibody and liraglutide for the preservation of beta-cell function in adults with recent-onset type 1 diabetes: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial, LANCET DIABETES & ENDOCRINOLOGY, Vol: 9, Pages: 212-224, ISSN: 2213-8587

Journal article

Avari P, Leal Y, Herrero Vinas P, Wos M, Jugnee N, Arnoriaga-Rodríguez M, Thomas M, Liu C, Massana Q, Lopez B, Nita L, Martin C, Fernández-Real JM, Oliver N, Fernández-Balsells M, Reddy Met al., 2021, Safety and feasibility of the PEPPER adaptive bolus advisor and safety system; a randomized control study, Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics, Vol: 23, Pages: 175-186, ISSN: 1520-9156

Background: The Patient Empowerment through Predictive Personalized Decision Support (PEPPER) system provides personalized bolus advice for people with type 1 diabetes. The system incorporates an adaptive insulin recommender system (based on case-based reasoning, an artificial intelligence methodology), coupled with a safety system, which includes predictive glucose alerts and alarms, predictive low-glucose suspend, personalized carbohydrate recommendations, and dynamic bolus insulin constraint. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of the PEPPER system compared to a standard bolus calculator.Methods: This was an open-labeled multicenter randomized controlled crossover study. Following 4-week run-in, participants were randomized to PEPPER/Control or Control/PEPPER in a 1:1 ratio for 12 weeks. Participants then crossed over after a washout period. The primary end-point was percentage time in range (TIR, 3.9–10.0 mmol/L [70–180 mg/dL]). Secondary outcomes included glycemic variability, quality of life, and outcomes on the safety system and insulin recommender.Results: Fifty-four participants on multiple daily injections (MDI) or insulin pump completed the run-in period, making up the intention-to-treat analysis. Median (interquartile range) age was 41.5 (32.3–49.8) years, diabetes duration 21.0 (11.5–26.0) years, and HbA1c 61.0 (58.0–66.1) mmol/mol. No significant difference was observed for percentage TIR between the PEPPER and Control groups (62.5 [52.1–67.8] % vs. 58.4 [49.6–64.3] %, respectively, P = 0.27). For quality of life, participants reported higher perceived hypoglycemia with the PEPPER system despite no objective difference in time spent in hypoglycemia.Conclusions: The PEPPER system was safe, but did not change glycemic outcomes, compared to control. There is wide scope for integrating PEPPER into routine diabetes management for pump and MDI users. Further studies are required to confir

Journal article

Oliver N, 2021, A complex archetype, DIABETIC MEDICINE, Vol: 38, ISSN: 0742-3071

Journal article

Moser O, Riddell MC, Eckstein ML, Adolfsson P, Rabasa-Lhoret R, van den Boom L, Gillard P, Norgaard K, Oliver NS, Zaharieva DP, Battelino T, de Beaufort C, Bergenstal RM, Buckingham B, Cengiz E, Deeb A, Heise T, Heller S, Kowalski AJ, Leelarathna L, Mathieu C, Stettler C, Tauschmann M, Thabit H, Wilmot EG, Sourij H, Smart CE, Jacobs PG, Bracken RM, Mader JKet al., 2021, Glucose management for exercise using continuous glucose monitoring: should sex and prandial state be additional considerations? Reply to Yardley JE and Sigal RJ [letter], DIABETOLOGIA, Vol: 64, Pages: 935-938, ISSN: 0012-186X

Journal article

Oliver N, 2021, Taking measure, DIABETIC MEDICINE, Vol: 38, ISSN: 0742-3071

Journal article

Ilesanmi I, Tharakan G, Alexiadou K, Behary P, Alessimii H, Bovill-Taylor C, Kenkre J, Choudhury S, Doyle C, Purkayastha S, Miras A, Tsironis C, Chahal H, Bloom SR, Oliver NS, Ahmed AR, Khoo B, Tan TM-Met al., 2021, Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Increases Glycemic Variability and Time in Hypoglycemia in Patients With Obesity and Prediabetes or Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Cohort Study, DIABETES CARE, Vol: 44, Pages: 614-617, ISSN: 0149-5992

Journal article

Izzi-Engbeaya C, Distaso W, Amin A, Kenkre J, Abdel-Malek M, Hope D, Oliver N, Misra S, Tan T, Hill N, Salem Vet al., 2021, Adverse outcomes in COVID-19 and diabetes – a retrospective cohort study from three London Teaching hospitals, BMJ Open Diabetes Research and Care, Vol: 9, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 2052-4897

