106 results found
Watson OJ, Gao B, Nguyen TD, et al., 2022, Pre-existing partner-drug resistance to artemisinin combination therapies facilitates the emergence and spread of artemisinin resistance: a consensus modelling study., Lancet Microbe, Vol: 3, Pages: e701-e710
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-resistant genotypes of Plasmodium falciparum have now emerged a minimum of six times on three continents despite recommendations that all artemisinins be deployed as artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs). Widespread resistance to the non-artemisinin partner drugs in ACTs has the potential to limit the clinical and resistance benefits provided by combination therapy. We aimed to model and evaluate the long-term effects of high levels of partner-drug resistance on the early emergence of artemisinin-resistant genotypes. METHODS: Using a consensus modelling approach, we used three individual-based mathematical models of Plasmodium falciparum transmission to evaluate the effects of pre-existing partner-drug resistance and ACT deployment on the evolution of artemisinin resistance. Each model simulates 100 000 individuals in a particular transmission setting (malaria prevalence of 1%, 5%, 10%, or 20%) with a daily time step that updates individuals' infection status, treatment status, immunity, genotype-specific parasite densities, and clinical state. We modelled varying access to antimalarial drugs if febrile (coverage of 20%, 40%, or 60%) with one primary ACT used as first-line therapy: dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ), artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ), or artemether-lumefantrine (AL). The primary outcome was time until 0·25 580Y allele frequency for artemisinin resistance (the establishment time). FINDINGS: Higher frequencies of pre-existing partner-drug resistant genotypes lead to earlier establishment of artemisinin resistance. Across all models, a 10-fold increase in the frequency of partner-drug resistance genotypes on average corresponded to loss of artemisinin efficacy 2-12 years earlier. Most reductions in time to artemisinin resistance establishment were observed after an increase in frequency of the partner-drug resistance genotype from 0·0 to 0·10. INTERPRETATION: Partner-drug resistance in ACTs facil
Whittaker C, Watson O, Alvarez-Moreno C, et al., 2022, Understanding the Potential Impact of Different Drug Properties On SARS-CoV-2 Transmission and Disease Burden: A Modelling Analysis, Clinical Infectious Diseases, Vol: 75, Pages: e224-e233, ISSN: 1058-4838
BackgroundThe public health impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has motivated a rapid search for potential therapeutics, with some key successes. However, the potential impact of different treatments, and consequently research and procurement priorities, have not been clear.MethodsUsing a mathematical model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, COVID-19 disease and clinical care, we explore the public-health impact of different potential therapeutics, under a range of scenarios varying healthcare capacity, epidemic trajectories; and drug efficacy in the absence of supportive care.ResultsThe impact of drugs like dexamethasone (delivered to the most critically-ill in hospital and whose therapeutic benefit is expected to depend on the availability of supportive care such as oxygen and mechanical ventilation) is likely to be limited in settings where healthcare capacity is lowest or where uncontrolled epidemics result in hospitals being overwhelmed. As such, it may avert 22% of deaths in high-income countries but only 8% in low-income countries (assuming R=1.35). Therapeutics for different patient populations (those not in hospital, early in the course of infection) and types of benefit (reducing disease severity or infectiousness, preventing hospitalisation) could have much greater benefits, particularly in resource-poor settings facing large epidemics.ConclusionsAdvances in the treatment of COVID-19 to date have been focussed on hospitalised-patients and predicated on an assumption of adequate access to supportive care. Therapeutics delivered earlier in the course of infection that reduce the need for healthcare or reduce infectiousness could have significant impact, and research into their efficacy and means of delivery should be a priority.
