55 results found
Galiffi E, Huidobro PA, Pendry J, 2022, An Archimedes' screw for light, Nature Communications, Vol: 13, Pages: 1-8, ISSN: 2041-1723
An Archimedes’ Screw captures water, feeding energy into it by lifting it to a higher level. We introduce the first instance of an optical Archimedes’ Screw, and demonstrate how this system is capable of capturing light, dragging it and amplifying it. We unveil new exact analytic solutions to Maxwell’s Equations for a wide family of chiral space-time media, and show their potential to achieve chirally selective amplification within widely tunable parity-time-broken phases. Our work, which may be readily implemented via pump-probe experiments with circularly polarized beams, opens a new direction in the physics of time-varying media by merging the rising field of space-time metamaterials and that of chiral systems, and offers a new playground for topological and non-Hermitian photonics, with potential applications to chiral spectroscopy and sensing.
Rider MS, Buendía Á, Abujetas DR, et al., 2022, Advances and Prospects in Topological Nanoparticle Photonics, ACS Photonics, ISSN: 2330-4022
Pendry J, Galiffi E, Huidobro P, 2021, Gain in time dependent media - a new mechanism, Journal of the Optical Society of America B, Vol: 38, Pages: 3360-3366, ISSN: 0740-3224
Time dependent systems do not in general conserve energy invalidating much of thetheory developed for static systems and turning our intuition on its head. This is particularlyacute in luminal space time crystals where the structure moves at or close to the velocity oflight. Conventional Bloch wave theory no longer applies, energy grows exponentially withtime, and a new perspective is required to understand the phenomenology. In this letter weidentify a new mechanism for amplification: the compression of lines of force that arenevertheless conserved in number.
Galiffi E, Silveirinha MG, Huidobro PA, et al., 2021, Photon localization and Bloch symmetry breaking in luminal gratings, PHYSICAL REVIEW B, Vol: 104, ISSN: 2469-9950
Pendry JB, Galiffi E, Huidobro PA, 2021, Gain mechanism in time-dependent media, OPTICA, Vol: 8, Pages: 636-637, ISSN: 2334-2536
Proctor M, Blanco de Paz M, Bercioux D, et al., 2021, Higher-order topology in plasmonic Kagome lattices, APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, Vol: 118, ISSN: 0003-6951
Proctor M, Huidobro PA, Bradlyn B, et al., 2020, Robustness of topological corner modes in photonic crystals, PHYSICAL REVIEW RESEARCH, Vol: 2
Proctor M, Xiao X, Craster RV, et al., 2020, Near- and far-field excitation of topological plasmonic metasurfaces, Photonics, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2304-6732
The breathing honeycomb lattice hosts a topologically non-trivial bulk phase due to the crystalline-symmetry of the system. Pseudospin-dependent edge states, which emerge at the interface between trivial and non-trivial regions, can be used for the directional propagation of energy. Using the plasmonic metasurface as an example system, we probe these states in the near- and far-field using a semi-analytical model. We provide the conditions under which directionality was observed and show that it is source position dependent. By probing with circularly-polarised magnetic dipoles out of the plane, we first characterise modes along the interface in terms of the enhancement of source emissions due to the metasurface. We then excite from the far-field with non-zero orbital angular momentum beams. The position-dependent directionality holds true for all classical wave systems with a breathing honeycomb lattice. Our results show that a metasurfac,e in combination with a chiral two-dimensional material, could be used to guide light effectively on the nanoscale.
Galiffi E, Wang Y-T, Lim Z, et al., 2020, Wood Anomalies and Surface-Wave Excitation with a Time Grating, PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, Vol: 125, ISSN: 0031-9007
Yang F, Huidobro PA, Pendry JB, 2020, Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy of Singular Plasmonic Metasurfaces, LASER & PHOTONICS REVIEWS, Vol: 14, ISSN: 1863-8880
Proctor M, Huidobro PA, Maier SA, et al., 2020, Manipulating topological valley modes in plasmonic metasurfaces, Nanophotonics, Vol: 9, Pages: 657-665, ISSN: 2192-8606
The coupled light-matter modes supported by plasmonic metasurfaces can be combined with topological principles to yield subwavelength topological valley states of light. We give a systematic presentation of the topological valley states available for lattices of metallic nanoparticles: All possible lattices with hexagonal symmetry are considered, as well as valley states emerging on a square lattice. Several unique effects which have yet to be explored in plasmonics are identified, such as robust guiding, filtering and splitting of modes, as well as dual-band effects. We demonstrate these by means of scattering computations based on the coupled dipole method that encompass the full electromagnetic interactions between nanoparticles.