INTRODUCTION: Patients with diabetes mellitus admitted to hospital with COVID-19 have poorer outcomes. However, the drivers for this are not fully elucidated. We performed detailed characterisation of COVID-19 patients to determine clinical and biochemical factors that may be the drivers of poorer outcomes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of 889 consecutive inpatients diagnosed with COVID-19 between 9th March 2020 and 22nd April 2020 in a large London NHS Trust. Unbiased multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine variables that were independently and significantly associated with increased risk of death and/or ICU admission within 30 days of COVID-19 diagnosis. RESULTS: 62% of patients in our cohort were of non-White ethnic backgrounds and the diabetes prevalence was 38%. 323 (36%) patients met the primary outcome of death/admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) within 30 days of COVID-19 diagnosis. Male gender, lower platelet count, advancing age and higher Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) score (but not diabetes) independently predicted poor outcomes on multivariate analysis. Antiplatelet medication was associated with a lower risk of death/ICU admission. Factors that were significantly and independently associated with poorer outcomes in patients with diabetes were co-existing ischaemic heart disease, increasing age and lower platelet count. CONCLUSIONS: In this large study of a diverse patient population, comorbidity (i.e. diabetes with ischaemic heart disease; increasing CFS score in older patients) were major determinants of poor outcomes with COVID-19. Antiplatelet medication should be evaluated in randomised clinical trials amongst high-risk patient groups.

Journal article

Giménez M, Conget I, Oliver N, 2021, Automated Insulin Delivery Systems: Today, Tomorrow and User Requirements, Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology

Automated insulin delivery (AID) is the most recent advance in type 1 diabetes (T1D) management. It has the potential to achieve glycemic targets without disabling hypoglycemia, to improve quality of life and reduce diabetes distress and burden associated with self-management. Several AID systems are currently licensed for use by people with T1D in Europe, United States, and the rest of the world. Despite AID becoming a reality in routine clinical practice over the last few years, the commercially hybrid AID and other systems, are still far from a fully optimized automated diabetes management tool. Implementation of AID systems requires education and support of healthcare professionals taking care of people with T1D, as well as users and their families. There is much to do to increase usability, portability, convenience and to reduce the burden associated with the use of the systems. Co-design, involvement of people with lived experience of T1D and robust qualitative assessment is critical to improving the real-world use of AID systems, especially for those who may have greater need. In addition to this, information regarding the psychosocial impact of the use of AID systems in real life is needed. The first commercially available AID systems are not the end of the development journey but are the first step in learning how to optimally automate insulin delivery in a way that is equitably accessible and effective for people living with T1D.

Journal article

Oliver N, Persaud S, 2021, Happy New Year, DIABETIC MEDICINE, Vol: 38, ISSN: 0742-3071

Journal article

Reddy M, Oliver N, 2020, Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose Requirements with the Use of Intermittently Scanned Continuous Glucose Monitoring: A Follow-Up Analysis Using Real-Life Data, DIABETES TECHNOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS, Vol: 23, Pages: 392-396, ISSN: 1520-9156

Journal article

Agha-Jaffar R, Oliver NS, Kostoula M, Godsland IF, Yu C, Terry J, Johnston D, Gable D, Robinson Set al., 2020, Hyperglycemia recognised in early pregnancy is phenotypically type 2 diabetes mellitus not gestational diabetes mellitus: a case control study, Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, Vol: 33, Pages: 3977-3983, ISSN: 1476-4954

OBJECTIVE: Gestational diabetes mellitus is defined as "diabetes recognized in the second or third trimester that is not clearly overt diabetes". Evidence relating to women with hyperglycemia early in pregnancy is limited. We aimed to evaluate women diagnosed with hyperglycemia early in pregnancy (eGDM) and compared them to those with pregestational established type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and gestational diabetes diagnosed routinely at 24-28-week gestation (rtGDM) to determine if the length of exposure to hyperglycemia adversely affected outcomes. METHODS: Forty consecutive women with eGDM who attended a multidisciplinary antenatal clinic were reviewed. Two separate BMI-matched control groups were identified, recognized pregestational T2DM (n = 80) and rtGDM (n = 80). Baseline demographics and outcomes were compared. RESULTS: A higher proportion of women in the eGDM and T2DM group required insulin and the incidence of hypertensive disorders was similarly increased compared with the rtGDM group (88.6, 77.0 versus 8.1%, p < .001 and 42.5%, 37.5 versus 12.5% p < .001, respectively). The proportion of infants born small for gestational age varied (eGDM 11.1%, T2DM 13.0%, and rtGDM 2.5%, p=.049). Postpartum, 7.5% of eGDM women were diagnosed with T2DM versus 1.3% in the rtGDM group (p<.001). CONCLUSIONS: These novel data demonstrate that the length of exposure to glucose adversely affects materno-foetal outcomes independent of maternal adiposity.