Ben A, Watson OJ, Onyango I, et al., 2022, Malaria Transmission Dynamics in a High-Transmission Setting of Western Kenya and the Inadequate Treatment Response to Artemether-Lumefantrine in an Asymptomatic Population, CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES, ISSN: 1058-4838
Watson O, Barnsley G, Toor J, et al., 2022, Global impact of the first year of COVID-19 vaccination: a mathematical modelling study, Lancet Infectious Diseases, ISSN: 1473-3099
Background:The first COVID-19 vaccine outside a clinical trial setting was administered on Dec 8, 2020. To ensure global vaccine equity, vaccine targets were set by the COVID-19 Vaccines Global Access (COVAX) Facility and WHO. However, due to vaccine shortfalls, these targets were not achieved by the end of 2021. We aimed to quantify the global impact of the first year of COVID-19 vaccination programmes.Methods:A mathematical model of COVID-19 transmission and vaccination was separately fit to reported COVID-19 mortality and all-cause excess mortality in 185 countries and territories. The impact of COVID-19 vaccination programmes was determined by estimating the additional lives lost if no vaccines had been distributed. We also estimated the additional deaths that would have been averted had the vaccination coverage targets of 20% set by COVAX and 40% set by WHO been achieved by the end of 2021.Findings:Based on official reported COVID-19 deaths, we estimated that vaccinations prevented 14·4 million (95% credible interval [Crl] 13·7–15·9) deaths from COVID-19 in 185 countries and territories between Dec 8, 2020, and Dec 8, 2021. This estimate rose to 19·8 million (95% Crl 19·1–20·4) deaths from COVID-19 averted when we used excess deaths as an estimate of the true extent of the pandemic, representing a global reduction of 63% in total deaths (19·8 million of 31·4 million) during the first year of COVID-19 vaccination. In COVAX Advance Market Commitment countries, we estimated that 41% of excess mortality (7·4 million [95% Crl 6·8–7·7] of 17·9 million deaths) was averted. In low-income countries, we estimated that an additional 45% (95% CrI 42–49) of deaths could have been averted had the 20% vaccination coverage target set by COVAX been met by each country, and that an additional 111% (105–118) of deaths could have been averted had the 40% target set by
Ghafari M, Watson OJ, Karlinsky A, et al., 2022, A framework for reconstructing SARS-CoV-2 transmission dynamics using excess mortality data, NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 13
Okell L, Brazeau NF, Verity R, et al., 2022, Estimating the COVID-19 infection fatality ratio accounting for seroreversion using statistical modelling, Communications Medicine, Vol: 2, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 2730-664X
Background: The infection fatality ratio (IFR) is a key statistic for estimating the burden of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and has been continuously debated throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. The age-specific IFR can be quantified using antibody surveys to estimate total infections, but requires consideration of delay-distributions from time from infection to seroconversion, time to death, and time to seroreversion (i.e. antibody waning) alongside serologic test sensitivity and specificity. Previous IFR estimates have not fully propagated uncertainty or accounted for these potential biases, particularly seroreversion. Methods: We built a Bayesian statistical model that incorporates these factors and applied this model to simulated data and 10 serologic studies from different countries. Results: We demonstrate that seroreversion becomes a crucial factor as time accrues but is less important during first-wave, short-term dynamics. We additionally show that disaggregating surveys by regions with higher versus lower disease burden can inform serologic test specificity estimates. The overall IFR in each setting was estimated at 0.49 -2.53%.Conclusion: We developed a robust statistical framework to account for full uncertainties in the parameters determining IFR. We provide code for others to apply these methods to further datasets and future epidemics.
Pons-Salort M, John J, Watson OJ, et al., 2022, Reassessing reported deaths and estimated infection attack rate during the first 6 months of the COVID-19 epidemic, Delhi, India., Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol: 28, ISSN: 1080-6040
India reported >10 million coronavirus disease (COVID-19) cases and 149,000 deaths in 2020. To reassess reported deaths and estimate incidence rates during the first 6 months of the epidemic, we used a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 transmission model fit to data from 3 serosurveys in Delhi and time-series documentation of reported deaths. We estimated 48.7% (95% credible interval 22.1%-76.8%) cumulative infection in the population through the end of September 2020. Using an age-adjusted overall infection fatality ratio based on age-specific estimates from mostly high-income countries, we estimated that just 15.0% (95% credible interval 9.3%-34.0%) of COVID-19 deaths had been reported, indicating either substantial underreporting or lower age-specific infection-fatality ratios in India than in high-income countries. Despite the estimated high attack rate, additional epidemic waves occurred in late 2020 and April-May 2021. Future dynamics will depend on the duration of natural and vaccine-induced immunity and their effectiveness against new variants.