Yang F, Galiffi E, Huidobro PA, et al., 2020, Nonlocal effects in plasmonic metasurfaces with almost touching surfaces, PHYSICAL REVIEW B, Vol: 101, ISSN: 2469-9950
Galiffi E, Arroyo Huidobro P, Goncalves PAD, et al., 2020, Probing graphene’s nonlocality with singular metasurfaces, Nanophotonics, Vol: 9, Pages: 309-316, ISSN: 2192-8606
Singular graphene metasurfaces, conductivity gratings realized by periodically suppressing the local doping level of a graphene sheet, were recently proposed to efficiently harvest THz light and couple it to surface plasmons over broad absorption bands, thereby achieving remarkably high field enhancement. However, the large momentum wavevectors thus attained are sensitive to the nonlocal behavior of the underlying electron liquid. Here, we extend the theory of singular graphene metasurfaces to account for the full nonlocal optical response of graphene and discuss the resulting impact on the plasmon resonance spectrum. Finally, we propose a simple local-analogue model that is able to reproduce the effect of nonlocality in local-response calculations by introducing a constant conductivity offset, which could prove a valuable tool in the modeling of more complex experimental graphene-based platforms.
Huidobro PA, Fernandez-Dominguez A, 2020, Transformation optics for plasmonics: from metasurfaces to excitonic strong coupling, COMPTES RENDUS PHYSIQUE, Vol: 21, Pages: 389-408, ISSN: 1631-0705
Proctor M, Craster RV, Maier SA, et al., 2019, Exciting pseudospin-dependent edge states in plasmonic metasurfaces, ACS Photonics, Vol: 6, Pages: 2985-2995, ISSN: 2330-4022
We study a plasmonic metasurface that supports pseudospin-dependent edge states confined at a subwavelength scale, considering full electrodynamic interactions including retardation and radiative effects. The spatial symmetry of the lattice of plasmonic nanoparticles gives rise to edge states with properties reminiscent of the quantum spin Hall effect in topological insulators. However, unlike the spin-momentum locking characteristic of topological insulators, these modes are not purely unidirectional and their propagation properties can be understood by analyzing the spin angular momentum of the electromagnetic field, which is inhomogeneous in the plane of the lattice. The local sign of the spin angular momentum determines the propagation direction of the mode under a near-field excitation source. We also study the optical response under far-field excitation and discuss in detail the effects of radiation and retardation.
Galiffi E, Huidobro PA, Goncalves PAD, et al., 2019, Probing graphene's nonlocality with singular metasurfaces, Publisher: arXiv
Singular graphene metasurfaces, conductivity gratings realized by periodically suppressing the local doping level of a graphene sheet, have recently been proposed to efficiently harvest THz light and couple it to surface plasmons over broad absorption bands, achieving remarkably high field enhancement. However, the large momentum wavevectors thus attained are sensitive to the nonlocal behaviour of the underlying electron liquid. Here, we extend the theory of singular graphene metasurfaces to account for the full nonlocal optical response of graphene and discuss the resulting impact on the plasmon resonance spectrum. Finally, we propose a simple local analogue model that is able to reproduce the effect of nonlocality in local-response calculations by introducing a constant conductivity offset, which could prove a valuable tool in the modelling of more complex experimental graphene-based platforms.
Huidobro PA, Galiffi E, Guenneau S, et al., 2019, Fresnel drag in space-time-modulated metamaterials, Publisher: arXiv
A moving medium drags light along with it as measured by Fizeau and explained by Einstein's theory of special relativity. Here we show that the same effect can be obtained in a situation where there is no physical motion of the medium. Modulations of both the permittivity and permeability, phased in space and time in the form of travelling waves, are the basis of our model. Space-time metamaterials are represented by effective bianisotropic parameters, which can in turn be mapped to a moving homogeneous medium. Hence these metamaterials mimic a relativistic effect without the need for any actual material motion. We discuss how both the permittivity and permeability need to be modulated in order to achieve these effects, and we present an equivalent transmission line model.
Pocock S, Huidobro PA, Giannini V, 2019, Bulk-edge correspondence and long range hopping in the topological plasmonic chain, Nanophotonics, Vol: 8, Pages: 1337-1347, ISSN: 2192-8606
The existence of topologically protected edge modes is often cited as a highly desirable trait of topological insulators. However, these edge states are not always present. A realistic physical treatment of long-range hopping in a one-dimensional dipolar system can break the symmetry that protects the edge modes without affecting the bulk topological number, leading to a breakdown in bulk-edge correspondence (BEC). Hence, it is important to gain a better understanding of where and how this occurs, as well as how to measure it. Here we examine the behaviour of the bulk and edge modes in a dimerised chain of metallic nanoparticles and in a simpler non-Hermitian next-nearest-neighbour model to provide some insights into the phenomena of bulk-edge breakdown. We construct BEC phase diagrams for the simpler case and use these ideas to devise a measure of symmetry-breaking for the plasmonic system based on its bulk properties. This provides a parameter regime in which BEC is preserved in the topological plasmonic chain, as well as a framework for assessing this phenomenon in other systems.