Journal article

Unsworth R, Wallace S, Oliver NS, Yeung S, Kshirsagar A, Naidu H, Kwong RMW, Kumar P, Logan KMet al., 2020, New-Onset Type 1 Diabetes in Children During COVID-19: Multicenter Regional Findings in the UK, DIABETES CARE, Vol: 43, Pages: E170-E171, ISSN: 0149-5992

Journal article

Moser O, Riddell MC, Eckstein ML, Adolfsson P, Rabasa-Lhoret R, van den Boom L, Gillard P, Nørgaard K, Oliver NS, Zaharieva DP, Battelino T, de Beaufort C, Bergenstal RM, Buckingham B, Cengiz E, Deeb A, Heise T, Heller S, Kowalski AJ, Leelarathna L, Mathieu C, Stettler C, Tauschmann M, Thabit H, Wilmot EG, Sourij H, Smart CE, Jacobs PG, Bracken RM, Mader JKet al., 2020, Glucose management for exercise using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and intermittently scanned CGM (isCGM) systems in type 1 diabetes: position statement of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) and of the International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD) endorsed by JDRF and supported by the American Diabetes Association (ADA)., Pediatr Diabetes

Physical exercise is an important component in the management of type 1 diabetes across the lifespan. Yet, acute exercise increases the risk of dysglycaemia, and the direction of glycaemic excursions depends, to some extent, on the intensity and duration of the type of exercise. Understandably, fear of hypoglycaemia is one of the strongest barriers to incorporating exercise into daily life. Risk of hypoglycaemia during and after exercise can be lowered when insulin-dose adjustments are made and/or additional carbohydrates are consumed. Glycaemic management during exercise has been made easier with continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and intermittently scanned continuous glucose monitoring (isCGM) systems; however, because of the complexity of CGM and isCGM systems, both individuals with type 1 diabetes and their healthcare professionals may struggle with the interpretation of given information to maximise the technological potential for effective use around exercise (ie, before, during and after). This position statement highlights the recent advancements in CGM and isCGM technology, with a focus on the evidence base for their efficacy to sense glucose around exercise and adaptations in the use of these emerging tools, and updates the guidance for exercise in adults, children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

Journal article

Moser O, Riddell MC, Eckstein ML, Adolfsson P, Rabasa-Lhoret R, van den Boom L, Gillard P, Nørgaard K, Oliver NS, Zaharieva DP, Battelino T, de Beaufort C, Bergenstal RM, Buckingham B, Cengiz E, Deeb A, Heise T, Heller S, Kowalski AJ, Leelarathna L, Mathieu C, Stettler C, Tauschmann M, Thabit H, Wilmot EG, Sourij H, Smart CE, Jacobs PG, Bracken RM, Mader JKet al., 2020, Glucose management for exercise using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and intermittently scanned CGM (isCGM) systems in type 1 diabetes: position statement of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) and of the International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD) endorsed by JDRF and supported by the American Diabetes Association (ADA)., Diabetologia

Physical exercise is an important component in the management of type 1 diabetes across the lifespan. Yet, acute exercise increases the risk of dysglycaemia, and the direction of glycaemic excursions depends, to some extent, on the intensity and duration of the type of exercise. Understandably, fear of hypoglycaemia is one of the strongest barriers to incorporating exercise into daily life. Risk of hypoglycaemia during and after exercise can be lowered when insulin-dose adjustments are made and/or additional carbohydrates are consumed. Glycaemic management during exercise has been made easier with continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and intermittently scanned continuous glucose monitoring (isCGM) systems; however, because of the complexity of CGM and isCGM systems, both individuals with type 1 diabetes and their healthcare professionals may struggle with the interpretation of given information to maximise the technological potential for effective use around exercise (i.e. before, during and after). This position statement highlights the recent advancements in CGM and isCGM technology, with a focus on the evidence base for their efficacy to sense glucose around exercise and adaptations in the use of these emerging tools, and updates the guidance for exercise in adults, children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Graphical abstract.

Journal article

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