Olivera Mesa D, Hogan A, Watson O, et al., 2022, Modelling the impact of vaccine hesitancy in prolonging the need for Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions to control the COVID-19 pandemic, Communications Medicine, Vol: 2, ISSN: 2730-664X
Background: Vaccine hesitancy – a delay in acceptance or refusal of vaccines despite availability – has the potential to threaten the successful roll-out of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines globally. In this study we aim to understand the likely impact of vaccine hesitancy on the control of the COVID-1924pandemic. Methods: We modelled the potential impact of vaccine hesitancy on the control of the pandemic and the relaxation of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) by combining an epidemiological model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission with data on vaccine hesitancy from population surveys.Results: Our simulations suggest that the mortality over a 2-year period could be up to 7.6 times higher in countries with high vaccine hesitancy compared to an ideal vaccination uptake if NPIs are relaxed. Alternatively, high vaccine hesitancy could prolong the need for NPIs to remain in place.Conclusions: While vaccination is an individual choice, vaccine hesitant individuals have a substantial impact on the pandemic trajectory, which may challenge current efforts to control COVID-19. In order to prevent such outcomes, addressing vaccine hesitancy with behavioural interventions is an important priority in the control of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Hogan AB, Wu SL, Doohan P, et al., 2022, The value of vaccine booster doses to mitigate the global impact of the Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant
<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:p>Vaccines have played a central role in mitigating severe disease and death from COVID-19 in the past 12 months. However, efficacy wanes over time and this loss of protection is being compounded by the emergence of the Omicron variant. By fitting an immunological model to population-level vaccine effectiveness data, we estimate that neutralizing antibody titres for Omicron are reduced by 3.9-fold (95% CrI 2.9–5.5) compared to the Delta variant. Under this model, we predict that 90 days after boosting with the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine, efficacy against severe disease (admission to hospital) declines to 95.9% (95% CrI 95.4%–96.3%) against the Delta variant and 78.8% (95% CrI 75.0%–85.1%) against the Omicron variant. Integrating this immunological model within a model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, we demonstrate that the size of the Omicron wave will depend on the degree of past exposure to infection across the population, with relatively small Omicron waves in countries that previously experienced a large Delta wave. We show that booster doses can have a major impact in mitigating the epidemic peak, although in many settings it remains possible that healthcare capacity could still be challenged. This is particularly the case in “zero-COVID” countries where there is little prior infection-induced immunity and therefore epidemic peaks will be higher. Where dose supply is limited, targeting boosters to the highest risk groups to ensure continued high protection in the face of waning immunity is of greater benefit than giving these doses as primary vaccination to younger age-groups. In many settings it is likely that health systems will be stretched, and it may therefore be necessary to maintain and/or reintroduce some level of NPIs to mitigate the worst impacts of the Omicron variant as it replaces the Delta variant.</jats:p>
Favas C, Jarrett P, Ratnayake R, et al., 2022, Country differences in transmissibility, age distribution and case-fatality of SARS-CoV-2: a global ecological analysis, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES, Vol: 114, Pages: 210-218, ISSN: 1201-9712
Hogan A, Wu SL, Doohan P, et al., 2021, Report 48: The value of vaccine booster doses to mitigate the global impact of the Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant
Vaccines have played a central role in mitigating severe disease and death from COVID-19 in the past 12 months. However, efficacy wanes over time and this loss of protection will be compounded by the emergence of the Omicron variant. By fitting an immunological model to population-level vaccine effectiveness data, we estimate that neutralizing antibody titres for Omicron are reduced by 4.5-fold (95% CrI 3.1–7.1) compared to the Delta variant. This is predicted to result in a drop in vaccine efficacy against severe disease (hospitalisation) from 96.5% (95% CrI 96.1%–96.8%) against Delta to 80.1% (95% CrI 76.3%–83.2%) against Omicron for the Pfizer-BioNTech booster by 60 days post boost if NAT decay at the same rate following boosting as following the primary course, and from 97.6% (95% CrI 97.4%-97.9%) against Delta to 85.9% (95% CrI 83.1%-88.3%) against Omicron if NAT decay at half the rate observed after the primary course. Integrating this immunological model within a model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, we show that booster doses will be critical to mitigate the impact of future Omicron waves in countries with high levels of circulating virus. They will also be needed in “zero-COVID” countries where there is little prior infection-induced immunity in order to open up safely. Where dose supply is limited, targeting boosters to the highest risk groups to ensure continued high protection in the face of waning immunity is of greater benefit than giving these doses as primary vaccination to younger age-groups. In all scenarios it is likely that health systems will be stretched. It may be essential, therefore, to maintain and/or reintroduce NPIs to mitigate the worst impacts of the Omicron variant as it replaces the Delta variant. Ultimately, Omicron variant-specific vaccines are likely to be required.
