Imperial College London


Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Brain Sciences

Lecturer in Dementia Research; Fellow of the UK DRi



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BibTex format

author = {Grossman, N and Bono, D and Dedic, N and Kodandaramaiah, SB and Rudenko, A and Suk, H-J and Cassara, AM and Neufeld, E and Kuster, N and Tsai, L-H and Pascual-Leone, A and Boyden, ES},
doi = {10.1016/j.cell.2017.05.024},
journal = {CELL},
pages = {1029--1041.e16},
title = {Noninvasive Deep Brain Stimulation via Temporally Interfering Electric Fields},
url = {},
volume = {169},
year = {2017}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - We report a noninvasive strategy for electrically stimulating neurons at depth. By delivering to the brain multiple electric fields at frequencies too high to recruit neural firing, but which differ by a frequency within the dynamic range of neural firing, we can electrically stimulate neurons throughout a region where interference between the multiple fields results in a prominent electric field envelope modulated at the difference frequency. We validated this temporal interference (TI) concept via modeling and physics experiments, and verified that neurons in the living mouse brain could follow the electric field envelope. We demonstrate the utility of TI stimulation by stimulating neurons in the hippocampus of living mice without recruiting neurons of the overlying cortex. Finally, we show that by altering the currents delivered to a set of immobile electrodes, we can steerably evoke different motor patterns in living mice.
AU - Grossman,N
AU - Bono,D
AU - Dedic,N
AU - Kodandaramaiah,SB
AU - Rudenko,A
AU - Suk,H-J
AU - Cassara,AM
AU - Neufeld,E
AU - Kuster,N
AU - Tsai,L-H
AU - Pascual-Leone,A
AU - Boyden,ES
DO - 10.1016/j.cell.2017.05.024
EP - 1041
PY - 2017///
SN - 0092-8674
SP - 1029
TI - Noninvasive Deep Brain Stimulation via Temporally Interfering Electric Fields
UR -
UR -
UR -
VL - 169
ER -