Galiffi E, Huidobro PA, Pendry JB, 2019, Broadband nonreciprocal THz amplification in luminal graphene metasurfaces, Publisher: arXiv
Time has emerged as a new degree of freedom for metamaterials, promising newpathways in wave control. However, electromagnetism suffers from limitations inthe modulation speed of material parameters. Here we argue that theselimitations can be circumvented by introducing a traveling-wave refractiveindex modulation, with the same phase velocity of the waves. We show how theconcept of "luminal grating" can yield giant nonreciprocity, achieve efficientone-way amplification, pulse compression and frequency up-conversion, proposinga realistic implementation in double-layer graphene.
Guerra Hernandez LA, Huidobro PA, Cortes E, et al., 2019, Resonant Far- to Near-Field Channeling in Synergetic Multiscale Antennas, ACS PHOTONICS, Vol: 6, Pages: 1466-1473, ISSN: 2330-4022
Yang F, Wang Y-T, Huidobro PA, et al., 2019, Nonlocal effects in singular plasmonic metasurfaces, Physical Review B, Vol: 99, ISSN: 2469-9950
A local model of the dielectric response of a metal predicts that singular surfaces, such as sharp-edged structures, have a continuous absorption spectrum and extreme concentration of energy at the singularity. Here, we show that nonlocality drastically alters this picture: The spectrum is now discrete and the energy concentration, though still substantial, is greatly reduced.
Rider MS, Palmer SJ, Pocock SR, et al., 2019, A perspective on topological nanophotonics: current status and future challenges, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol: 125, ISSN: 0021-8979
Topological photonic systems, with their ability to host states protectedagainst disorder and perturbation, allow us to do with photons what topological insulators do with electrons. Topological photonics can refer to electronic systems coupled with light or purely photonic setups. By shrinking these systems to the nanoscale, we can harness the enhanced sensitivity observed in nanoscale structures and combine this with the protection of the topological photonic states, allowing us to design photonic local density of states and to push towards one of the ultimate goals of modern science: the precise control of photons at the nanoscale. This is paramount for both nano-technological applications and also for fundamental research in light matter problems. For purely photonic systems, we work with bosonic rather than fermionic states, so the implementation of topology in these systems requires new paradigms. Trying to face these challenges has helped in the creation of the exciting new field of topological nanophotonics, with far-reaching applications. In this prospective article we review milestones in topological photonics and discuss how they can be built upon at the nanoscale.
Galiffi E, Pendry J, Arroyo Huidobro P, 2019, Singular Graphene Metasurfaces, EPJ Applied Metamaterials, Vol: 6, ISSN: 2272-2394
The spatial tunability of the electron density in graphene enables the dynamic engineering of metasurfaces in the form of conductivity gratings, which can bridge the momentum gap between incident radiation and surface plasmons. Here, we discuss singular graphene metasurfaces, whose conductivity is strongly suppressed at the grating valleys. By analytically characterising their plasmonic response via transformation optics, we first review the physical principles underlying these structures, which were recently found to exhibit broadband, tunable THz absorption. We characterise the spectrum with different common substrates and then move to study in further detail how conductivity gratings may be finely tuned by placing an array of charged gold nanowires at sub-micron distance from the graphene.
Pendry JB, Huidobro PA, Ding K, 2019, Computing one-dimensional metasurfaces, Physical Review B, Vol: 99, ISSN: 2469-9950
We show that complex periodic metasurfaces can be simply represented by conformal transformations from the flat surface of a slab of material to a periodic grating leading to a methodology for computing their properties. Matrix equations are solved to give accurate solutions of Maxwell's equations with detailed derivations given in the Supplemental Material.
Yang F, Huidobro PA, Pendry JB, 2018, Transformation optics approach to singular metasurfaces, Physical Review B, Vol: 98, ISSN: 2469-9950
Surface plasmons dominate the optical response of metal surfaces, and their nature is controlled by surface geometry. Here we study metasurfaces containing singularities in the form of sharp edges and characterized by three quantum numbers despite the two-dimensional nature of the surface. We explore the nature of the plasmonic excitations, their ability to generate large concentrations of optical energy, and the transition from the discrete excitation spectrum of a nonsingular surface to the continuous spectrum of a singular metasurface.
Pocock SR, Xiao X, Huidobro PA, et al., 2018, The topological plasmonic chain with retardation and radiative effects, ACS Photonics, Vol: 5, Pages: 2271-2279, ISSN: 2330-4022
We study a one-dimensional plasmonic system with nontrivial topology: a chain of metallic nanoparticles with alternating spacing, which in the limit of small particles is the plasmonic analogue to the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model. Unlike prior studies we take into account long-range hopping with retardation and radiative damping, which is necessary for the scales commonly used in plasmonics experiments. This leads to a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian with frequency dependence that is notably not a perturbation of the quasistatic model. We show that the resulting band structures are significantly different, but that topological features such as quantized Zak phase and protected edge modes persist because the system has the same eigenmodes as a chirally symmetric system. We discover the existence of retardation-induced topological phase transitions, which are not predicted in the SSH model. We find parameters that lead to protected edge modes and confirm that they are highly robust under disorder, opening up the possibility of protected hotspots at topological interfaces that could have novel applications in nanophotonics.
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