While mathematical models of disease transmission are widely used to inform public health decision-makers globally, the uncertainty inherent in results are often poorly communicated. We outline some potential sources of uncertainty in epidemic models, present traditional methods used to illustrate uncertainty and discuss alternative presentation formats used by modelling groups throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. Then, by drawing on the experience of our own recent modelling, we seek to contribute to the ongoing discussion of how to improve upon traditional methods used to visualise uncertainty by providing a suggestion of how this can be presented in a clear and simple manner.
Mousa A, Winskill P, Watson OJ, et al., 2021, Social contact patterns and implications for infectious disease transmission - a systematic review and meta-analysis of contact surveys, ELIFE, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2050-084X
Mousa A, Winskill P, Watson OJ, et al., 2021, Social contact patterns and implications for infectious disease transmission: a systematic review and meta-analysis of contact surveys, eLife, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2050-084X
Background: Transmission of respiratory pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2 depends on patterns of contact and mixing across populations. Understanding this is crucial to predict pathogen spread and the effectiveness of control efforts. Most analyses of contact patterns to date have focussed on high-income settings.Methods: Here, we conduct a systematic review and individual-participant meta-analysis of surveys carried out in low- and middle-income countries and compare patterns of contact in these settings to surveys previously carried out in high-income countries. Using individual-level data from 28,503 participants and 413,069 contacts across 27 surveys we explored how contact characteristics (number, location, duration and whether physical) vary across income settings.Results: Contact rates declined with age in high- and upper-middle-income settings, but not in low-income settings, where adults aged 65+ made similar numbers of contacts as younger individuals and mixed with all age-groups. Across all settings, increasing household size was a key determinant of contact frequency and characteristics, with low-income settings characterised by the largest, most intergenerational households. A higher proportion of contacts were made at home in low-income settings, and work/school contacts were more frequent in high-income strata. We also observed contrasting effects of gender across income-strata on the frequency, duration and type of contacts individuals made.Conclusions: These differences in contact patterns between settings have material consequences for both spread of respiratory pathogens, as well as the effectiveness of different non-pharmaceutical interventions.
Paschalidis A, Watson OJ, Verity RJ, et al., 2021, COMPLEXITY OF INFECTION ESTIMATION WITH ALLELE FREQUENCIES, Publisher: AMER SOC TROP MED & HYGIENE, Pages: 216-216, ISSN: 0002-9637
Whittaker C, Walker PGT, Alhaffar M, et al., 2021, Under-reporting of deaths limits our understanding of true burden of covid-19, BMJ-BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL, Vol: 375, ISSN: 0959-535X
Mangal T, Whittaker C, Nkhoma D, et al., 2021, The potential impact of intervention strategies on COVID-19 transmission in Malawi: a mathematical modelling study, BMJ Open, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2044-6055
BackgroundCOVID-19 mitigation strategies have been challenging to implement in resource-limited settings due to the potential for widespread disruption to social and economic well-being. Here we predict the clinical severity of COVID-19 in Malawi, quantifying the potential impact of intervention strategies and increases in health system capacity.MethodsThe infection fatality ratios (IFR) were predicted by adjusting reported IFR for China accounting for demography, the current prevalence of comorbidities and health system capacity. These estimates were input into an age-structured deterministic model, which simulated the epidemic trajectory with non-pharmaceutical interventions and increases in health system capacity. Findings The predicted population-level IFR in Malawi, adjusted for age and comorbidity prevalence, is lower than estimated for China (0.26%, 95% uncertainty interval [UI] 0.12 – 0.69%, compared with 0.60%, 95% CI 0.4% – 1.3% in China), however the health system constraints increase the predicted IFR to 0.83%, 95% UI 0.49% – 1.39%. The interventions implemented in January 2021 could potentially avert 54,400 deaths (95% UI 26,900 – 97,300) over the course of the epidemic compared with an unmitigated outbreak. Enhanced shielding of people aged ≥ 60 years could avert a further 40,200 deaths (95% UI 25,300 – 69,700) and halve ICU admissions at the peak of the outbreak. A novel therapeutic agent, which reduces mortality by 0.65 and 0.8 for severe and critical cases respectively, in combination with increasing hospital capacity could reduce projected mortality to 2.5 deaths per 1,000 population (95% UI 1.9 – 3.6).ConclusionWe find the interventions currently used in Malawi are unlikely to effectively prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission but will have a significant impact on mortality. Increases in health system capacity and the introduction of novel therapeutics are likely to further reduce the projected numbers of deaths.
Imai N, Hogan AB, Williams L, et al., 2021, Interpreting estimates of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine efficacy and effectiveness to inform simulation studies of vaccine impact: a systematic review, Wellcome Open Research, Vol: 6, Pages: 185-185
<ns3:p><ns3:bold>Background:</ns3:bold> The multiple efficacious vaccines authorised for emergency use worldwide represent the first preventative intervention against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that does not rely on social distancing measures. The speed at which data are emerging and the heterogeneities in study design, target populations, and implementation make it challenging to interpret and assess the likely impact of vaccine campaigns on local epidemics. We reviewed available vaccine efficacy and effectiveness studies to generate working estimates that can be used to parameterise simulation studies of vaccine impact.</ns3:p><ns3:p> <ns3:bold>Methods:</ns3:bold> We searched MEDLINE, the World Health Organization’s Institutional Repository for Information Sharing, medRxiv, and vaccine manufacturer websites for studies that evaluated the emerging data on COVID-19 vaccine efficacy and effectiveness. Studies providing an estimate of the efficacy or effectiveness of a COVID-19 vaccine using disaggregated data against SARS-CoV-2 infection, symptomatic disease, severe disease, death, or transmission were included. We extracted information on study population, variants of concern (VOC), vaccine platform, dose schedule, study endpoints, and measures of impact. We applied an evidence synthesis approach to capture a range of plausible and consistent parameters for vaccine efficacy and effectiveness that can be used to inform and explore a variety of vaccination strategies as the COVID-19 pandemic evolves.</ns3:p><ns3:p> <ns3:bold>Results:</ns3:bold> Of the 602 articles and reports identified, 53 were included in the analysis. The availability of vaccine efficacy and effectiveness estimates varied by vaccine and were limited for VOCs. Estimates for non-primary endpoints such as effectiveness against infection and onward transmission were sparse. Synthesised estimates were relatively consistent
Knock ES, Whittles LK, Lees JA, et al., 2021, Key epidemiological drivers and impact of interventions in the 2020 SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in England, Science Translational Medicine, Vol: 13, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 1946-6234
We fitted a model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in care homes and the community to regional surveillance data for England. Compared with other approaches, our model provides a synthesis of multiple surveillance data streams into a single coherent modelling framework allowing transmission and severity to be disentangled from features of the surveillance system. Of the control measures implemented, only national lockdown brought the reproduction number (Rteff ) below 1 consistently; if introduced one week earlier it could have reduced deaths in the first wave from an estimated 48,600 to 25,600 (95% credible interval [95%CrI]: 15,900-38,400). The infection fatality ratio decreased from 1.00% (95%CrI: 0.85%-1.21%) to 0.79% (95%CrI: 0.63%-0.99%), suggesting improved clinical care. The infection fatality ratio was higher in the elderly residing in care homes (23.3%, 95%CrI: 14.7%-35.2%) than those residing in the community (7.9%, 95%CrI: 5.9%-10.3%). On 2nd December 2020 England was still far from herd immunity, with regional cumulative infection incidence between 7.6% (95%CrI: 5.4%-10.2%) and 22.3% (95%CrI: 19.4%-25.4%) of the population. Therefore, any vaccination campaign will need to achieve high coverage and a high degree of protection in vaccinated individuals to allow non-pharmaceutical interventions to be lifted without a resurgence of transmission.
Brazeau NF, Mitchell CL, Morgan AP, et al., 2021, The epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax among adults in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2041-1723
Smith TP, Flaxman S, Gallinat AS, et al., 2021, Temperature and population density influence SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the absence of nonpharmaceutical interventions, PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Vol: 118, ISSN: 0027-8424
Djaafara A, Whittaker C, Watson OJ, et al., 2021, Using syndromic measures of mortality to capture the dynamics of COVID-19 in Java, Indonesia in the context of vaccination roll-out, BMC Medicine, Vol: 19, ISSN: 1741-7015
Background: As in many countries, quantifying COVID-19 spread in Indonesia remains challenging due to testing limitations. In Java, non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) were implemented throughout 2020. However, as a vaccination campaign launches, cases and deaths are rising across the island. Methods: We used modelling to explore the extent to which data on burials in Jakarta using strict COVID-19 protocols (C19P) provide additional insight into the transmissibility of the disease, epidemic trajectory, and the impact of NPIs. We assess how implementation of NPIs in early 2021 will shape the epidemic during the period of likely vaccine roll-out. Results: C19P burial data in Jakarta suggest a death toll approximately 3.3 times higher than reported. Transmission estimates using these data suggest earlier, larger, and more sustained impact of NPIs. Measures to reduce sub-national spread, particularly during Ramadan, substantially mitigated spread to more vulnerable rural areas. Given current trajectory, daily cases and deaths are likely to increase in most regions as the vaccine is rolled-out. Transmission may peak in early 2021 in Jakarta if current levels of control are maintained. However, relaxation of control measures is likely to lead to a subsequent resurgence in the absence of an effective vaccination campaign. Conclusions: Syndromic measures of mortality provide a more complete picture of COVID-19 severity upon which to base decision-making. The high potential impact of the vaccine in Java is attributable to reductions in transmission to date and dependent on these being maintained. Increases in control in the relatively short-term will likely yield large, synergistic increases in vaccine impact.
Mousa A, Winskill P, Watson OJ, et al., 2021, Social Contact Patterns and Implications for Infectious Disease Transmission: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Contact Surveys., medRxiv
BACKGROUND: Transmission of respiratory pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2 depends on patterns of contact and mixing across populations. Understanding this is crucial to predict pathogen spread and the effectiveness of control efforts. Most analyses of contact patterns to date have focussed on high-income settings. METHODS: Here, we conduct a systematic review and individual-participant meta-analysis of surveys carried out in low- and middle-income countries and compare patterns of contact in these settings to surveys previously carried out in high-income countries. Using individual-level data from 28,503 participants and 413,069 contacts across 27 surveys we explored how contact characteristics (number, location, duration and whether physical) vary across income settings. RESULTS: Contact rates declined with age in high- and upper-middle-income settings, but not in low-income settings, where adults aged 65+ made similar numbers of contacts as younger individuals and mixed with all age-groups. Across all settings, increasing household size was a key determinant of contact frequency and characteristics, but low-income settings were characterised by the largest, most intergenerational households. A higher proportion of contacts were made at home in low-income settings, and work/school contacts were more frequent in high-income strata. We also observed contrasting effects of gender across income-strata on the frequency, duration and type of contacts individuals made. CONCLUSIONS: These differences in contact patterns between settings have material consequences for both spread of respiratory pathogens, as well as the effectiveness of different non-pharmaceutical interventions. FUNDING: This work is primarily being funded by joint Centre funding from the UK Medical Research Council and DFID (MR/R015600/1).
FitzJohn RG, Knock ES, Whittles LK, et al., 2021, Reproducible parallel inference and simulation of stochastic state space models using odin, dust, and mcstate [version 2; peer review: 2 approved], Wellcome Open Research, Vol: 5, ISSN: 2398-502X
State space models, including compartmental models, are used to model physical, biological and social phenomena in a broad range of scientific fields. A common way of representing the underlying processes in these models is as a system of stochastic processes which can be simulated forwards in time. Inference of model parameters based on observed time-series data can then be performed using sequential Monte Carlo techniques. However, using these methods for routine inference problems can be made difficult due to various engineering considerations: allowing model design to change in response to new data and ideas, writing model code which is highly performant, and incorporating all of this with up-to-date statistical techniques. Here, we describe a suite of packages in the R programming language designed to streamline the design and deployment of state space models, targeted at infectious disease modellers but suitable for other domains. Users describe their model in a familiar domain-specific language, which is converted into parallelised C++ code. A fast, parallel, reproducible random number generator is then used to run large numbers of model simulations in an efficient manner. We also provide standard inference and prediction routines, though the model simulator can be used directly if these do not meet the user's needs. These packages provide guarantees on reproducibility and performance, allowing the user to focus on the model itself, rather than the underlying computation. The ability to automatically generate high-performance code that would be tedious and time-consuming to write and verify manually, particularly when adding further structure to compartments, is crucial for infectious disease modellers. Our packages have been critical to the development cycle of our ongoing real-time modelling efforts in the COVID-19 pandemic, and have the potential to do the same for models used in a number of different domains.
McCabe R, Kont M, Schmit N, et al., 2021, Modelling ICU capacity under different epidemiological scenarios of the COVID-19 pandemic in three western European countries, International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol: 50, Pages: 753-767, ISSN: 0300-5771
Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has placed enormous strain on intensive care units (ICUs) in Europe. Ensuring access to care, irrespective of COVID-19 status, in winter 2020/21 is essential.Methods: An integrated model of hospital capacity planning and epidemiological projections of COVID-19 patients is used to estimate the demand for and resultant spare capacity of ICU beds, staff, and ventilators under different epidemic scenarios in France, Germany, and Italy across the 2020/21 winter period. The effect of implementing lockdowns triggered by different numbers of COVID-19 patients in ICU under varying levels of effectiveness is examined, using a ‘dual-demand’ (COVID-19 and non-COVID-19) patient model.Results: Without sufficient mitigation, we estimate that COVID-19 ICU patient numbers will exceed those seen in the first peak, resulting in substantial capacity deficits, with beds being consistently found to be the most constrained resource. Reactive lockdowns could lead to large improvements in ICU capacity during the winter season, with pressure being most effectively alleviated when lockdown is triggered early and sustained under a higher level of suppression. The success of such interventions also depends on baseline bed numbers and average non-COVID-19 patient occupancy.Conclusions: Reductions in capacity deficits under different scenarios must be weighed against the feasibility and drawbacks of further lockdowns. Careful, continuous decision-making by national policymakers will be required across the winter period 2020/21.
Hogan AB, Winskill P, Watson OJ, et al., 2021, Within-country age-based prioritisation, global allocation, and public health impact of a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2: a mathematical modelling analysis, Vaccine, Vol: 39, Pages: 2995-3006, ISSN: 0264-410X
The worldwide endeavour to develop safe and effective COVID-19 vaccines has been extraordinary, and vaccination is now underway in many countries. However, the doses available in 2021 are likely to be limited. We extended a mathematical model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission across different country settings to evaluate the public health impact of potential vaccines using WHO-developed target product profiles. We identified optimal vaccine allocation strategies within- and between-countries to maximise averted deaths under constraints on dose supply. We found that the health impact of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination depends on the cumulative population-level infection incidence when vaccination begins, the duration of natural immunity, the trajectory of the epidemic prior to vaccination, and the level of healthcare available to effectively treat those with disease. Within a country we find that for a limited supply (doses for <20% of the population) the optimal strategy is to target the elderly. However, with a larger supply, if vaccination can occur while other interventions are maintained, the optimal strategy switches to targeting key transmitters to indirectly protect the vulnerable. As supply increases, vaccines that reduce or block infection have a greater impact than those that prevent disease alone due to the indirect protection provided to high-risk groups. Given a 2 billion global dose supply in 2021, we find that a strategy in which doses are allocated to countries proportional to population size is close to optimal in averting deaths and aligns with the ethical principles agreed in pandemic preparedness planning.
Watson O, Alhaffar M, Mehchy Z, et al., 2021, Leveraging community mortality indicators to infer COVID-19 mortality and transmission dynamics in Damascus, Syria, Nature Communications, Vol: 12, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 2041-1723
The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in substantial mortality worldwide. However, to date, countries in the Middle East and Africa have reported considerably lower mortality rates than in Europe and the Americas. Motivated by reports of an overwhelmed health system, we estimate the likely under-ascertainment of COVID-19 mortality in Damascus, Syria. Using all-cause mortality data, we fit a mathematical model of COVID-19 transmission to reported mortality, estimating that 1.25% of COVID-19 deaths (sensitivity range 1.00% – 3.00%) have been reported as of 2 September 2020. By 2 September, we estimate that 4,380 (95% CI: 3,250 – 5,550) COVID-19 deaths in Damascus may have been missed, with 39.0% (95% CI: 32.5% – 45.0%) of the population in Damascus estimated to have been infected. Accounting for under-ascertainment corroborates reports of exceeded hospital bed capacity and is validated by community-uploaded obituary notifications, which confirm extensive unreported mortality in Damascus.
Ragonnet-Cronin M, Boyd O, Geidelberg L, et al., 2021, Genetic evidence for the association between COVID-19 epidemic severity and timing of non-pharmaceutical interventions, Nature Communications, Vol: 12, Pages: 1-7, ISSN: 2041-1723
Unprecedented public health interventions including travel restrictions and national lockdowns have been implemented to stem the COVID-19 epidemic, but the effectiveness of non- pharmaceutical interventions is still debated. We carried out a phylogenetic analysis of more than 29,000 publicly available whole genome SARS-CoV-2 sequences from 57 locations to estimate the time that the epidemic originated in different places. These estimates were examined in relation to the dates of the most stringent interventions in each location as well as to the number of cumulative COVID-19 deaths and phylodynamic estimates of epidemic size. Here we report that the time elapsed between epidemic origin and maximum intervention is associated with different measures of epidemic severity and explains 11% of the variance in reported deaths one month after the most stringent intervention. Locations where strong non-pharmaceutical interventions were implemented earlier experienced 30 much less severe COVID-19 morbidity and mortality during the period of study.
Watson OJ, Gao B, Nguyen TD, et al., 2021, Pre-existing partner-drug resistance facilitates the emergence and spread of artemisinin resistance: a consensus modelling study
<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:sec><jats:title>Background</jats:title><jats:p>Artemisinin-resistant genotypes have now emerged a minimum of five times on three continents despite recommendations that all artemisinins be deployed as artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs). Widespread resistance to the non-artemisinin partner drugs in ACTs has the potential to limit the clinical and resistance benefits provided by combination therapy.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Methods</jats:title><jats:p>Using a consensus modelling approach with three individual-based mathematical models of <jats:italic>Plasmodium falciparum</jats:italic> transmission, we evaluate the effects of pre-existing partner-drug resistance and ACT deployment on artemisinin resistance evolution. We evaluate settings where dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ), artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ), or artemether-lumefantrine (AL) are deployed as first-line therapy. We use time until 0.25 artemisinin resistance allele frequency (the establishment time) as the primary outcome measure.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Findings</jats:title><jats:p>Higher frequencies of pre-existing partner-drug resistant genotypes lead to earlier establishment of artemisinin resistance. Across all scenarios and pre-existing frequencies of partner-drug resistance explored, a 0.10 increase in partner-drug resistance frequency on average corresponded to 0.7 to 5.0 years loss of artemisinin efficacy. However, the majority of reductions in time to artemisinin establishment were observed after the first increment from 0.0 to 0.10 partner-drug resistance genotype frequency.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Interpretation</jats:title><jats:p>Partner-drug resistance in ACTs facilitates the early emergence of artemisinin resistance and is a major public
This data is extracted from the Web of Science and reproduced under a licence from Thomson Reuters. You may not copy or re-distribute this data in whole or in part without the written consent of the Science business of Thomson Reuters.